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p^orical Commission 



Archivist IPffic): 


2.0 f 



Elbridge W.Cowden. 

E 5i ]^lfCCV.D-:N. 


■ ■ 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 





FROM 1865 TO 1873. 






T f»V\ 



Edward O. Jenkins, 

Printer and Stereotypes, 

?o North William Street, New York. 


The publication of an Almanac or Annual, setting forth the 
principles and methods of Phrenology, was early undertaken by 
the founders of the Phrenological Journal, and found to be 
a valuable means for distributing scientific information among the 
people. After a few years the public seemed to have grown ac- 
customed to the appearance of a yearly exponent of the " Signs 
of Character," and expected it as a matter of course. In response 
to this expectation and an increasing demand, effort was made to 
render its value more than temporary, by the insertion of care- 
fully prepared articles on topics of importance, supplying specific 
advice with reference to mental training and discipline, and to the 
correction of abnormal habits in the physical life ; that this effort 
was not fruitless had its proof in a constant demand for back 
issues, to meet which, it was deemed most convenient to bind the 
issues for several successive years, into volumes of four or five 
hundred pages each. The first volume thus made comprises 
about twenty issues of the "Phrenological Almanac," most of 
which were not stereotyped, and are now out of print. The 
second compilation is the series known as the " Combined An- 
nuals," of which this volume is a revised edition. The interest 
which has been exhibited by the reading public in this volume 
determined the publishers to bring it out in an improved form, 
some changes being made in the contents which would render its 
character as a miscellany of Phrenology, Physiology, Sociology, 
etc., more uniform. Nothing of essential importance has been 
Dmitted, while no liberties have been taken with the text which 
would change its original significance. 

Certain articles have appeared to possess a special value, judging 
by the frequency of their mention by correspondents. Among 
these are "Debate in Crania," "Stammering and Stuttering," 
" About Fat Folks and Lean Folks," " Immortality — Scientific 
Proofs," " Something about Handwriting," " Bashfulness," "Jeal- 
ousy — Its Cause and Cure," " Marriage of Cousins," " True Basis of 


Education," " Bread Making," " Phrenology and the Physiologists." 
One of these has often sold the volume, and a thousand ex- 
pressions of opinion would be quoted, whose substance is that 
this or that article has been worth to the reader more than the 
pi ice of the book. Let the person who opens the book for the 
first time turn to any of those which have been named, and he 
will ftnd that it abounds in just such practical inlormation as will 
respond to questions which he may have entertained for years. 
Take the article on " Bashfulness " — to how many persons this has 
been a veritable boon, we would scarcely venture to estimate ; but 
in the course of twelve years or more of editorial connection with 
the Phrenological Journal and Science of Health, and 
other publications of the Messrs. Fowler & Wells, we have received 
hundreds of letters asking for advice which would help to relieve 
the writer's distress because of excessive diffidence and sensitive- 
ness. It was for the purpose of answering such inquiries that the 
article was written, and we have the satisfaction of knowing that 
it has served its end well. Many a young man and young woman, 
and many a person in middle life, has testified to the help it has 
been to him or her. 

Such a topic has a perennial freshness, and so have most of the 
topics which are discussed in this volume. The education of the 
intellect, the training of the sentiments and feelings, the correc- 
tion and regulation of the physical propensities, are essential 
parts of harmonious mental development. No one is exempt from 
them. From the cradle to the grave, human life, to be normal and 
happy, must recognize and obey the moral and physiological laws 
ordained by the Creator. They who willfully and stubbornly 
refuse to obey these laws, become warped, irregular, uncertain, and 
in their ranks are those who are "ripe for treason, stratagems, and 
spoils," and who are feared, or pitied, or hated by the good and 
wise. They who shall read this book with care and sincerity, will, 
we are sure, find much light with reference to the operation of 
these laws in his own person, and be enabled to correct faults of 
habit and conduct, which have been obstacles to his attain- 
ment to that degree of pure and upright manhood for which he 
may yearn. 

Editor of the Phrenological Journal. 

New York, Oct. i, 1881. * 





ERHAPS we can not 
more appropriately in- 
troduce to its hosts of 
readers Our Annual 
of Phrenology and 
Physiognomy for 1865 
than by telling them, 
in part at least, what 
they may expect to find 
discussed in this and 
future numbers. 

1. Ethnology. 
This is the scienco 
which treats of the 
different families, races 
and nations of men, in- 
cluding their physical 
and mental organiza- 
tion ; their natural 
history ; their man- 
ners, customs, and religious observances ; their relations to each other ; 
and tk* status of each in the scale of humanity. It is a comparatively 
new science, but is now attracting a great deal of attention both in En- 
rope and America. 

The most commonly received classification of the human races is that of 
Blumenliach, which makes four grand divisions; namely : the Caucasian ; 
the Ethiopian ; the Mongolian ; the American ; and the Malay. This 
classification is founded on the combined characters of the complexion, the 
hair, and the shape of the skull. 

2. Physiology.— In its broadest sense Physiology is the doctrine of 
Nature ; thus embracing all the natural and physical sciences, but in the 
restricted sense in which it is now generally used, it may be said to be the 
science which treats of the vital actions of organized bodies. It necessarilv 
includes a more or less minute description of the organs themselves, and 
thus becomes inseparably connected with Anatomy, or the science of the 
structure of organized bodies. 



configuration corresponds with function. 

Behold the unlimited variety in all created things ! What do these in- 
finitely multiplied differences in form and structure indicate ? Differences 
in function and character — always. Things which resemble each other in 
quality and function resemble each other in shape ; and wherever there is 
unlikeness in quality and function there is unlikeness in form ; in other 
words, there is a determinate relation between the constitution and the 
appearance of things. As men, therefore, differ in character, so do they 
differ in face and figure, as well as in the form of the cranium ; and it is 
because they differ in character that they are unlike in bodily configura- 
tion, and for no other reason. One is tall and muscular ; another is short 
and plump ; a third is small and slender ; and we never find the especial 
character which properly belongs to one of these figures associated with 
either of the others. 

Is it not one of the most, indubitable of truths that corresponding cause 
and effect are everywhere united ? Does this grand law fail in its applica- 
tion to man ? If we read the character of a country on its " face," must 
we confess that the human countenance — that mirror of the Divinity — 
fears no legible inscription ? Can we conceive for a moment that a Newton 
or a Leibnitz could by any possibility have the countenance of an idiot ? 
or that the latter in the brain of a Laplander conceived his " Theodicea ?" 
and the former in the head of an Esquimaux, who lacks the power to 
number further than six, dissected the rays of light and weighed worlds ? 

Do joy and grief, pleasure and pain, love and hatred, all exhibit themselves 
under the same traits — that is to say, no traits at all — on the exterior man ? 
Do prize-fighters and preachers look alike ? or butchers and poets ? Could 

you be made to believe these 

two profiles belong to per- 
sons of similar character 

and development ? We may 

as well ask whether truth 

is ever at variance with it- 
self, or eternal order but 

the trick of a juggler whose 

profession is to deceive 
But everybody believes 

and practices physiognomy, 

though in most cases witi 

out being aware of it. We 

instinctively, as it were, 

judge the qualities of things 

by their outward forms. It 

is said, we know, that " ap- 
pearances are often deceitful.'' They are sometimes, it must be confessed, 
apparently so ; but in most cases, if not in all, it is our observation that ia 
in fault. We have but to look again and more closely to pierce the dis- 
guise, when the thing will appear to be j ust what it is. As a rule, we know 

Fig. 3 — Uncultivated. 

Fig.4, — Cultivated. 


that appearances do not deceive us. A weak man seldom appears to l»e a 
Btrong one, or a sick man to be- well ; and a wise man does not often look 
like a fool. 

The very art of dissimulation, sometimes urged as an objection, is» 
founded on physiognomical principles. If a hypocritical knave try to ap- 
pear like an honest man, is it not because he recognizes the fact that 
honesty has a certain characteristic expression, and knows that his fellow- 
men are aware what this expression is ? 

Men, women, and even children make a practical application of physi- 
ognomy every day of their lives and in almost every transaction, from the 
selection of a kitten or a puppy from a litter, to the choosing of a wife or 
a husband. When the cartman wants a suitable horse for his dray, he 
never by mistake buys a racer, and the sportsman who is seeking a gray- 
hound can not be deceived into purchasing a bull-dog. They have not 
studied physiognomy, but they know that form indicates character. 

We say of one, "he has an honest look," and we trust him, knowing 
nothing more; but with another whose "appearances are against him," 
we will have nothing to do. There are those whose faces, though far from 
being beautiful, in the ordinary sense of the word, win their way at once 
to the heart ; and, on the other hand, there are individuals whose first 
impressions upon us are those of repulsion, if not absolute antipathy. We 
dislike them — we shrink from them — and we know not why. We do not 
think of Lavater, or dream that we are practicing phys- t 
iognomy, but so it is. We are reading character by 
means of its signs in the face. 

" But," the reader may ask, " can these signs of char- 
acter be located and pointed out so as to enable any 
person of intelligence to make a practical application 
of physiognomy at will?" We reply, that to a large 
extent they can. For example, it is easy to iudicate 
the sign of Cheerfulness in the upcurving of the corners 
of the mouth, as in figure 5. These lips do not smile, Fig. 5. 

but you may see where smiles have left their bright foot-prints For a 
further illustration of Mirthfulness, we need hardly point you to figure 1 
Now if the upturning of the corners of the mouth indicates Cheerful- 

Fig. 0. fig- 7. *"t S. Fig. 9. 

aess or a still higher form of Mirthfulness, what should their downward 
eurve show but Giavity, as in figure G, or Gloominest> as in figure 7 ? 


When we exhort a person to "keep a stiff upper lip, ' do we meai. any 
thing by it ? and if so, what ? Is it not firmness that we would stimu- 
late ? and dots not figure 8 express it ? We find Firmness, then, in the 

Fig.10.— Self-esteem. Fig. 11. — Ftumness. 

straightness and stiffness of the upper lip, and also in the straightness and 
stiffnesG of the neck, as in figure 11. Self-Esteem gives a fullness and 
convexity to the upper lip on each side of the center, and, throwing the 
head back, causes a 
slight convexity in 
the front line of the 
neck, as in figure 10. 
Whenever you 
find a person with 
both these signs 
large, you may set 
him down as entire- 
ly intractable ; he 
can not be subject- 
ed to your control. 
He will use you 

rather than you 

, . „ .,, . Fig. 13.— LroRETira, 

him. You will net- 

thei persuade nor force him to serve you. He has opinions and a way 

of his own. 

Again, here are four out- 
lines of noses, each indicating 
a different character and each 
distinguishable from the oth- 
ers at a glance The first 
(figure 14) is the Greek nose, 
and indicates natural refine- 
ment, artistic or poetic tastes, 
and love of the beautiful ; the 
second (figure 15) is th»« 

Fig. 12.— Virgil. 

Fig. 14 

Fig 15. 

Fig. 16. 

Fig. 17 


Roman nose— the executive, the energetic, the decided, the aggressive, 
the conquering nose ; the third (figure 16) is the Jewish or Syrian Nose, 
and denotes shrewduess, insight into character, worldly forecast, and a 
dominant spirit of coriimercialism (the last trait, however, being indicated 
bv the breadth, which in this sort of nose is generally great ; the fourth 

Fig. 18.— A Bedouin Aiiab 

The Empep.ob Pau&. 

(figure 17 ) is the Snub Nose — the nose of weakness and undevelopment— 
which properly belongs to childhood. 

Love lurks in the chin (corresponding with the cerebellum) and in the 
rc-d lips. Shall we reveal to you his secrets ? Shall we teach you how to 

Fig. 20. -The Creole. Pig. S1-— Ojitu^RINK Alkxonia. 

find him out ? Nay, that would be hardlv fair. A& f special favor, how- 
rtver. here are a few hints in that direction for the special benefit of our 



Fig. 22. 

young readers. Many women and some men have chins similar tc that 
represented in figure 20. It is the sign of Congeniality— a love foi one 
exactly adapted to one's self. One who has this sign large is likely to 
have a beau-ideal, and will not he easily satisfied with any one of the real 
men or women by whom he or she may be surrounded. Its predominance 
is a very frequent cause of celibacy. 
Next to Congeniality (on both sides, of course) is the sign of Desire to be 
Loved, and when more prominent than the fomier, 
/ causes a depression in the center of the chin, as shown 
in figure 22. It is strongest in man, as a general rule, 
which causes him to seek woman and sue for her love. 
She, having less of the faculty, waits till her love is 
sought. "With this sign large, a man hungers and 
thirsts for love, and is miserable with- 
i J out some one to love him, and him 

alone, with all her heart. 

A narrow, square chin, as repre- 
sented in figure 23, indicates Desire 
Fig. 23. t Love, and is generally larger in 

woman than in man — thus harmonizing with his stronger Desire to bt. 
Loved. This faculty co-operates with Benevolence, and inclines one to 
bestow love as a favor. 

Violent Love or Devotion has its sign next to Desire to Love, on the 
front of the chin. It gives the broad, square chin, as represented in 
figure 24. This faculty gives great earnestness and intensity in love- a 
feeling, in fact, bordering on worship, and, in excess, may manifest itself 
in love-sickness and even in insanity. It is often accompanied by jealousy 
and distrust. 

Ardent Love is closely connected with Violent Love, and when both are 
large, gives roundness to the chin, as in figure 25. This manifestation 
of love has another and a more easily observed sign in 
the breadth and fullness of the red part of the lips, of 
which our portrait of Catharine Alexonia, wife of Peter 
the Great of Russia, furnishes a good example. The chin, 
it will be seen, corresponds. The faculty manifests it- 
self mainly in fondling, embracing, and kissing. It ia 
very largely developed in the negro, and more so in woman than in man. 
Men seldom kiss and embrace each other, but in woman this seems nat- 
ural and proper, 

The subject tempts us to go on, but space forbids. Those who would 
know more are referred to a series of articles in the American Phreno- 
logical Journal and Life Illustrated for 1863-4, and to a new work, 
now iii the course of preparation, announced on another page, which will 
embrace all that is useful or interesting on Physiognomy. 

There may be as honest a difference between two men as between two 
thermometers. The difference in both cases may arise from difference in 



[Not?; to the Reaper. — This sketch aims to show the individual and comparative 
nature of the mental faculties, by picturing them »s so many persons who successively 
discuss the same proposition, each in his own character. Remember, therefore, if, for 
instance, Combativeness sems too obstreperous, or Caution too timid, that the one is all 
timidity, the other all recklessness and pluck ; ami so of the rest The final assort- 
ment of duties is not offered as perfect, but as a suggestion of the way in which some- 
thiug better may perhaps some day be done.] 

There was a great debate in the land of Crania. The separate powers 
of that land, long disunited and jarring, yet all recognized the fact that 
union is strength ; and in spite of their clashings and rivalries and some- 
times obstinate and furious contests, they still at heart each wished the 
good of all the rest. So with immense difficulty they succeeded in arrang- 
ing an amicable conference or parliament of their respective representatives 
to organize a union, perfect in friendship, in distribution of duties, in 
provision for helping each other, and for directing the united energies of 

The assembly met together in the great forum of Crania. The usual 
buzz and confused talk and movement of such a gathering prevailed for 
i little while, when two or three members who seemed to have considered 
themselves a committee for preparation of business quietly walked up on 
the platform, and one of them, quickly recognized as Order, rapped on 
the table. When there was silence, he observed that as there was no par- 
ticular preparation for the business of the meeting. Causality, Comparison, 
Eventuality, Individuality, and himself had ventured to prepare a pro- 
gramme, and he had been requested to present it. It was briefly this : To 
propose a resolution to the meeting, embodying its objects, and in which 
each of those present might state his views, doing so in alphabetical order 
of names, so as to avoid any questions of precedence. (Cries of " Good ! 
Read your resolution.") 

Order, with a bow, read the following : 

"Resolved : That there ought to be a definite, systematic, thorough, and 
permanent organization of the powers of Crania, to adjust and maintain 
perfect co-operation, proper distribution of duties, proper modes of mutual 
assistance, and the best direction of the united energies of all." (Cries of 
" Good ! excellent.") 

Order bowed again, and resumed : Gentlemen, if there be no objection, 
the order of business will be as I suggested, namely — a statement of views 
respecting this resolution by those present, iu alphabetical succession of 
names. As a list has been agreed on in committee, I will use it, as far as 
it goes. 

There was no objection, and the parties present spoke accordingly in 
turn as they were called up, as follows : 

Acquisitiveness — The desire to be rich is the chief stimulus to action, the 
chief spur to good conduct, the chief cause which maintains associated 
effort, and the existence of nations aud alliances in particular. The reso- 
lution ought to, but does not, allude to this great fact. If our united pow- 
ers are industriously and exclusively applied to this purpose, we 3an in a 


reasonable time gain g.rext wealth, and can by that means do and have 
whatever we like. Power, ease, comfort, influence, all follow riches. The 
pursuit of wealth, however, requires the undivided application of all pos- 
sible means and faculties ; they must beware not to fly aside from this pur- 
pose into any visionary, impractical efforts after what is called refinement, 
morality, and all that. Those things will follow of themselves. Without 
wealth we can have neither leisure and ease for ourselves, nor the respect 
and services of others. The resolution, to meet my views, would read 
thus : That there ought to be an organization, etc., of the powers of Crania, 
such as to devote them all exclusively and successfully to the acquirement of 
riches as the only means to adjust and maintain perfect friendship, etc. The 
rest as already read- 

Adhesiveness — I can not admit that wealth is the sole object of life. 
Why, what is the association which my friend thinks based on money, ex- 
cept its very self a pleasurable companionship of friends? When my 
friends and I meet for a chat or a stroll, or to read or sing, or to discuss* 
politics, or even business, if you will, is either of those the chief pleasure 
of the occasion ? No, sir. It is the society of those dear to us ; those wilh thoughts and feelings our own are in harmony ; those who like what 
we like, and reason as we reason ; or who, if they differ, differ in love, and 
gain in good temper and mutual liking by their very discussion. What we 
enjoy at such a time is not the clash of opposing intellects, nor the combat 
of struggling obstinacies ; it is that unity of sentiment, that instinctive 
pleasure which rises from knowing that each of us would gladly make ex- 
ertions and sacrifices for the sake of another; that we trust each other; 
that we would stand by each other in trouble, as glajly and as sincerely as 
we enjoy and help forward each other's prosperity. To be sure, there are 
reasonable limits to everything. We can not make particular friends of all 
the world. But those here present are not all too numerous to form a com- 
pany of friends, close, firm, and mutually useful. My view upon the reso- 
lution is clear ; indeed, its very words show that I must be right. All we 
have to do is to join in a fast friendship ; to exercise that hearty, affection- 
ate liking for each other which I am sure we all feel. Life will be happy 
enough if we should spend all of it in an enjoyment so pure and noble. 
And if we need anything further, what bond could knit us so closely into 
a body too powerful to fail in whatever we might wish to undertake? 

AiJMENTiVENriss — The chief obstacle to all human progress has beeD 
starvation, famine, insufficient food, bad cooking. Hunger is a horrible 
Gend. Indigestible or ill-tasted food is daily stunting and sickening thou- 
sands. Bad cookery is constantly poisoning and perverting God's best 
gifts. Disordered stonrichs ruin not only the health but the disposition and 
the intellect. I think a plan may be successfully organized as proposed, 
if ample provision is made for constant supplies of the best quality of food 
and drink. I feel strongly that without such arrangements nothing can be 
done. I know nobody who can exist comfortably and work well without 
several meals a day. I can't. And if we don't eat, we can't live. Eating 
is the first requisite of life. The food question is the very first of all. No 
food, no folks. I am clear, therefore, that whatever details shall be de- 


cided on, the foundation of the plan should be a thorough scheme for sup- 
plying food to the proposed confederation. And lastly, as it is nearly din- 
ner-time, I move that we adjourn for three hours for dinner. No man can 
enjoy his meals and take the proper nap afterward in less than that time. 

There was some opposition to the epicurean but rather unbusiness-like 
proposition of the member, and a compromise was made upon an hour and 
a half; but Alimentiveness, a gentleman of immovable convictions, staid 
away his full three hours. After dinner business was resumed. 

Amativeness — I was in hopes, while Adhesiveness was speaking, that 
be would give to his remarks their proper point and application ; but 
though he constantly came near it, he did not actually do it. All that he 
said about enjoying the society of others, its delight, its importance, is en- 
tirely true, but the "others," the "friends," of whom he speaks, who are 
they ? Who, except the opposite sex, that other half of our race, given by 
the Creator to complete our beings, to satisfy with utter and complete satis- 
faction the deepest and strongest longings of our natures? It is in vain to 
skip the essence of our friendships The truest, the strongest, the longest, 
the only friendships worthy of the name, are thoso between a man and a 
woman. Man and woman were expressly created each to complete the 
conscious imperfection of the other's solitude. Each sex longs for the 
other, gravitates toward it, must needs come near and nearer, even to a 
unity, a fusion of existence as nearly perfect as the conditions of individ- 
ual life permit. Nor is the fullness and real joy — the reality of life all 
known except in such a union. Friendship? Love is the proper word. 
It includes all of friendship, and much more. That intense, immensely 
strong desire and impulse which draws the sexes together, is the substruc- 
ture of all association — of the family first, and by natural and necessary 
consequence of all the more extensive human companionships. It is evi- 
dent to me that the resolution would well serve its purpose if it simply 
called for an adjustment of the relations of the sexes, such as should satisfy 
the desires of all. 

Approbativeness— Sir, I desire to express my admiration for the very 
lucid and forcible statements of the able gentlemen who have preceded me. 
(Here the speaker made very obliging bows toward each of the four who 
bad spoken.) I know also how much is to be expected from the talents of 
the remainder of this honorable body. (Another comprehensive bow, so 
as to conciliate as it were the whole meeting.) Since I am to be followed, 
and have been preceded, by so many better qualified advisers than myself, 
I shall venture only one or two suggestions. The organization which we 
adopt ought, in any event, it seems to me, to be made as extensively pop- 
ular as possible. This end may be gained both by provisions proper in 
their substance, and above all by so shaping the externals as to command 
admiration. This may be done by using a proper degree of soiemnivjp, 
pplendor, and decoration in any of the formalities which may be used. 
Too great pains can never be taken to conciliate the good opinion of 
others A regard for appearances is really indispensable to prosperity. 
Externals and forms are essentials of success. Without popularity nothing 
can succeed, and most of all is this true of a plan which, like the present 


one, depends upon concerted action. But I need not enlarge upon these 
views before an assembly so entirely competent to appreciate them, and to 
correct me so far as I may be wrong. (And, with some more compliments 
and bows, the member sat down.) 

Benevolence —The only possible object of such an alliance as we con- 
template is the happiness of the parties interested. Indeed, life can not 
really be for any other purpose than happiness ; and this appears plainly 
enough in what has been said by each of those who have preceded me ; for 
each of them has recommended his propositions for the reason that they 
were best for securing happiness, either directly or almost so. Now, no 
happiness is so elevated or so delightful as that which comes from seeing 
happiness in others or bestowing it on them. I therefore think it beyond 
a question that our alliance will find its true aim in seeking solely the 
greatest happiness of all concerned. This happiness, I take it, is to be at- 
tained by mutual self-sacrifice, by aid from each to any other in whatever 
that other desires, by abstaining from whatever would interfere with the 
projects of another, and by generously imparting of whatever we possess 
to him who may need it. 

At this point Acquisitiveness jumped up, crying, " I protest. What I earu 
is my own. No man ought to try to get my money away from me." Com- 
bativeness also suddenly roared out, " Let anybody try it on me ! I'll 
knock him down !" Benevolence stared aghast at such an effect from his 
kindly suggestions, and the Chairman with some difficulty re-established 

Benevolence continued: As to the means of accomplishing this purpose, 
I suggest that whatever institutions shall be determined upon, they shall 
all be adjusted with a view to the help of those who need help. We must 
have hospitals for the sick ; funds for the support of the deserving poor ; 
asylums for the orphan, for those defective in mind or body. In like man- 
ner we must organize our system of work-houses, houses of refuge and 
prisons, not to cause suffering and inflict revenges, but so as to cure evils, 
to benefit the unfortunate, to reform the illnesses of the mind, or to alleviate 
such as may be incurable. Thus our plan will accomplish, as far as cir- 
cumstances permit, the object which I mentioned to begin with, namely, of 
preventing suffering and causing happiness. 

Calculation — There are just thirty-six of us, sir, so that thirty-six propo- 
sitions are to be considered. Now the combinations and permutations of 
thirty-six, according to my hasty mental computation, reach the large num- 
ber of eighty-nine duo-decillinns, one hundred and eight undecillions, five 
hundred and eighty-eight decillions, five hundred and five nonillions, eight 
hundred and seventy octillions, one hundred and thirty-eight septillious, 
seven hundred and thirty-seven sextillions, ninety-four quintillions, two 
hundred and nine quadrillions, seventy-five trillions, three hundred and 
twenty billions, six hundred and forty millions — errors excepted. Mr. ' 
Chairman, as I can't stop to prove it. But evidently we have a ^reat many 
possibilities to provide for. and if there is any truth in figures, we shall 
[ieed a good deal of time and labor to work out our problem. I have no 
doubt, howevt", that we shall get through with it in time. The estimate I 


just made shows clearly enough how important is the consideration of the 
numbers of things. For my part, I only wish to recommend that in the 
plan we shall adopt sufficient care be taken for the cultivation of arithmet- 
ical and computing knowledge. ' 

Causality — Mr. Chairman, in order to reason logically and conclusively 
upon the question, we must c^'isider first, the thing proposed, and second, 
the means for accomplishing ■•■,. (At this regulated statement, so congenial 
to the instincts of Order, the; Chairman smiled and bowed assent, with evi- 
dent gratification. The speaker continued :) What we wish is, in brief, a 
pi in for combining and utilizing our conjoint abilities for the common good. 
This statement naturally resolves itself into two constituents : the preven- 
ti n or remedy of evils, and the accomplishment of benefits. In order to 
the first, we must appoint some steady and competent restraining power ; 
and in order to the second, we need two things : some mind to suggest good 
measures, and some executive agent to conduct the process of securing 
them. The restraining power must be strong, firm, prompt, intelligent, and 
judicious, but not actuated by anger. For if anger governs remedial 
measures, they are sure to become irritating. The execution of measures 
of improvement requires much the fame cast of mind. The suggestion of 
theci is another thing, which I will not now go into. Lastly, whatever 
shall be done in the matter before us, all needs to be conformed to the re- 
quirements of reason. And I would suggest whether this be not the qual- 
ity most necessary in our plan. Those who have preceded me have men- 
tioned various motives and immediate objects to be appealed to or sought. 
But is not the reasoning intellect the highest of endowments? — to judge 
and estimate causes and effects, what is more nearly a divine office ? And 
especially in a scheme as important as that now before us ; is it not above 
everything else indispensable that its recommendations and arguments 
should be such as to convince the reason of those who are to submit to it? 
How else can they be expected to submit? Brute force is not a fit motive 
for personages in our position. That self-control which follows after, and 
arises from, calm and reasonable consideration, and which reduces the re- 
straints of arbitrary law to a minimum, is the only rule of conduct really 
worthy of us ; unless we attain to it, I doubt the stability of any constitu- 
tion whatever. 

Cautiocsxess — I fear, Mr. Chairman, lest we move too rapidly in this bus- 
iness. The affair is one of such infinite weight ; the hindrances to its suc- 
cessful completion are so numerous and so great; the interests to be recon- 
ciled so many and so conflicting, that I am very much afraid our attempt 
will only intensify the troubles it is meant to cure. Will it not be better to 
wait, say for a year, to see if things will not improve of their own accord? 
We have not consulted sufficiently among ourselves to be ready to take so 
decisive a step. We can not set on foot so complex an undertaking on so 
short notice. Let us at any rate avoid unknown evils. It is better to 
make the best of those that we have already learned to endure. At any 
rate, if anything is done, let it be as harmless as possible. Let us not be 
committed to any irremediable step. Let nothing be done unless its entire 
safety is perfectly certain. 


Color- -I shall spea's for myself, and by request of Form, Size, and 
Weight,, in behalf of them also, as we four, our views of things being very 
closely similar, wish to save the valuable time of this assembly by a collec- 
tive statement. We desire, then, that the plan fixed on by this assembly 
shall not omit to provide for the innumerable and important relations be- 
tween the mind and material things. Living on this material earth, help- 
lessly dependent upon it for locomotion, food, clothes, scenery, living be- 
ings—for all that supports life and all pleasures — both for the things them- 
selves and for all memories and representations of them— certainly it must 
be difficult to overrate the importance of being able to rightly understand 
and properly to deal with the properties of material things. To this end 
we suggest that care be taken to secure adequate instruction of the utilita- 
rian sort, in what relates to all exercises requiring skillful management of 
the physical frame, such as riding, jumping, and the like ; in what relates to 
dimensions ; to the shape of things and to their colors. And we also rec- 
ommend provision for the culture of a knowledge of these material qual" 
ities in the artistic direction, for Weight, by a school of exercises ; for Size, 
by a school of architecture ; for Form, by a school of sculpture, and for 
myself, by a school of painting. 

Combativeness — This speaker jumped tip in a rage, and said : Sir, the re- 
marks of Cautiousness fill me wish rage and contempt. What sneaking, 
cowardly talk is this ! Fear, hindrances, troubles, wait a year, avoid evils, 
harmless! Baa. baa, baa! Let us turn into sheep at once ! Who"s afraid ? 
Mr. Chairman [here Combativeness manifested a very able-bodied thick 
stick, wbich he nourished with energy, while Cautiousness was observed to 
quietly take a back seat], I tell you I won't stand such shameful talk ! I'll 
thrash any man that comes to me with any such shameful recommenda- 
tions! The way to dispose of obstructions and oppositions is not to crawl 
off and let them alone, but to pitch headlong into them, and drive them out 
of the way. The way to deal with a difficulty is not to grin and bear it, 
but to growl and kick it out! Why, sir [stepping uneasily about and hand- 
ling his stick again in a careless manner], I can't be quiet and hear such 
pusillanimous acquiescences and timid delaj surged upon us ; I want the 
difficulties thrust aside, not dodged nor suffered. Courage and prompt ac- 
tion will solve the question, and to our satisfaction. Let us be men. What 
we have to do let us do now. I dare say there"ll be more or less trouble ; 
but decisive and vigorous dealing will quickly remedy it. 

And as to the kind of action we need, I am clear on this point, that what- 
ever else we want, we must not be without an efficient preparation for de- 
fense, and attack too, if necessary, and likewise for bringing our joint forces 
to bear on any one delinquent member inside of our organization. Unleap 
we are ready to fight at a moment's notice, we shall be constantly subject 
to imposition and intermeddling. Unless we are constantly ready to keep 
each other in good order, we shall be tormented with rebellions within. 

Here Mirthftilness. who had been chuckling for some time, went off with 
a loud Ha! ha! ha! and asked whether the gentleman would himself like 
to be thrashed and put down in case his demonstrations should become too 
uproarious or insubordinate ? 


Coinbativeness instantly replied, I'd like ! m see anybody try it ! and then 
concluded his remarks by adding, Mr. Chairman, whatever else is done, 
rely upon it, the military organization, offensive and defensive, is the one 
indispensable provision for our joint safety and success 

Comparison— Sir, I have been struck both with the resemblances and the 
differences in the arguments employed by those who bat e spoken. They 
have been alike in each, representing some one motive as the necessary 
central force of the plan proposed. And they have differed, because no 
two have suggested the same motive. Each of these is evidently right to 
ionic extent, but the proposition of each needs to ue limited, by being 
taken along with the other propositions. I think we need vo hear the views 
of all the members and compare them all together , to observe how far there 
is a unanimity ; what are the chief discrepancies ; what general conclusions 
can be based upon these views taken as a wiole ; and r y that means I 
think we shall best arrive at the common sense )t this bom:rable body. I 
suppose that some of us have better talents foe organizing and managing 
associations, conducting public business, solving problem? assuaging dis- 
satisfactions, etc. There should be a careful weighing, I think, of our indi- 
vidual capacities for such purposes. There wili oe a great variety of em- 
ployments and duties in such a plan as we contemplate Fo> each of these 
ihe appropriate man should be set apart. Talents differ A good financier 
may be a poor speaker. An able general may oe a wretciied architect. 
We must compare talents with duties, and selec tor eacb piiice the proper 

Concentkativeness— Mr. Chairman, in considering tne subject before us 
my mind has been constantly impressed with one cnicg Thb has occupied 
me entirely, and as I think justly, considering the imparlance >f it. It will 
not do to let our attention be frittered away amoug many objects. I can 
noi agree with my friend Comparison, who wanted us to 'loot at so many 
things at once That is the sure way to confuse tne miod and prevent any 
thorough consideration or any useful conclusion fhe thing I speak of is, 
the durability of the structure we are consulting tbout Having begun, 
let nothing divert us from the work until we have completely finished it 
And having completed it, let us adhere to it wito indeviating constancy 
Mutability is one of the commonest and most dangerous faults There are 
far too many who begin one thing after another, out finish none. When 
half through, they see something which they count more desirable, and 
dropping the old employment they seize the new, only to repeat their fool 
isli operation over and over again. But it is useless *o begin anything un 
less we completely finish it. 

The speaker kept on in this strain at immense lengtn, until the assembly 
got out of all patience, and the Chairman rapping on the table, cut him off 
In the middle of a sentence, blandly informing him that while his views 
contained much that was valuable, the necessity for dispatching ihe orde- 
of business rendered it necessary to pass to the next in turn ; and Concen- 
trutiveness sat down, evidently just as full as when he rose up. 

Conscientiousness-— Justice, Honor, and Right have not been mentioned 
ft is fair, of course, that each should state his own views I wou;d not a' 


all pretend to take more freedom than I would give. Still, I am sure that, 
the omission of this element in our discussions or our institutions would bo 
fatal to their existence, or at least to their excellence. If there were but 
one person in the world he could do as he pleased. But as soon as there 
are two, wishes and plans may interfere ; and in proportion as persons are 
more numerous, it becomes more and more indispensable to appeal to the 
common sense of what is right as a means of deciding differences. More 
especially is this true in the case of an association like the present, whose 
members, though expected to act together, are so very various in charac- 
ter, and each so thorough-going in tendency. I therefore think that our or- 
ganization, while it is in justice bound to provide fully and equally for the 
gratification and protection of all, should before everything else provide 
for the exact observance of the principle of justice, honor, and right. Our 
Bystem of education, our theological doctrines, and above all our law- and 
systems of public guardianship and penalty, should all be adjusted with a 
careful eye to the securing of equal rights to all, accustoming each to re- 
frain from wrong-doing, and the speedy remedy of any violation of princi- 
ple. Equal justice is the only law of real prosperity. What is gotten 01 
enjoyed unjustly earns only sorrow for the getter. We must do right. 
Wil^iout this, all apparent prosperity is only a sham and a torment. To do 
right is in the long run also the best way to make money, to get influence, 
to gain respect, to accomplish or obtain whatever is desired. Therefore, 
by adhering to right principle in our theory and practice, we shall at once 
satisfy all the higher faculties, while we make ourselves surer of all that the 
other faculiies desire, than if we should try to satisfy those faculties by less 
noble methods. 

Comstbuctivenbss — This is a question of mechanism. We have a thing to 
do. Now, let us go to work and make something to do it with. If we 
build the right machine, it will work. If we know how to handle our tools, 
we can make the right machine. Now, the things we want are, homes, 
clothes, furniture, machine-shops, pictures and other means of family com- 
fort, of commerce and trade ; in short, whatever is made. And secondly] 
we want our plans and organizations, v/hatever they are, in like manner 
made in workmanlike style, fit for their purpose and properly handled. 
But the first thing is the mechanical part People who live in wigwams 
and dress in skins can't have much of a frame of government, nor any 
other structural organization, such as a system of theology or of philoso- 
phy, for example. Those material munitions are the foundations of all the 
higher grade of things organized by man. Lit us therefore first of all ar- 
range to have abundant training for all the mechanical occupation. Let 
all our youth be taught to handle tools, to run machinery, to build and 
work ships, to manufacture. When that is done, it will be soon enough to 
develop the higher grades of talent, such as sculpture and the like. Be- 
sides, it is not unti men learn how to handle tools that they are really fit to 
handle systems. A man who can make a good frame of a house has prob- 
ably good sense at least toward making a frame of government. And the 
thing which we are consulting about is such a frame, and is a very compli- 
cated and difficult machiue to work and to contrive, too. It will need out 


very best mechanical talent to make it and set it up, and afterward to keep 
It well oiled and running. 

Destructiveness — In spite of all obstacles what€yer, we must perfect this 
work. It is of too great importance to be impeded. Whatever is in its way 
must be destroyed — annihilated ! It is not enough to have a disposition 
to stick to our purpose. We must tear down and crush whatever opposes 
We must go through and through anything and everything. Such is the 
spirit of success. And a similar spirit ought to pervade the executive 
part of whatever plan we shall adopt. An indispensable part of any polity 
is its penal code. That is the basis of all prosperity. For if bad men find 
no punishment to fear, they will grow worse themselves, abuse all the good, 
corrupt all the mediocre minds, and totally disorganize all society. What- 
ever we have or omit, therefore, a code of penal law is the first and central 
requisite. And that code, I apprehend, can be very short. Society inflicts 
penalties, not to punish, for that is God's business ; not to reform, for pen- 
alties do not do that; but merely in self-defense, for the better accom- 
plishment of the purposes of society. Society seeks happiness, peace, 
prosperity. Criminals and wrong-doers impede its progress and obstruct 
its road. They must be done away with. Now what will accomplish this? 
A fine ? No. Rich rogues pay it and go on ; poor rogues serve out a 
term in jail and go on, both uglier-tempered and more vicious and harmful 
than before Imprisonment? No; for as I just observed, it only aggravates 
and confirms and grains in all bad dispositions. There is only one effectual 
protection for society against crime. Put the evil-doer out of the world. 
Death is the only effective penalty. It protects society against further crimes 
by that criminal ; it is so severe that it tends to instill a wholesome terror 
into other criminals, and it steadily removes the worst stains of inherited 
bad blood from among us, just as gardeners trim off the sickly and un- 
healthy shoots. Our plan will succeed if we embody in it a severe criminal 
code, inflicting the one only significant punishment of death for all pun- 
ishable violations of law. 

Eventuality — The facts of history must guide us and warn us in this 
work. Mr. Chairman. We have had abundance of forcible original sugges- 
tions, but not a word. I believe, of the lessons which history teaches — 
of what is known about the doings of other governments. In searching 
after this kind of instruction, what do we see? All sorts of precedents. 
Abraham governed a tribe, his household, with so much common sense that 
his sensible family never thought of disputing him. Moses, even with ihe 
direct power of God close behind him, and visibly shining and striking 
.uid speaking through him, vainly sought to teach goodness and a firm and 
just polity to that stiff-neckedest of all human races, the Jews. Sesostris 
and Pameses, perhaps the earliest of the long line of great conquerors, 
whirled through the world in bloody glory, subduing and killing-, but 
founding ^o lasting governments; the priestly aristocracy of-Egjpt satin 
theological irresponsibility upon the submissive necks of a moveless nation 
of hereditary workmen ; Greece, a little rocky stronghold full of fighting 
commonwealths, rose temporarily to a pinnacle of artistic splendor and 
philosophic and poetic excellence, but never to justice or goodness ; Rome, 

20 II It A N K U AL. 

(vith her over-great republic rotted apart, and her over-great empire rot 
ted to pieced, Ler stringent codes of law, so long her own strength, remain- 
ing afterward her best monument; the feudal sovereignties were mere 
turbulent mutinies, endangering each other and the commander as much 
fts any one else. Among the modern kingdoms, we see some aristocratic, 
some despotic, some limited. The republics are none of them yet advanced 
beyond the phase of development where war is possible and even prob- 
able. Mr. Chairman, I do not reason upon these things ; I merely recount 
thera to you. They should be remembered in our work. 

Fikmness — We need to stand fast and insist upon whatever ground we 
take, more than to be so very particular what ground it is. It is not the 
choice of measures or courses of conduct that insures their success, but ab- 
solute unyielding adherence to them ; absolute refusal to vary from what- 
ever we determine. I do not care so much what I determine. Whatever 
it is, I will adhere to it. Whatever else is proposed, I absolutely refuse. 
This is the proper state of mind for the lawgiver above all other men. 
Our frame of agreement is to be a fundamental and organic law. It 
should be immovable as the pyramids. It should be like the law of the 
Medes and Persians, which altereth not. To such a code obedience will 
be given, because resistance will be hopeless. Where one party is ab- 
solutely unyielding the other must give up. Whatever, therefore, we 
decide, let us be immovably fixed forever in adherence to it. 

Hope — Our plan is sure to be successful. Why do we delay so long in 
consulting and comparing when the prospect is so fair? I am impatient to 
have the new organization completed and in operation. Let us hasten. It 
is so very evident that we must meet with a grand success. We are all so 
entirely in harmony upon the main question — at least with one exception, 
our friend Cau'iousness, and I am sure that even he must be convinced 
by reason, or persuaded by Iih good feelings, not to hang back when we 
are all so promisingly well-minded to go forward. Tuere is not the least 
reason why we should not prosper most gloriously. There is so capital an 
occasion for a work like that which we have in hand, we are so many and 
bo united, and so well able to accomplish whatever we undertake. Indeed, 
I feel that there can be no such word as fail. I am even uneasy and impa- 
tient until I see our machine in actual operation, and all the benefits actually 
accruing which are so necessarily to flow from a scheme so wise and kind. 

Ideality — Too many suggestions are yet to be made about the scope and 
character of our scheme, to permit me to agree entirely with Hope. I think 
with him that our plan is delightful, good altogether, most promising. But 
its very beauties and excellences are rather reasons for dwelling with de- 
light upon them; for imagining more and still more good qualities; for 
suggesting and suggesting, until the possibilities of the subject are ex- 
hausted. The capacities of such an enterprise as ours are quite unlimited. 
Both its general directions and its details suggest numberless ideas, all 
of which, properly developed, will be useful for some purpose or other. 
Such a plan must include a splendid array of provisions for receiving all 
that is desirable and preventing all that is evil. We have the whole range 
of the faculties to provide for and a clear field for our work. We are 


able to promote true religion, good moral?, the fine arts, poetry, good litera- 
ture, education, trade, commerce, social happiness, inventions, learning, 
philosophy. From the abstrusest problems of the astronomer and engi- 
neer to the airiest fancy of the musician, from the vastest thoughts of the 
nature and existence of the Infinite to the management of a little child- 
all that may be executed or thought is before us, to be secured for pros- 
perous pursuit. It is for us to cover our land with mighty industrial pal- 
aces, with happy wealthy mansions, with smiling harvests, with green and 
blossoming prosperity, with laughing joy; for the hand of the lawgiver 
touches every spring of human life and effort, every force of bounteous 
nature It is for us to bid our race rush forward in a limitless career of 
Splendid achievement, expand the circle of its knowledge in ever widening 
spaces, fearless of reaching any bounds, »nd rise through an infinite heaven 
of increasing purity and intensifying love. It is ours to afford the means 
cf culture and refinement to all. so that our people shall live in the mini- 
mum of pain and trouble and drudgery, in the maximum of happy, spon- 
taneous activity, in the study and practice of what is beautiful and good 
and true, rather thau what is merely necessary and money-making. Free- 
dom is ours to give ; not license, but that highest freedom which a perfect 
culture, love of beauty, sense of goodness and right, a true balance of the 
faculties, can give. Through a brief immediate chain of cause and effect, 
we shall shape the perfect marble of the sculptor, create the marvelous 
limnings of the painter, call up the dreams in stone, the monuments and 
towers, the cathedrals and stately halls, of the architect. We evoke the 
music and the lovely rhythms of the composer and of the poet, the pow- 
erful eloquence of the orator, the reasonings of the philosopher and the 
divine. We invent the complex machine, build the steam-ship, send the lo- 
comotive shrieking across a continent. Every beautiful and noble work 
caused or promoted by the code which we shall prepare is in a true sense 
our own. Let us hasten to achieve a task so perfect in splendor, in majesty, 
in all beauty and goodness! 

Imitation* — Patterns for the work we are about are abundant. All we 
have to do is to select from the works of those who have preceded us 
whatever will suit our purpose. We can find more than we want of better 
designs than we can make for ourselves, and we need have only the trouble 
of taking them. We need a penal code. Very well. We have the code 
Napoleon, the code of Jeremy Bentbam, the Livingston code of Louisiana, 
the new code of the State of New York. If we want to go further back, 
we may well copy many provisions from the Pandects of Justinian, or the 
Mosaic law. We want a provision for mutual aid. There is one in the 
treaty of the Holy Alliance; there are others in any of the modern treaties 
of amity. We want a plan of apportionment of duties. We may find a 
model in the present organization of society at large, if only we knew what 
to copy and what to reject. We might modify it. by adding improvements 
from Plato's Republic, Southey's Pantisocracy. or the Fourieiite plan of as. 
sociation. In short, there is no part of our intended organization which 
may not be derived from some similar work already in existence. By 
jsing these results of past thought and experience, we s'lall become j.,o» 


sealed of the accumulated wisdom of all the past ages, and while we save 
ourselves a great and directionless labor in unexplored fields of thought, we 
shall be able to rest safely upon the fame, the reputation, the established 
wisdom, the proved experience of past ages. One point more. In what- 
ever we ordain we should always refer to our precedent : whatever we 
recommend, wo should always give an instance. This is best in our laws ) 
and still more in our provisions for educating the young. Immense is the 
power of example, and with the young especially. 

I'NDivrbuALiTY — Let us consider with precision and distinctness the singl 
points before us. The generalized statements and exhortations and rea- 
sonings, and so forth, which have been made, are very well in their way: 
but we shall not get forward in our work unless we have a good bill of 
particulars. Now every one of the gentlemen present has his own in- 
dividual wants and merits, and each of these must positively be provided 
for in some way. Let me therefore recapitulate what we have to consider 
We must make provision for wealth ; friendship ; food ; love ; the good 
opinion of others ; doing good ; logical consistency ; safety in what we do, 
and as little doing as possible ; vanquishing opposition, and a good fight 
ing organization ; distribution of duties according to gifts, and harmony 
of arrangement ; the squaring of all things to the principles of honor aud 
right; the skillful construction of our plan ; the annihilation of any oppo- 
sition, and the extermination of evil and evil-doers ; consideration in our 
work of the lessons of history ; firm adherence to whatever we conclude ; 
unwavering faith in our success. All these have be'.-n argued for already. 
Permit me to add the remainder of the list, which my personal acquaintance 
with those present will enable me to do. It will include exhaustive com- 
prehensiveness and perfection of scope and design: following and estab. 
lishing — all the good examples we can attain ; proper consideration of each 
part and detail ; full discussions of our work, and the practice of oratory ; 
care in adjusting our territorial relations ; due consideration of the won- 
derful nature of our problem; enjoyment of whatever about it is funny; 
a proper arrangement of the parts of our plan and of the discussions on 
them ; care for the family and for children ; avoidance of any unneces- 
sary publicity ; regard for the personal dignity of parties concerned ; the 
recognition and proper worship of the Almighty ; and last of all, proper con- 
sideration of the material world, its forms and qualities. 

Language — Expression of some sort is the oniy vehicle and instrument 
(other than action) which we possess for the comsnunication to one another 
of any of the thoughts or feelings, sentiments or passions— of any of the 
exercises of human souls and intelligences one vnh another. Especially 
is it true that in a matter like that which is at pmsent occupying our minds, 
a matter so abstract, so complex, so difficult, &o necessary to be maturely 
pondered and perfected, we have no mode whatever of availing ourselves 
of one another s wisdom and experience ana suggestiveness, except that 
of oral expression. I wish, therefore, to urge upon all present the great 
importance of thoroughly debating, over and over and over, if necessary, 
the whole of the field of our deliberations. True, the field is wide, but the 
responsibilities are great. The subjects before us are both numerous wl 


weighty ; and for that very reason we shall fail to do justice to ourselves, 
to our theme, to all those who are to be influenced by the vast and lasting 
rdfelts of our work in this p ace and at this time, unless we shall use what- 
ever extent of time shall be found requisite, in order to the completes! 
exposition, the fullest and freest comparison, the most perfect understand- 
ing, the maturest and aptest mutual modification, the ripest and most 
finished elaboration, the most solid and impregnable knitting of our struc- 

The gentleman pursued his theme with extreme volubility and at great 
length ; insomuch that a due regard for proportion obliged our reporter, 
nicer minuting verbatim the foregoing paragraph as a specimen of the 
i-peaker's style, to confine himself to a brief summary of his points taken 
in their order. These were: 

1. Language is a most important instrument and vehicle for thought. 

2. We ought, consequently, to have very full discussions, in order to 
be possessed of each other's thoughts and views. 

o As we have in our labors to provide for an alliance suitable for all 
time, therefore we should provide ample room and encouragement for the 
cultivation of oral expression, rhetorical and other, and also of all good 

Locality — Mr. Chairman, where are we? where are we? I ask, because 
I have not, thus far, been able to place to my satisfaction the many impor- 
tant considerations brought forward, so as to show their bearings from 
each other— their comparative topography, if I may say so. I want to lay 
out the ground. I want to mark out clearly the place of each motive, each 
object, each governing consideration ; to map it down so that its place may 
be fixed. This ought to be easy. Whether we do this mentally or with 
the help of a map, in either case we can then fix the limits of our area of op- 
erations, determine its subdivision, set bounds and situation for each topic, 
and, in short, determine the place and extent of every portion of the subject. 
Need I show how fundamental in importance is an apportionment of ter- 
ritory to the powers here assembled ? In a congress of negotiating princes, 
what subject would precede that of the boundaries of their realms? That 
is our case. Moreover, in our present work we must not omit the fullest 
provision for the determination of the geographical boundaries I have 
alluded to of our respective provinces. We are also bound to provide for 
the amplest instruction of all who are to live under our code, in all that 
pertains to their place, their country, the surface, arrangement, divisions, 
and situations of the world they and we live in. And I submit whethei 
it would not be the very best thing we could do before going forward 
with our work, to make a thorough tour throughout every portion of our 
land, with a topographical engineer and a corps of surveyors, and so come 
back with full information and a map. 

Mauvelou3ness — I am wonder-struck at the unprecedented spectacle be- 
fore me ! What sight could surpass that of an assembly constituted of such 
diverse elements, yet gathered in such wonderful accord of feeling and good 
will, and seeking so grand an object! Truly it is enough to make every 
heart swell with the most stirring emotions of surprise and admiration. 


No more admirable purpose could be entertained than ours. Oh, is it not 
most wondrous, most inexpressibly wondrous ! The conception would have 
seemed incredible, a mere tale of Oriental dreams, a story out of the Aratfjjn 
Nights, did we not see the proof in very deed and in reality before .our very 
eyes! Startling, impossible ap it seems, it is true ! My words fail, my con- 
ceptions even grow feeble ar> 1 oontempla-te the overwhelming features of our 
great enterprise ! Oh ! oh ! ob ! 

These last interjections were gVen with bands uplifted, eyes dilated, and 
mouth open, in a paroxysm of pure wonder, too intense for any coherent 

Mikthfulness - Ha ! ha! ha! Excuse me, Mr. Chairman, but "laugh 
and grow fat," you know. I can't help laughing at my good friend's funny 
" oh ! oh ! oh !" and his hands stuck out and his eyes so round and eager > 
It was excessively ludicrous ! In fact, this whole scheme of ours bap 
its funny side. I've been choking with laughter half the time at it. How 
comical it is to see us all jumbled up together in this way, to stir up oui 
wits and chop our logic into a hash of wisdom ! w e run the risk of look 
ing like people running all at once to grab the same thing, but running 
against each other and tumbling down. Well, it is no doubt a good thing 
to do, but it seems to me laughable to undertake it. One savs we mustn't 
do anything ; another, that we must smash or kill anybody and anything 
that tries to prevent us from doing anything One says we must be as 
selfish as we can and make all the money possible ; another flies in his teetb 
with the doctrine that we must do everything, not for ourselves, but for 
others. It is rather to be feared that our organization will be like a bag 
of tom-cats! Perhaps if we are all jolly and good-natured about it, we 
can get on like that game which children play, by running round and round 
in a ring as hard as they can, and counteracting the centrifugal force by 
holding tight to each other and laughing. I wish the scheme all suc- 
cess. Perhaps my well-known love of fun will be my excuse for one 
single suggestion. It is this: that plenty of healthy amusements be pro- 
vided for our young folks, and our old folks too. The more good fun and 
hearty laughs we have, the better we shall get through our work, and the 
longer we shall live. 

Order — System is the secret of success, Mr. Chairman. One thing at 
a time ; a place for everything, and everything in its place. In the long 
series of suggestions which have been offered, not one has been without 
real and great value. I have, however, been distressed at the extremely 
disorderly succession in which they have come before us. What v/e want 
is a symmetrical edifice, not a heap of bricks. We must proceed, it seems 
to me, in some regulated, business-like method, if we are going to come 
at any good result. We must begin at the beginning, and go forward 
regularly to tu<? end. What I wish to propose with this view is, that when 
our present disconnected series of suggestions is completed, the present 
business committee, or a similar one. be authorized to do what is necessary 
to systematize the final operations of this assembly ; and, if thought best, to 
prepare a draft or preliminary plan of organization, which may be consid- 
ered, modified, and voted on in subsequent full meeting. This mode of 


proceeding puts our business inio a practical shape and a small ecu pass 
and we shall thus be able to check off our progress, and to set on fool 
the real and practical part of our programme. As repeated the details 
of that programme — all in good timte. A proper method of consideration 
will bring all appropriate subjects in, in their natural and necessary older. 
It is therefore not worth while to go into questions of arrangement nnd 
organization now. I need only remark that as the plan under considera- 
tion is the most important imaginable, a correspondingly strict adherence 
to regularity and arrangement of parts will, of course, be necessary. 

PHiLOPROGExiriTENESS.— The child is father to the man. Mr Chairman, 
incidental references have been made to education ; but I have been pain- 
ed that no adequate consideration, and scarcely any at all, has been given 
to the subject of the young. Is any sentiment so strong as the love of our 
children ? Are they not the hope and the pleasure of our lives ? Our own 
years can be but few ; but our children, besides this natural affection for 
them as such, stand for the whole future of our race. Thus our love for 
them, our duty to them, are not confined to them individually, but arc the 
measure and the indication of our regard for all humanity ; of our sense of 
duty to our whole race ; of our obligations to the numberless future gen- 
erations whose happiness or misery are so intimately dependent upon out 
actions. Such considerations, it seems to me. conclusively show that thr 
form of organization which we adopt ought first and most of all to be 
adapted to the wants and needs of the young. It ought to provide for 
whatever can make the family and the home sacred, safe, and happy. It 
should afford a thorough system of education and instruction, the fruit 
of our best wisdom and our deepest love ; and such as to correct the de- 
fect, to develop the excellences, to symmetrize and utilize the powers of 
our children. In short, our organization, instead of being merely a plan 
for indulging any selfish desires of our own, should be such that by and 
through it each successive generation shall find its great happiness, its 
cWef duty, to consist in preparing a better generation to succeed it. We 
shall thus gratify that immeasurable and sweet parental love which is 
so inextinguishably strong, and shall, in the highest sense, be performing 
our whole duty toward our race. 

Secretiveness — Let us not expose our objects and proceedings to be 
known by others. The way to succeed is not to let everybody see just 
what you want and how you mean to accomplish it. That openness ex- 
poses you to the utmost possible opposition and interference. But if no- 
body knows what you are about, nobody can interfere. I wish, therefore, 
that a secret committee of not more than three persons might be chosen, 
who shall have power to make such a plan of organization as they shall see 
fit, and that so far as we afterward discuss it, we shall do so under the most 
stringent obligations not to reveal anything that is said or concluded. And 
furthermore. I think that whatever scheme we decide upon, it should be 
conducted, if possible, by persons not even known to be so employed. 
Thus our government will be unopposed, strong, speedy, and safe. 

In the mean time, I do not think best to state what I wish before so many 
people. Some stranger may have crept in. There may be some one who 


will reveal the affair to all the world. I shall reserve my views for the 
secret committee. 

Self-Esteem — I know very well what is needed in an enterprise of this 
kind. I have not been consulted particularly, it is true; but I have been 
present, and I have attentively observed what has been transacted before 
me. I approve of most of what has been said. With the suggestions that 
I am prepared to make, success wili be certain. I am always successful, 
unless, indeed, my orders are neglected or violated. At present I choose 
to ullude to only one point respecting the plan before us. When properly 
applied to, I may state some further views. The point I mean is this : that 
while our scheme provides for all the mutual aids and advancements anr- 
governmenial arraugeuients that have been so variously advocated, it shal 
not fail also to make ample allowance and provision for the preservation 
and cultivation of that independence, that sense of personal dignity, that 
consciousness of one's own excellence, which constitute the central pillar 
of noble and elevated character. Obedience is well enough for inferiors ■ 
but a lofty mind can not well endure any other control than self-control 
such as will always be applied if we feel a proper self respect. I mus 
therefore protest against being subjected in the least to any commands 
from any one. Inferiority, the place of an understrapper, is not to be en- 

Time — Punctuality, regularity, clock-work-like periodicity of action ar« 
required as much for success in life as for success in music. Without con 
sciousness and observance of accurate time, engagements can not be kept 
and present affairs all go wrong. Without precise knowledge of past time, 
chronology drops out of history, and nothing is left but a heap of uncon- 
nected facts. Whatever else is done, a rigid and unyielding frame-work 
of anniversaries and all public occasions whatever should be prepared and 
maintained by official chronometers and other proper means, so that dates 
and hours may be remembered and observed. 

Tune — This member, on being called up, nudged his neighbor Time, and 
stepping upon the platform, they jointly responded by a very good vocal 
solo, Tone singiog while Time conducted like the leader of an orchestra, 
haton in hand. The song was an old one, very sweet and sensible, in praise 
of music. 

Veneration — The worship of God is the highest act of the human suul. 
[ have been grieved that our sittings were not placed under his protection, 
»ind his blessing asked upon what we seek to do. It would be useless to 
i-xpect strength or wisdom or durability in a government which should 
omit that chiefest of all strengths, a sense of our entire dependence upon 
God. If wt; have not that sense, we shall surely stray into weaknesses and 
follies. The light from above is the only light which can effectually illu- 
mine our path. Having said so much about the state of mind necessary for 
the work before us, let me also respectfully suggest that a corresponding 
element should be expressly provided in our frame of polity. We need 
Ample and decisive laws for the support of religion, of divine worship ; for 
the prevention and punishment of blasphemy and other violations of the 
dwful reverence due to the Almighty. This done, and with a cons a,nt ref- 


L-rence to and dependence on him, and we shall surely be led in tho ngbt 
way. Then we may be assured of a better wisdom thau our own in marking 
out our future path, and in adjusting the combinations of our alliance. 

The proposed series of suggestions having been concluded, the chairmi.n 
stated the fact. He then renewed his own suggestion of a committee to 
draft a plan of organization, and named the members : Causality, Com. 
parison, Eventuality, Individuality, and Order. Ideality and Constructive- 
ness were added, and the committee, thus constituted, went to work. After 
a good deal of consultation and trouble, they came in with a plau which 
was adopted by the meeting, and which here follows. But it should be 
added tha,t this plan has not yet gotten fairly into operation, and that an- 
other meeting for revision and improvement is already talked of ; and in 
the meanwhile, any of our readers are welcome to suggest any improve- 
ment which they may think worth considering. 




The organization shall consist of a system of committees, each to have 
charge of its proper subjects, and each to decide upon questions wholly 
within its scope. In case a question arises which falls within the jurisdic- 
tion of more than one committee, they shall decide jointly ; and all ques- 
tions shall be subject, when required, to consideration and decision by all 
the powers in coDgress, which will thus, upon important questions, give the 
decision of the whole mind upon the whole matter. 

There shall be two principal committees, and twenty six other com- 
mittees ; to consist of the members and act upon the subjects herein below 


1. Consulting or Supreme Committee : Veneration, Conscientiousness, 
Benevolence, Self-Esteem. Causality, Comparison, Individuality, Eventu- 
ality. To act as a court of last resort — an umpire or referee in all cases 
of disagreement among members or committees, except such as need the 
action of a full congress. 

2. Executive Committee — to plan measures and put them in execution, 
to keep things going generally, and have the practkal management and 
control : Destructiveness, Combativeness, Continuity, firmness, Construct- 
iveness, Caution, Order, Ideality, Secretiveness, Approbativeness. 


3. On Religion : Veneration, Conscientiousness, Hope, Marvelousness, 
Ideality, Benevolence. 

4. On Morals : Conscientiousness, Benevolence. Ideality, Self-Esteem, Ap- 
probativeness, Destructiveness. 

5. On Law : Conscientiousness, Destructiveness, Benevolence. 

(i. On Reform and Punishment : Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Self- 


7. On Social Interests : Amativeness, Pbiloprogenitiveness, Adhesive- 
ness, Approbitiveness, Acquisitiveness, Alimentiveness, Secmtiveness, Be- 
nevolence, Conscientiousness. 

8. On Charity : Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Caution. 

9. On Education : Philoprogenitiveness, Benevolence, Calculation, Con- 
scientiousness, Imitativeness, Individuality, Language, Eventuality, Lo- 
cality, Mirthfulness, Order. 

10. On Amusements : Mirthfulness, Ideality, Constructiveness. 

11. On Costume: Ideality, Form, Color, Self-Esteem, Approbativeness. 

12. On Health and Exercise : Alimentiveness, Weight, Locality. 

13 On Defense and War : Combativeness, Destructiveness, Firmness. 
Cantinuity, Caution, Secretiveness, Constructiveness. 

14. On Business : Acquisitiveness, Calculation, Hope, Continuity, Secre- 

15. On Trade and Commerce: Same, along with Locality. 

16. On Mechanics and Arts : Same as No. 14, along with Constructiveness. 

17. On Invention : Constructiveness, Calculation, Ideality. 

18. On Literature : Language, Comparison, Causality, Eventuality, 
Ideality, Imitativeness, Individuality, Locality, Marvelousness, Mirtbful- 

19. On Oratory : Language, Comparison, Mirthfulness, Causality, Ideality, 

20. On Philosophy : Causality, Comparison, Individuality. 

21. On Poetry : Ideality, Time, Language, Marvelousness, Individuality. 

22. On History: Eventuality, Comparison, Causality. 

23. On Science: Comparison, Causality, Individuality, Constructiveness, 
Ideality, Locality, Form. 

24. On Fine Arts: Ideality, Constructiveness. Form, Size, Color, Weight, 
Time, Tune, Imitativeness. 

25. On Painting : Color, Form, Size. 

26. On Sculpture : Form, Size. 

27. On Architecture : Weight, Size, Form, Color. 

28. On Music: Tune, Time. 

N. B.— It should be added that there has unfortunately already been 
Borne jangling and disagreement among these committee-men about their 
respective duties. But such troubles always did happen, and always will. 
Very likely some of these gentlemen are misplaced. But a little patience 
will correct all these difficulties ; and even the beginning of a system ia 
better than none at all. 

A Young Hero— Many of the officers stationed at Point Lookout, Md , 
have their families with them to spend the winter, and among the children 
ai 3 a number of little boys who have imbibed much of the military spirit, 
and they have organized a company, and drill frcni time to time. On one 
occasion one of these young officers used profane language, and no sooner 
had he uttered that oath than he threw his sword upon the ground, saying, 
" If I can't be an officer without swearing, I will not be an officer any 
longer " 



F preachers and prize-fighters look 
alike ; if there be no difference 
in personal appearance between 
a true minister of the gospel of 
peace and a great military com- 
mander ; if the shape of the head 
and the lines of the face be the 
same in the artist or the poet as 
in the soldier, then there is no 
truth in either physiognomy or 
phrenology, and no determinate 
relation between the internal 
and the external of man — in 
other words, one body would do 
just as well as another for any 
particular soul, and vice versa. 


We refer, of course, in these 
remarks to classes and to indi- 
viduals who, having chosen their 
profession or pursuit from the love of it, and fitness for it, represent a class. 
There are preachers who might, with more propriety, have been military 
men, lawyers, or doctors ; and there are military men who are better fitted 
tor the ] iwyer's office or the clergymen's desk than for the tented field. 

Fig. 26. — General Grant. 

2T. — Jonathan Edwards 

Fig. 28. — General Butlei:. 

Some men combine in a large degree two characters, seemingly almost 
directly opposed to each other. "Stonewall" Jackson could lead in a 
prayer-meeting with as good acceptance as in the field. The late rebel 
gener:'.!, Bishop Polk, who was educated in a military school, could preach 



a sermoi. or command an army, though not a very great man in either 
place. Parson Brownlow. of Tennessee, whose Combativentss is excess- 
ively large, can exhort and fight with equal unction ; and that grand old 
reformer, Martin Luther, with his immense Destructiveness, would, under 

other circumstances, and with a 
different training, have been 
one of the greatest boxers or the 
most fearless warriors of his age. 
But these are exceptions, and 
merely show the versatility and 
the wonderful power of adapta- 
tion of which the elastic natures 
of some men are capable. It 
still remains true that certain 
men are naturally adapted to 
the field, and certain others to 
the pulpit, and that the signs 
of this adaptation are imprinted 
on their organization. We pro- 
pose here, as of special interest 
in these times of war, to illus- 
trate briefly the physiognomy 

of the fighter. 

. — Makti>- Luther. 


The first and most obvious indication of the natural fighter is broadness 
of head just above and backward from the ears. This is universal with 
the true fighters, whether they be warriors, gladiators, pugilists, reformers, 
or controversial religionists. A heavy base and a broad brain, with large 

Fi<r. 30.— Black Hawk. Fig. 31.— Rev. Dr. Ttng. 

Destructiveness, Combativeness — and usually large Secretiveness and All- 
mentiveness — in fact, largely developed propensities generally, are common 
to fighting men and carnivorous animals, such as the lion, tiger, etc. 
Observe this trait in portraits of Charles XIL, Peter the Great, Napoleon, 


Wellington. Putnam, Grant, Thomas, Hooker, Black Hawk, Martin Luther, 
Parson Binvnlow, and others, and contrast them in this particular with 
those of Drs. Tyng, 
Bond, and Edwards, 
naturally men of 
peace, and living the 
peaceful lives of min- 
isters of the Gospel. 
Luther and our fight- 
ing East Tennessee 
parson are seen to be 
as truly men of war 
as Charles XII. or 
Joe Hooker, though 
their warfare may bo 
spiritual rather than 


We are aware, of 
course, that narrow- 
headed men can 
fight, coolly braving 
death at the can- 
non's mouth ; but 
they need the strong 
motive of some noble purpose 

Fig. 32. — JCHN C. IlEENAN. 

the enthusiasm born of a holy cause, 01 
what they deem such, to lead them 
to the front. Once there they do 

Fig. 33.— Gem era l Hanoook. Fig. 34. — General NapiEu. 

thou duty as brave men should — Firmness, Self- Esteem, and Approbative- 



aess stimulating their naturally weak Combativeness and Pestructiveness, 
or standing in their place, and Patriotism or Love of Country and Home, 

Conscientiousness, and even Benevo- 
lence giving their aid. But such 
men do not adopt arms as a profes- 
sion, and, under ordinary circum- 
stances, shrink from the very thought 
of battle and bloodshed. Narrow- 
headed animals, like the deer, tha 
sheep, etc., will fight in self-defenwe 
or in defense of their young, but they 
never seek an opportunity to fight 
from a love of it. 


The next fighting feature to which 
we shall call attention is the nose. 
This in great military men is always 
strong and prominent, and generally 
aquiline, Roman, or Jewish in form. 
Observe this trait particularly in 
Cassar, Wellington, Blucher, Napier, 
Hancock, Butler, and Black Hawk, 
some of whose portraits we give. 
Napoleon understood the meaning 

of a prominent nasal protuberance, and chose for posts requiring energy 

and courage, men with large noses.* 


Corresponding with the broad base of the brain, we find in the fighter a 
wide, rather straight, and very firm mouth. The moustache in some of 

Tig. 35. — Pabson Brownlow. 

Fig 36.— General Foster. 

Fig. 37. — General Hooker. 

• For further illustration of the connection between the nose and ihe combative and 
executive faculties, see our forthcoming work on Physiognomy, announced plsewheie. 


our military portraits partially conceals this feature, but it is evident 
enough in those of Caesar, Wellington, Napoleon, Grant, Hooker, Heenan, 
Sullivan, Black Hawk, and Brownlow. It indicates a good development 
of the osseous system, and especially of the jaws, and the great masticatory 
power which allies such men to the carnivora, and makes them naturally 
not averse to blood. 


Between the wide mouth and large jaws just noticed and a prominent 
ygoma or arch-bone of the temple, there is a necessary physiological con- 
nection, since large jaws necessitate powerful temporal muscles to operate 
them, and these powerful muscles being attached to the zygomatic arch 
require that to be large and strong ; so we find in fighting men a marked 
degree of breadth through the temples or in front of the ear. Our wood- 
cuts show this quite imperfectly, but 
it is very observable in casts of the heads 
t)f persons noticed for their courage and 
love of fighting. 


Next we come to the chin. This is 
almost always prominent in great war- 
riors and other fighters (indicating the 
fullness of vital force which goes with 
the large cerebellum), and always deep 
or having great vertical extent, which 
Is the sign of will-power, or the ability 
•) control not only other men and exter- 
nal circumstances, but one's self. Mark 
this feature particularly in Caasar, Crom- 
well, Wellington, Napokon, Butler, 
Burnside, Hooker, and Hancock. In nearly every case the cerebellum will 
be found equally prominent, and the man thus constituted will manifest 
the same ardor in love as in war. 

" None but the brave deserve the fair," 

ths poet says, and none know so well how to win and wear them. 

88. — General Thomas. 


One other sign may be noticed here, though it does not belong exam 
sively or even necessarily to military men or fighters. 

In great commanders, and in other men born to rule or habituated to 
the exercise of authority, there will be noticed a certain drawing down of 
the brows at the inner corners next the nose, and one or more horizontal 
lines across the nose at the root. These signs are the result of a muscular 
movement accompanying the exercise of authority, and becomes a perma- 
nent trait in those naturally fitted to command, or placed in positions 
requiring them to rule. The lowering of the browis is shown, to a greater 
or less extent, in most of our portraits (see that of Napier particularly), 


and the horizontal line across the nose, so clearly represented in that oi 
Hooker, appears in the photographs (when taken from life) of nearly all 
the others, but the engravers (knowing nothing of its significance) have 
not thought it necessary to reproduce it. For the same reason wood-cuts 
fail in many other respects to furnish us with reliable indications of char- 
acter. We are compelled, in many cases, to refer to photographs, painted 
portraits, and casts, and the last named are, next to the living face, tho 

Thus, it appears, we have fighting physiognomies as clearly indicated 
and as weli defined as are the physiognomies of the inventor, the naviga 
tor, the miser, the butcher, the murderer. 



The color of the eye signifies several conditions, and is in accordance 
with situation, race, temperament, etc. We never meet with gray-eyed 
North American Indians, nor with blue-eyed negroes, unless mixed or 
amalgamated with other races ; while the Teutons. Saxons, Celts, and 
other Caucasians are more or less mixed, and hence the varieties of color 
in their eyes. 

In tropical countries the tendency is to become dark like the natives. 
For example, when blue-eyed New Englanders settle in Alabama or Lou- 
isiana, they become the parents of dark-eyed children. The first one born 
to them will be a shade darker than the parents, the second still darker, 
and so on till the sixth, eighth, or tenth, whose eyes will be black, and 
their grandchildren will all have black eyes. But should they — the 
grandchildren — return to the northern home of their ancestors, settle, and 
become parents, their descendants will in time recover the blue or light 
eyes of their ancestry. The eye is the first to show the effects of the 
change, and the hair the next ; then the skin becomes a shade darker— - 
if in the tropics — or lighter, if in the temperate zones. 

The same may be seen in many fair-haired and light-eyed Englibu, 
Scotch, and Irish families, who, having emigrated to the East Indies, and 
remaining there ten, fifteen, or twenty years, return to their native 
northern islands, bringing with them broods of black-eyed and dark- 
haired children, who, settling in the homes of their fathers, become, in 
time, the parents of children with fair complexions. 

The Laughing Philosopher. — The man that laughs is a doctor without 
u diploma ; his face does more good in a sick room than a bushel of powdei 
or a gallon of bitter draughts. People are always glad to see him ; theii 
hands instinctively go half way to meet his grasp, while they turn invol- 
untarily from the clammy touch of the dyspeptic who speaks in the groan- 
ing key. He laughs you out of your faults, while you never dream of being 
offended wiih him, and you know not what a pleasant world you are living 
m, until he points out sunny streaks ou its pathway. 




Fig. 89. — Caucasian Eaoe. 


The most generally received classification of the races is that of Blum en- 
bach, which admits five grand divisions — the Caucasian, the Mongolian, 
the Malay, ths American (aboriginal), and the Ethiopian. They may he 
described as follows : 
"The Caucasian Race (see fig. 39), to which we belong, includes the 

Assyrians, Medes, Persians, Jews, 
Egyptians, Chaldeans, Georgians, Cir- 
cassians, Armenians, Turks, Arabs, 
Syrians, Afghans, Hindoos of high 
caste, Moors of northern Africa, 
Greeks and Romans, and modern Eu- 
ropeans, not including Laplanders. 
It is among this race that the arts 
and sciences have been carried to 
their highest point of cultivation, 
and skill and intellect to their might- 
iest results. The history of this race 
is the history of civilization, lefine- 
ment, and of Christianity itself. 
"This variety of our species presents the best specimens of beauty and 
symmetry of body as well as of the highest 
intellectual development. The skull is large, 
rounded, and oval, the forehead large and ele- 
vated, and the face well proportioned. The 
hair is usually fine and long, and the skin fair. 
"The Mongolian Race (see fig. 40) com- 
prises the Mongols, Calmucks, Korians, Chi- 
nese, Japanese, the inhabitants of Thibet, Ton- 
quin, Siam, Cochin China, Himalaya Mount- 
ains, Hindoostan, Ceylon, Kamtchatka, Asi- 
atic Russia, Finland, Lapland, Greenland, etc. 
This race is next to the Caucasian in the scale 
of civilization, but is not celebrated for mental 

•' In this race 
the skull is oblong, but flattened, the fore- 
head low, the cheek-bones broad and flat, 
the hair long and straight, and the hair of 
an olive tint. 

"The Malay Race (see fig. 41) inhabit 
the Asiatic and Polynesian islands, and ex- 
hibit a greater degree of intellectuality than 
either the Indian or the Negro race. Their 
forehead is broad and low, crown high, 
mouth broad and large, ncse short, hair 
black, coarse, and straight, skin coarse and 
dark. The Malays are said to be active and 

Fig. 40 

Pig. 41.— Malay Raob 



ingenious, possessed of considerable intellectual capacity ; but they are 
yet, as a race, fading away before the enterprise of European civilization. 

"The American Indian, or Bed Race 
(see fig. 42) , originally inhabited the A tner- 
ican continent, from Cape Horn to the; arc- 
tic regions, and with all their differences 
are considered as the same over this whole 

"Ordinarily the people of this race are 
of a reddish-brown color ; ' the hair is long, 
straight, and black ; the brow deficient ; 
the eyes black and deep-set ; brows promi- 
nent ; forehead receding ; aquiline promi • 
nent nose ; high cheek-bones ; skull small 
aud rising at the crown, with the back part 
fiat ; large mouth ; hard, rough features. 
They are averse to mental cul- 

Fig. 42. — American Indian. 

with fine, straight, symmetrical frames.' 
tivation, and consequently seem destined 
to die away ere long before the ' march 
of civilization.' 

"The Ethiopian Race (see fig. 43) 
comprises the inhabitants of Africa, not 
including tbe north, the Caffres, Hot- 
tentots, Australians, and the imported 
specimens in America and elsewhere. 

"The Ethiopians have a black skin, 
small but long and narrow skull, low 
and retreating forehead, high cheek- 
bones, projecting teeth, thick lips, and 
large mouth. Like all other races, the 
Ethiopians vary much in regard to tal- 
ent ; but in their more natural state the scale of intellectuality is low 
among them." 

Fig. 48.— Ethiopian Eao> 

Great Men used to Weigh Moke !— McClellan is a snug-built little 
fellow, weighing about 150 pounds. But compare this with the following 
record of the weight of the officers of the Bevolutionary army, as weighed at 
West Point in 1788 : ' ' General Washington, 209 pounds ; General Lincoln, 
224 ; General Knox, 290 ; General Huntingdon, 195 ; General Greaton, 
166 ; Colonel Swift, 219 ; Colonel Michael Jackson, 252 ; Colonel Henry 
Jackson, 239 ; Lieutenant-Colonel Huntington, 212 ; Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cobb, 182 ; and Lieutenant-Colonel Humphrey, 211." 

A Word to Boys. — Begin early- in life to collect libraries of your own. 
Begin with a single book, and when you find or hear of any first-rate 
book, obtain it, if you can. After a while another, as you are able, and 
be sure to read it. Take the best care of your books. In this way, when 
you are men, you wiJl have good libraries in your heads as well as on 
your shelves. 




[Some forty years ago the poem of 
which the following lines are a part, 
was found in the London Morning 
Chronicle. Every effort was vainly 
made to discover the author, even to 
the offering of a reward of fifty gui- 
neas. All that ever transpired was, 
that the poem, in a fair clerkly hand, 
was found near a skeleton of remark- 
able symmetry of form in the Museum 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, Lin- 
coln's Inn, London, and that the cu- 
rator of the Museum sent them to the 
Morning C'hronice.] 

Behold this ruin ! 'Twas a skull 
Once of ethereal spirit full. 
This narrow cell was Life's retreat, 
This space was Thought's mysterious seat 
What beauteous visions fdled this spot ! 
What dreams of pleasure long forgot ! 
Nor Hope, nor Joy, nor Love, nor Fear 
Have left one trace of record here. 

Beneath this moldering canopy, 

Once shone the bright and busy eye ; 

But start not at the dismal void— 

If social love that eye employed, 

If with no lawless fire it gleamed, 

But through the dews of kindness beamed, 

That eye shall be forever bright 

When stars and sun are sunk in night 

Within this hollow cavern hung 

The ready, swift, and tuneful tongue ; 

If falsehood's honey it disdained, 

And when it could not praise, was chained, 

If bold in virtue's cause it spoke, 

Yet gentle concord never broke, 

This silent tongue shall plead for thee 

When time unvails Eternity. 

The mirage of the desert paints the things of earth in the heavens. 
Fliere is a more glorious mirage, which, to the eye of the Christian, painta 
the tilings of heaven upon the canvas of earth. 

Apology is egotism turned wrong side out. Generally the firet thii g a 
crnn's companion knows of his short-comings is from his apology. 




Of this head, we may simply *ay that, 
though dead, it "speaks for itself." We 
have a cast, taken at the time he was exe- 
cuted, and of all the low, gross, and al- 
most beastly specimens of humanity 01 
whom we have casts, this is one of the 
worst. There was brain enough, — he was 
no idiot, — but it was developed in the 
base rather than in the top, and his tem- 
perament was rendered doubly gross by 
the low, dissipated life he led. He was a 
sporting man, a gambler, a libertine, a 
forger, a thief, a robber, and a murderer. 

He had a fair degree of perceptive intel- 
lect, moderate reflectives, and small, weak 
moral sentiments, and these were awfully 
perverted. Had he lived temperately, 
and observed even the forms of a religious 
life, he could by prayer and the grace of 
God have regulated his strong propensities, lived virtuously, and become a 
useful member of society. But violating both the civil and the moral laws, 
his naturally unfortunate organization became ten times worse than that 
which he inherited, and his course was down, down, down to an untimely 
death and a dishonored grave Look at that face ! What a nose ! What 
a mouth ! The whole in perfect keeping with his diabolical acts. His 
blood and body were made of beer and beef. He represents the lowest, 
grossest, and basest of the dissipated English, and he was but a little above 
the brute. We have no heart to analyze the characters of such inhuman 

Moral. — Reader, if you would avoid becoming such as this, or in any 
degree approaching it, live a temperate, industrious, virtuous, and a re- 
ligious life. ____^_ 

A Good Hint. — Send your little child to bed happy. Whatever cares 
press, give it a warm good-night kiss as it goes to its pillow. The mem- 
ory of this, in the stormy years which fate may have in store for the little 
one, will be like Bethlehem's star to the bewildered shepherds. 

[And there is a deeper philosophy in this, probably, than the writer 
supposed. Let us explain. The blood goes most freely to those parts of the 
body or brain most exercised. Sending the child to bed in a happy state 
of mind sets the blood coursing its way to the affections and to the moral 
sentiments. Whereas, if you box its ears, scold or frown upon it, you ex- 
cite the passions, and the blood concentrates in those organs which resist, 
contend, fight — such as Combativeness and Destructiveness. You may 
call into action, and continue in action, any of the prgans you please 
Hence we say, parents, teachers, and guardians are responsible for the dis- 
positioi of their children. Your treatment will serve to make them good 
or bad, and Physiology and Phrenology show how.j 




R. LINCOLN had a tall, 
spare, large-boned frame, 
with which his prominent 
features and long, high 
head perfectly correspond- 
ed. His ample but not 
ponderous forehead, very 
prominent at the base, 
shows the large develop- 
ment of the perceptive 
faculties which gave him 
the practical matter-of 
fact turn of mind for which 
he was distinguished. In- 
dividuality, Form, Size, 
Order, Eventuality, and 
Locality were among his 
largest organs. 

The size of the head was 
in fair proportion to that 
of the body. It was not 
of the largest class, though quite large enough for the vital energies of the 
body. Nor was it in any important respect deficient. It was not the head 
of a fighter, and he could take no pleasure in combat or contention. 

He had large Benevolence, large Conscientiousness, and large Hope. 
His Veneration was full, and bis Spirituality average. His religion con- 
sisted more in kindness and justice than in faith, humility, or devotion. 
To do right and to do good were his leading moral characteristics. Socially, 
he was strong in his attachments, constant in his affections, and well 
adapted to Avedded life. Intellectually, there was nothing wanting. His 
Causality was full, Comparison large, and nearly all the perceptives large 
and active. He was open to conviction, true to his higher nature, and 
governed by moral principle rather than by policy. He was firm, per- 
severing, generous, kind-hearted, affectionate, intelligent, with a high 
degree of strong, practical common sense. If not a great man, lie was 
something better — a, good one. He was a type of the better class of Ant-:- 

Abraham Lincoln was born on the 12th of February, 1806, in Hardin 
County, Ky., where, at seven years of age, he was first sent to school to 
Mr. Hazel, carrying with him an old copy of " Dillworth's Spelling Book,' 
one of the three works that formed the family library. His father, Mi 
Thomas Lincoln, soon after removed to Indiana, taking young Abraham; 
with him. 1 Intil he was seventeen his life was that of a simple farm 
laborer, with only such intervals of schooling as farm laborers get. Prob 
ably the school instruction of his whole life would not amount to mcrfr 


than a year. Such was the early training of this man of the people, whom 
the people made the ruler of a great nation. 

In 1834 he commenced his political career as a member of the Legis- 
lature ; was admitted to the bar in 1836 ; sent to Congress in 184G ; elected 
President in 1860 ; re-elected in 1864 ; and died by the hand of the assassin 
April 14 th, 1865. The reader knows how much these bare outlines 
embrace — how large a space they must necessarily fill in history. 

Mr. Lincoln earned the love of his countrymen to a greater degree, 
perhaps, than any other person who filled the President's chair, scarcely 
excepting the "Father of his Country." For Washington the universal 
feeling of love was toned to a grave and profound awe by the imperturbable 
dignity of his character a'nd the impressive majesty of his presence. No 
one could approach him, even with those deep and lively sentiments of 
admiration which the grandeur and disinterestedness of his career always 
awakened, without being impressed with a certain solemn veneration. 
Next to Washington, President Jackson had taken the firmest hold of the 
popular mind, by the magnanimity of his impulses, the justice of his senti- 
ments, and the inflexible honesty of his purposes. But the impetuosity of 
Jackson, the violence with which he sometimes pursued his ends, made 
him as ardent enemies as he had friends. But Mr. Lincoln, who had none 
of Washington's elevation, or none of Jackson's energy, yet by his kindli- 
ness, his integrity, his homely popular humor, and his rare native instinct 
of the popular will, has won as large a place in the private heart, while 
history will assign him no less a place in the public history of the nation 

Enlargement of the Lungs. — " Step out into the purest air you can find, 
stand perfectly erect, with the head and shoulders back, and then, fixing 
the lips as though you were going to whistle, draw the air, not through 
the nostrils, but through the lips, into the lungs. When the chest is 
about full, raise the arms, keeping them extended, with the palms of the 
hands down, as you suck in the air, so as to bring them over the head just 
as the lungs are quite full. Then drop the thumbs inward, and after gently 
forcing the arms backward, and the chest open, reverse the process by 
which you draw your breath, till the lungs are entirely empty. This pro- 
cess should be repeated three or four times during the day. It is impossi- 
ble to describe to one who has never tried it the glorious sense of vigor 
which follows the exercise. It is the best expectorant in the world. We 
know a gentleman the measure of whose chest has been increased some 
three inches during as many months." 

A word of caution will not be out of place. Persons with weak lungs 
and sensitive bronchial tubes should avoid very cold air in performing thia 
exercise, or should inhale it through the nostrils, which is the proper way 
in ordinary breathing. Such persons should also commence cautiously 
and carefully, so as not to strain ^ x injure the parts affected, increasing 
tire exercise gradually, as the strength increases. 




/pjAIUS JULIUS C^SAR, the gTeat 
s^l Roman whom Shakspeare denomin- 

The foremost man of all the world, 
was born in Rome in the year 100 
B. C, and on the 12th day of tho 
month (Quintilis), which is now called 
July {Julius) after him, and assassin- 
ated on the ides of March,* 44 B. C. 
As a genera], Cassar stands in his- 
tory among the first, having no equal 
except the great Napoleon ; as a 
statesman, the highest rank is con- 
ceded to him ; as an orator, he has 
had few superiors ; as a writer, he 
was surpassed by none of his cotem- 
poraries ; and all accounts agree in 
representing him as the most perfect 
gentleman (so far as manners make 
one) of his day. For moral qualities 
he does not get equal credit, and the record of his life, as generally re- 
ceived, is stained by acts of profligacy, cruelty, and a terrible and needless 
waste of human life. 

The accompanying likeness is from a copy of a very ancient but probably 
authentic drawing, kindly furnished us by Mr. F. A. Chapman, the artist. 
This represents the head to be decidedly large, very prominent in the 
upper forehead, and high from the ear to the top. There is in this outline 
a resemblance to the portraits of Napoleon I., especially in the massiveness 
of the brain. The whole— head and face — denotes great observation, fore- 
sight, intuition, and power. It is the opposite of weakness or imbecility, 
and no one would hesitate to pronounce it the likeness of a most marked 
and distinguished character. 

The nose is long, pointed, and Greco-Roman, like that of the first 
Napoleon ; the lips full but firm ; the mouth not large ; the chin large, 
and the jaws strong. The visage indicates a thin and nervous rather than 
a stout and beefy person, and is in every way very expressive. There is 
evidence enough of a very strong character — a man born to rule, and not 
likely to let any removable obstacle stand in the way of his success. 

* The fifteenth day of March. The term ides was applied by the Kormns to the 
middle of each month ; or, more strictly speakinsj, lo the fifteenth day of March, May, 
July, and October, and to the thirteenth of the other months. 



Fig- 1. 


Ln the walk of a tall, healthy, well-huilt, perpendicular man (fig. 1). 
both dignity and firmness may be seen. He rejoices in the consciousnet*3 
>f his "inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." 
tie will never die with consumption, for the very good reason that he 
stands erect— with chest well forward, 
and shoulders well thrown back. He 
breathes freely, lives temperately ; his 
circulation and digestion are perfect, 
and all the functions of body and brain 
go on in harmony. Healthy, hearty, 
joyous, and happy, he is at peace with 
himself and all mankind. He makes a 
very dignified bow to you, and is free 
from diffidence or embarrassment. 

In the walk of one who assumes a 
stooping posture and has a narrow chest 
and contracted shoulders (fig. 2), we 
shall find a character wanting in Self- 
Esteem, but probably possessing large- 
ly developed Benevolence, Veneration, 
and Cautiousness. He is accustomed 
to make low bows, remaining a long time in a bent posture, and the words, 
" Your very humble servant, sir," furnish the key-note of his character. 
He feels unworthy ; frequently '-begs pardon;" gets out of everybody's 
way ; though intelligent is unappreciated ; and though liberally educated 
for a learned professicn, he has not sufficient confidence in 
himself to enter upon its practice. He pronounces life a 
failure. His walk will be timid, irresolute, uncertain, 
and his step comparatively light. 

A burly person (fig. 3), with large Destructiveness, 
Combativeness, Self-Esteem, and moderate Cautiousness, 
on the contrary, will "go ahead," with a "Get out of the 
way there ! don't you see I'm coming ?" And if Firmness 
be also large, he will step somewhat heavily upon the 
heel. This is a ponderous, blustering, locomotive nature, 
that enjoys the luxuries of the table, and provides liberally 
for himself — frequently quoting the old adage, that 
" Self-preservation is the first law of nature" — and acting 
accordingly. He " bears the market," shaves notes, lends 
money on the best securities — where he can double it, or 
on bonds and mortgages — and " forecloses" when he can. 
He is a good judge of roast beef, plum pudding, brown stout, porter, and 
lager beer ; keeps all things snug ; sails closely reefed ; looks out for 
squalls and storms, and prophesies " hard times." He is opposed to inno- 
vations or internal improvements ; don't believe in reforms, and regards 

* From our " New Physiognomy." 



Fig. 4. 

it a loss of time and money to educate children beyond "reading, writing 
and ciphering." He is exclusively a man of facts, and of the world. His 
heaven is situated directly under his jacket. He struts, swells, eats, drinks, 
sleeps, and — looks out for "number one." His walk is more ponderous 
than light, coming down solid and strong on his heel. When shaking 
bands he permits you, as a special privilege, to do the shaking. 

The exquisite (fig. 4) dresses in the height of the fashion ; studies the 
"attitudes" of the ball-room and the stage ; repeats lines of poetry — tho 
signification of which he does not compre- 
hend — and " speaks pieces" learned from the 
young man's book of oratory. He is ac- 
quainted with all the "smart" or clever fel- 
lows who frequent the play-houses, the 
saloons, and the races. He has learned the 
popular games; drinks and smokes at the 
expense of others; and talks of his "girl," 
although he is as inconstant as the wind. 
His brain is small ; his mind nasrow ; his 
features pinched up ; and the whole miser- 
ably mean and contracted. Who marries 
him will get more froth than substance. His 
, walk is simply Miss-Nancyish, and so affected 
as to be without any distinctive character. 

Impudence is clearly stamped on fig. 5. He ' 
has the form of a man, but the mind of a 
dandy. He can gabble a few words of French. German, and Italian, 
picked up in barber shops ; puts on foreign airs, talks large, and boasts of 
" the noble deeds he has done." When introduced, he makes half a bow 
to you, forward, and a bow and a half to himself, backward. He steps 
something as a turkey might be supposed to do when walking over hot 
cinders. He is a bundle of egotism, vanity, deceit, and pride ; vulgar, 
pompous, and bad. He will not work, but lives by his wits and his tricks. 
There is neither dignity, integrity, humility, gratitude, affection, or devo- 
tion here. 

If Approbativeness be especially large, with moderate Self-Esteem there 
will be a canting to the right and to the left, with a sort of teetering, tip- 
toe step. The hat will be set upon one side, and, perhaps, the thumbs 
stuck into the arm-holes of the vest, displaying the jewelry of the fingers, 
and the accompanying expression will seem to say, " Am I not pretty ?" 
An excess of Approbativeness begets egotism and a love for notorietv. and, 
in the absence of Self-Esteem, the possessor becomes a clown, exhibit* 
himself on all occasions, ' ' puts on airs, " " shows off, ' ' and attracts attention 
to himself by odd speeches and singular remarks. And if there be a want 
of deference and respect, growing out of moderate or small Veneration, 
then there will be extravagant language, including profanity, vuljraritv, 
and obscenity. 

A person with a straightforward, honest, but uneducated mind (fis. 6) 
« ill walk in a straightforward manner, turning neither to the right nor 

Fisr. 5. 



the left ; but if there be considerable executiveness, the gait will be 
heavy and more strong than delicate ; but if educated and refined, tho 

person will acquire a more 

refined step, characterized by 

regularity and time. 

A secretive and cunning 

person will have a stealthy 

walk, like that of the fox, 

and though his body may 

weigh two hundred pounds, 

his step will be light rather 

than heavy, and somewhat 

like that of the Indian (fig. 

7), whose feet encased in the 

buckskin moccasins fall 

noiselessly upon the ground. 

He can ' ' play possum, ' ' work 

in the dark, mislead and de- 
ceive. It is only by superior 

intelligence that his thoughts 

He steps light, walks on his toes, and his 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. T. 

mid purposes can be discovered, 
motto is — 

" Mum, then, and no more proceed." — Shakspeare. 
The untrained, blunt, coarse bog-trotter (fig. 8) walks heavily upon his 
neels in parlor, church, or kitchen, his gait being more like that of a horse 
on a bridge than like that of the cultivated gentleman. The slow, heavy 
tramp of the iron-shod " hedger and ditcher" is in keeping with the 
"don't-care" spirit of the lower ten thou- 
sand, be they white or black. When they 
dance, it may well be called a "jig," or a 
"break-down." The walk is a hobble, a 
shuffle, and a sort of "get along." The 
. humble man has a humble walk ; the dig- 
nified man, a dignified walk ; the vain 
man, a vain walk ; the hopeful man, a 
light, buoyant, hopeful walk ; the despond- 
ing, hopeless man, a dragging, hopeless 
step, as though he were going to prison 
rather than to his duty ; the executive 
man, an executive walk, and the lazy, 
slothful man, a walk corresponding with 
his real character. 

Where there is little executiveness, pro- 
pelling power, and small aspiring organs, there will be a slovenly, slouchy 
step, with one foot dragging laaily after the other (fig 9). No energy, 
enterprise, or ambition here, and the person appears like one between 
"dead and alive," a sort of "froze and thawed" substance, good for 
nothing. He complains, grunts, whines, finds fault, and doses himself 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 

tritb various quack medicines — for imaginary ills ; he has no friends, never 
married, and regards his birth a misfortune, in which 
opinion those who know him fully agree. 

A thoughtful man has a walk corresponding with 
this characteristic, while a thoughtless one, a mere 
looker (fig. 10) instead of thinker, walks in a " saunter- 
ing" gait, and carries his head accordingly; the one 
with his head somewhat bowed forward, the other with 
his forehead lifted up, his perceptive faculties projecting, 
as though he were hunting curiosities. 

The "inquiring mind" of this young man (fig. 10) in 
apparent in his sauntering, irregular gait ; and he hat 
the expression of one recently from the "rural dis 
tricts." He is evidently in the pursuit of knowledge, 
and sacrifices manners to gratify the desire to see, and 
is suggestive of the question, "Do you see anything 
green?" His walk is an indefinite hobble, shuffle, oi 
draggle, and is as aimless and meaningless as the va 
cant stare with which he views all things. 

Mr. Cautious Timidity (fig. 11) is afraid he may step on eggs, fall int 
a ditch, or stumble over a rail. He is a natural 
care-taker ; fussy, particu- 
lar, and would ' ' trot all day 
in a peck measure." He 
gets a living by "saving" 
what others would waste. 
His walk is mincing, unde- 
cided, gentle, and "ginger- 
ly," and so is his character. 
Mr. Jeremy Jehew (fig. 
12) is "always in a hurry," 
no matter whether he has 
anything to do or not. When 
^ he walks, he " walks all 
over ;" and when he sits, he 
spreads himself, with one 
foot here and the other yonder, or doubled up like a jack-knife, whiu 
opens and shuts with a snap. He has no time to think, but only to 
"look;" and always walks in an attitude as though he were facing a 
regular northeaster, with steam all on. 

Observe the walk of children ; one is sprightly, nin *ile, and quick on 
foot ; another is bungling and clumsy, runs against the tables and the 
chairs, and often stumbles. The character is as different as the walk. 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. 12. 




A MOST marked jmytri- 
ognomy. See how ex- 
pressive ! What char- 
acter in these features ! 
How different from that 
flat, tallowy, mean- 
in g 1 e s s, soulless 
look which we 
sometimes observe 
in faces ! This lady 
was evidently cul- 
tivated and refined. 
She must have 
been highly edu- 
cated and thor- 
oughly called out 
in all her faculties. 
There is no indica- 
tion of " arrested 
here. See what a 
nose ! How beau- 
tiful ! magnificent ! 
It is evidently like- 
that of her father, 
and the same was 
transmitted to her 
son John, who be- 
came the great apostle of Methodism and one of the lights of the world. 

On close analysis, it will be seen that there was a most striking resem- 
blance between the mother and the son. Compare any of the standard 
likenesses of John Wesley with this, and our statement will require no 
other confirmation. The temperament of both mother and son was fine, 
and that of the mother exquisitely so. With a body of moderate size and 
symmetrical mold, with all the functions in high health — vigorous, active, 
wide-awake, and full of spirit— she would animate and inspire ail who 
came within her influence. Note how calm, clear, and yet how expressive 
the eye with its long lashes ; how distinct, well-formed, and developed the 
nose, and what a beautiful chin ! That well-cat, slightly open, and reg- 
ular womanly mouth. Those loving lips ! The beautifully formed and 
not over large forehead, and a head — concealed by the cap— high m the 
center, long and broad on top, a large cerebellum, with Ideality, Sublim- 
ity, Time, and Tune well developed. There was both economy and kind- 
ness, devotion, integrity, Faith. Hope, Charity, and steadfastness. Nor 
.vas she wanting in courage, will, or fortitude. The perceptive faculties 
veve full, with large Order— the basis of method — ism; large Individ:! 


ality, Eventuality, Comparison, Human Nature, and the entire centra, 
range from nose to occiput. There was something of the Napoleon in her 
composition, and just the least approach toward the masculine— not 
enough to he objectionable, but just enough to give self-reliance, individ- 
uality, and independence. All questions would be between herself and 
her God rather than between her and others. Such a person is above flat- 
tery, and above the fear of man. Trusting, believing, and resigned to Hit 
will, she would not be easily cast down nor depressed, but would take a 
hopeful view of all things desired, but not disappointed at reverses. Such 
a nature would become a natural magnet, the center of attraction to all 
who knew her, and being suitably mated, fit to become the mother of a 
man so simple, so great, and so good as was the veneiable John Wesley. 
If not of noble birth, she was of gentle blood, and m jst queenly as well as 
most motherly in character. The circumstance of birth alone — not of 
majesty or soul — left her to reign through life in the hearts of all who 
knew her, rather than on a glittering man-made throne. 

May the same good spirit by which the saintly Susannah Wesley was 
animated, fill the souls of all men and women. 


Let the blue eye tell of love, Ardor for the black proclaim, 

And the black of beauty, Gentle sympathy for blue ; 

But the gray soars far above But the gray may be the same, 

In the realm of duty. And the gray is ever true. 

The blue is the measured radiance of moonlight glances lonely, 
And the black the sparkle of midnight when the stars are gleaming only , 
But the gray is the eye of the morning, and a truthful daylight brightness 
Controls the passionate black with a flashing of silvery whiteness. 

Sing, then, of the blue eye's love, 

Sing the hazel eye of beauty ; 
But the gray is crowned above, 

Radiant in the realm of duty. 


1. To judge from a person's physical organization what are his natural 
tendencies and capacities, and what pursuit is best for him, 

2. To understand the mode of operation of the mind, be it sane or in- 

3. To use the proper means of educating others, and of controlling and 
improving ourselves. 

Thus Phrenology, when made practical, evidently affords quick and 
clear means of understanding ourselves and others, of developing and 
using to the best purpose whatever powers God has given us, and of 
making human life as useful, successful, and happy as this world will 



pr'ythee, tell me, who is it? quickly, and speak apace. I would thou could 'at 
stammer, that thou might'st pour ttiis concealed man out of thy mouth as wine comes 
Out of a narrow-necked bottle, either too much at once or none at all. I pr'ythee take 
the cork out of thy mouth, that I may drink thy tidings. — Shahspeake. 


Stammering is characterized by an inability or difficulty of properly enun- 
ciating some or many of the elementary speech sounds, either when they 
occur at the beginning or the middle of a word, accompanied or not, as 
the case may be, by a slow, hesitating, more or less indistinct delivery, 
but unattended uithfrequmt repetitions of the initial sounds, and consequent 
convulsive efforts to surmount the difficulty. 

Stuttering, on the other hand, is a vicious utterance, manifested by fre- 
quent repetitions of initial or other elementary sounds, and always more or 
less attended with muscular contortions. * 


Girls and women seldom stammer. With them, the organ of Language 
is larger than in males, and they are more free and copious in speech. 
They commence early to talk to their dolls, play "keep house, teach 
Bchool," correct the dog and the cat, talk to the bird, and keep up a vocal 
chatter generally. Nor will the command of an impatient and inconsid- 
erate parent, to " Hold your tongue !" avail, with little girls. They must 
talk, laugh, or cry, while the boys whistle, play ball, fly kites, roll hoops, 
play horse or hide-and-seek, drive nails, bore holes, saw wood, whittle, 
build boats or carts ; harness the dog or the goat, and do other similar 
service where much yelling and little talking is required. Girls are much 
more with their mothers, and conversation, including "small talk," can 
go on almost perpetually, all day long ; and it is a fact, ladies become by 
practice far the best and most natural talkers. Who ever knew a lady to 
stammer ? 

Boys are more rough, blunt, and uncouth in manners and conversation, 
and are more frequently commanded to " hush ! — shut up !" "be quiet !' r 
etc. , and told that ' ' boys should be seen, not heard ;' ' and they come to think 
more than they talk. Later in life they are expected to read aloud, tell 
what they saw or heard, and they blunder, misplace their words, -and form 
the habit of stammering. 

All the organs of speech are precisely the same in those who do and who 
do not stammer. It is a mental and not a primarily physiological or bodily 
infirmity, and should be treated accordingly. This view is corroborated 
by a French writer, who says : 

' Stammering has generally been ascribed to some physical impediment 
in the tongue, the palate, or some other of the organs of speech ; but it ia 
easy to show that its cause is of a very different origin, and that it rarely, 
if ever, arises from simple malformation of the vocal organs." 

These malformations, it is true, may occasion defective utterance cf va- 

* Hui t : " Stammering and Stuttering ; their Nature and Treatment." 


rious kinds and degrees, but never the characteristic symptoms of stam- 

" If physical malformation," observes Dr. Voisin, who was himself for- 
merly a stammerer, " were really tbe general cause of stammering, the 
effect would necessarily be permanent, and would affect the same sounds 
every time they recurred ; but the reverse of this is the truth ; for it ia 
well known that, on occasions of excitement, stammerers often display a 
fluency and facility of utterance the very opposite of their habitual state," 
and that, as Dr. Voisin expresses it. 'Lorsqu'ils se mettent en colSre, iU 
bkisphement avec une energie qui n'a point echappee aux hommes les 
moms observateurs.' '"-' 


Dr. Voisin proves very clearly that the real cause is irregularity in the 
nervous action of the parts which combine to produce speech. This is 
shown by analyzing speech. The natural sounds, or vowels, ar? simple, 
and require only one kind of muscular action for their production ; hence 
they are almost always under command. The artificial, or compound, 
sounds (hence denominated con-sonants) are complex, and require several 
distinct and successive combinations of a variety of muscles ; and it is they 
alone that excite stammering. But it is the brain that directs and com- 
bines all voluntary motions ; and consequently every disturbing cause, 
not local and not permanent, can affect the voluntary motions of speech 
only through the medium of the brain ; and irregular action of the brain must 
thus be the indispensable antecedent or cause of the effect — stammering. 

Mr. Hunt confirms this view, though he admits organic causes also. He 
says: "Debility, paralysis, spasms of the glottis, lips, etc., owing to a 
central or local affection of the nerves, habit, imitation, etc., may all more 
or less tend to produce stammering." He adds in another place : " The 
mind is the master of speech, and through it alone can we act on the 
organs necessary for the process of articulation. When we lose our 
control over the mind, we have none over the bodily organs under its in- 
fluence, and an improper action is the result." 


Though stuttering differs, as we have seen, from what is properly called 
stammering, the exciting causes of the two affections are mainly identical. 
Mr. Hunt says : "Among the exciting causes of stuttering may be enu- 
merated — affections of the brain, the spinal cord, and the abdominal 
canal ; abnormal irritability of the nervous system, solitary vices, sperma- 
torrhea, mental emotions, mimicry, and involuntary imitation." 


The following illustrations of the proximate causes of stammeriiig, 
which we copy from Dr. Voisin's paper, f apply in the main to stuttering 

* When they get angry, they blaspheme with an energy which can not fail to impress 
Hie least observing. 
i Bulletin da VAcademie Royale da Med* line, 1837 


also, which he apparently does not distinguish from the first -named 

1. It is no unusual thing to see a person who is perfectly fluent in con- 
versation, and who has never been known to stammer, become grievously 
affected with it. if called upon unexpectedly to address a public audience. 
Every one will admit that, in this case, there is no physical impediment 
to utterance, but that the cause is in the brain, or organ of the mind, and 
that it consists in irregular nervous impulse sent to the organs of speecb, 
and proceeding from a conflict between the desire to speak well, tbe fear 
of speaking ill, or perhaps a -consciousness of a paucity or bad arrange- 
ment of the ideas which he is expected to communicate, or it may be a 
dearth of words in which to clothe them. In every instance the essential 
circumstance is a conflict, or absence of co-operation among the active 
faculties, necessarily giving rise to a plurality, instead of to a unity of ner- 
vous purposes, and consequently to a. plurality, instead of to a unity of sim- 
ultaneous muscular combinations ; and the irregular plurality of purposes 
and of actions thence resulting constitutes exactly what is called stam- 

A striking illustration of the truth of this Anew is the fact, that stam- 
mering, or irregularity of action, is an affection not peculiar to the muscles 
concerned in the production of speech, but is common to these and to all 
the muscles under the power of the will. Wherever two or more di- 
verging purposes of nearly equal power assail the mind, and prompt to 
opposite courses of action at the same time, there stammering appeai-s, 
whether it be in the muscles of the vocal organs or in those of the feet. 

2. A person unexpectedly beset by danger stammers from head to foot, till 
his presence of mind gives him a unity of purpose, and decides what he is 
to do. In this instance, it is undeniably the simultaneous existence of 
opposite mental impulses that produces the effect. For the same reason, 
the sudden recollection, during an animated discourse, of something for- 
gotten, causes a temporary stammer and unsteadiness of attitude. Ii 
short, a multiplicity of impulses causes contrariety of action, and con- 
trariety of action constitutes stammering. 

8. The effects of wine and spirituous liquors prove the influence of tin 
brain in the production and cure of stammering. " Look at that individ- 
ual, who, without committing any great excess, is moderately excited by 
a few glasses of wine : lately he was sad, silent, and spiritless ; now, what a 
metamorphosis ! he is gay talkative, and witty. Let him continue to 
drink, and go beyond the measure of his judgment, his head will become 
embarrassed, and the fumes of the wine trouble his intellectual functions. 
The muscles, subjected to the guidance of a will without power, contract 
feebly, and the most confused and marked stammering succeeds to the 
fluent pronunciation so lately observed, and wlmm depended on the pow- 
erful action of the brain on the organs of speech.' 

4. From the earliest antiquity accidental stammering has been noticed 
by physicians as frequently the precursor of apoplexy and palsy, which 
could happen only from the preceding affection of the braiu acting on tho 
organs of speech. 


5. It is a well-known fact that stammerers and stutterers are generally 
very sensitive and irritable, and at the same time timid and retiring ; 
thus affording the essential contrariety of emotion in the highest degree 
Dr. Voisin illustrates this state in speaking of himself. He says : 

" I shall never forget when I had finished my studies, and was entering 
on life, my troubled countenance, my embarrassment and monosyllabic 
answers, and the silence which fear and timidity almost always enforced 
upon me, gave to many people such an idea of my character, that I may 
dispense with quoting the epithet which they were pleased to bestow 
upon me." 

6. Certain emotions, by exciting the brain, direct such a powerful nervoua 
influx upon the organs of speech, that it not only frees the stammerer from 
his infirmity for a time, but has even sufficed to deliver the dumb from their 
bondage, and enabled them to speak. Esquirol gives a curious example 
of this fact. A dumb man had long endured contempt and bad usage 
from his wife ; but being one day more grossly maltreated than usual, he 
got into such a furious rage, that he regained the use of his tongue, and 
repaid with usury the execrations which his tender mate had so long 
lavished upon him. This shows how closely the brain influences speech. 

7. Speech is the embodiment of ideas, and is useless where no ideas 
exist. Accordingly it is noticed that idiots, although they hear well and 
have a sound conformation of the organs of speech, and a power of emit- 
ting all the natural sounds, are either dumb or speak very imperfectly. 

8. Under the influence of contending emotions the tongue either moves 
without firmness or remains altogether immovable. This occurs most 
frequently when Cautiousness and Veneration are the opposing feelings 
Stammering from this cause diminishes imperceptibly, and sometimes 
even disappears, in proportion as the individual regains his presence 
of mind and masters his internal impression. "The observations," says 
Dr. Voisin, " which I have the sad privilege of making on myself every 
day, confirm what is here advanced. I have often intercourse with men 
for whom I feel so much respect, that it is almost impossible for me to 
speak to them when I appear before them. But if the conversation, of 
which they at first furnish the whole, goes on and becomes animated, re- 
.•overing soon from my first emotion, I shake off all little considerations, 
and, raising myself to their height, I discuss with them without fear, and 
without the slightest difficulty in my pronunciation." This indicates the 
supreme influence of the nervous influx on the movements of the vocal 
muscles, and it is curiously supported and illustrated by a fact mentioned 
by M. Itard, of a boy of eleven who was excessively at fault whenever ha 
attempted to speak in the presence of perso).s looking at him, but in 
whom the stammering instantly disappeared as soon as by shutting out 
the light he ceased to be visible. This is explicable only on the theory 
of opposite mental emotions. 

9. As the individual advances in age, and acquires consistency and unity 
of character, the infirmity becomes less and less marked, and even 
frequently disappears altogether. In the same way it is generally marked 
more in the morning than in the evening, because the brain has not then 


assumed its full complement of activity, nor been exposed to the numerous 
stimuli which beset it in the ordinary labors of the day 


The foregoing considerations not only establish the fact that stammer- 
ing and stuttering are mental and not physical affections, but also point 
to thu rational mode of cure, and show how utterly futile must be all tho 
pills, potions, and apparatuses of the quacks who pretend to be able to per- 
manently remove or remedy these impediments of speech by means of drugt 
or of mechanical contrivances. 

1. The first thing to be done is to impress deeply upon the mind the 
true nature and causes of the defect to be remedied. To that end read 
and re-read the preceding remarks. Consider ivhy jo\\ stammer. When this 
is clearly defined and fixed in the mind, you are on the road to speedy 

2. "We have shown that ideas are essential to speech. The fact that 
people with no great endowment in this respect are often exceedingly 
voluble, and that a crowding, as it were, of thoughts into the mind some- 
times hinders utterance, does not disprove this remark. The difficulty in 
the last case arises from a deficient supply of words to clothe the ideas 
that present themselves. It is the ineffectual struggle of a small organ 
of LaDguage to keep pace with the workings of larger organs of other in- 
tellectual powers. Total idiots never learn to speak. It is obvious, then, 
that one important condition in securing a distinct articulation is to have 
previously acquired distinct ideas. " Think before you sjieak." 

3. The cure of stammering is to be looked for in removing the exciting 
causes, and in bringing the vocal muscles into harmonious action by deter- 
mined and patient exercise. The opposite emotions, so generally pro- 
ductive of stammering, may, especially in early life, be gradually got rid 
of by a judicious moral treatment — by directing the attention of the child 
to the existence of these emotions as causes - by inspiring him with 
friendly confidence - by exciting him resolutely to shun any attempt at 
pronunciation when he feels himself unable to master it — by his exercising 
himself, when alone and free from emotion, in singing, talking, and reading 
aloud, and for a length of time, so as to habituate the muscles to simul- 
taneous and systematic action — and, we may add, as a very effectual 
remedy, by increasing the natural difficulty in such a way as to require a 
strong and undivided mental effort to accomplish the utterance of a sound, 
and thereby add to the amount of nervous energy distributed to the 
organs of speech. 


The practice of Demosthenes is a most excellent example. He cured 
himself of inveterate stammering by filling his mouth with pebbles, and 
accustoming himself to recitations in that state. It required strong local 
action and a concentrated attention to emit a sound without choking himself 
or allowing the pebbles to drop from his mouth ; and this was precisely 
the na Jural remedy to apply to opposite and contending emotions and 
divided attention. 


Demosthenes adopted the other most effectual part of the means of cure. 
He exercised himself alone, and free from distressing emotions, to such a 
degree, that he constructed a subterraneous cabinet ou purpose for perfect 
retirement, and sometimes passed two or three months without jver leav- 
ing it, having previously shaven one half of his head, that he might not 
be able to appear in public when the temptation should come upon him. 
And the perfect success which attended this plan is universally known. 
His voice passed from a weak, uncertain, and unmanageable to a full, pow- 
8i fill, and even melodious tone, and became so remarkably flexible as to 
accommodate itself with ease to the very numerous and delicate inflections 
of the Greek tongue. But as a complete cure, or harmonious action of the 
vocal muscles, can be obtained only by the repetition of the muscular 
action till a habit or tendency to act becomes established, it is evident that 
perseverance is an essential element in its accomplishment, and that with- 
out this the temporary amendment obtained at first by the excitement 
consequent upon a trial of any means very soon disappears, and leaves 
the infirmity altogether unmitigated. 


" M. Itard recommends very strongly, where it can be done, to force 
children to speak in a foreign language, by giving them a foreign gover- 
ness or tutor ; and the propriety of this advice is very palpable when we 
consider that it requires a more powerful and concentrated effort to speak 
und to pronounce a foreign than a native tongue, and that it is precisely 
a strong, undivided, and long-continued mental effort that is necessary to 
eifect a cure. 


" It is scarcely necessary to add, that debility, in which this, in common 
with many other forms of nervous disease, often originates in the young, 
must be obviated by a due supply of nourishing food, country air, regular 
exercise, and, though last, not least, by cheerful society, kindness, and 
encouragement. The use of Phrenology in enabling a stammerer to un- 
derstand his own case, or a parent to direct the treatment of his child 
under this infirmity, is so obvious, that we reckon it unnecessary to dwell 
on it. By rendering the nature and modes of action of the mental 
powers clear and familiar, it aids us in removing every morbid affection 
of which the origin lies in them." 


Having shown that stammering is only an impediment, caused by nervous 
excitement, sensitiveness, diffidence, and a lack of confidence and self- 
Ifiliance, and not by disease or a lack of the necessary organs of speech, wo 
may state that the careful attention of parents to their children from the 
earliest infancy, not only permitting but encouraging them to talk freely, 
copiously, and fluently, and to sing, read aloud, and thus give expression 
to their thoughts, feelings, and emotions, would remove all danger of their 
ever becoming stammerers. 

" Parents can not "be too careful," Dr. Hunt says, " in watchmg tbc de- 


velopment of the organs of voice of their children. All defects but those 
of utterance receive immediate attendance, and why should the ' human 
voice divine' alone go uncared for ? If parents only knew how many a 
sad life has been spent from this early neglect, they would take warning 
in time. Many of the defects of children's articulation are very slight, 
but being neglected, they gradually develop into serious impediments. 
Some children, with an active brain, begin v,ith speaking so rapidly that 
then organs will not work at the same rate. Some begin to speak before 
ibey bave any clear idea of what they are going to say. It is the business 
of eauoation to counteract this youthful tendency." 

Dr. Eich, after touching on the great variety of defects in the speech 
of young children, says, "All defects of articulation may degenerate into 
stuttering, especially if they commence in childhood." The proverb 
" that a stitch in time may save nine" is as true in this case as any other. 


The stupidity and cruelty with which stammering children are too 
often treated, is enough to rouse indignation They are told, " You can 
help it if you like !" As if they knew how to help it. They are asked, 
' ' Why can not you speak like other people ?' ' As if it were not torture 
enough to see other people speaking as they can not ; to see the rest of the 
world walking smoothly along a road which they can not find, and. are 
laughed at for not finding ; while those who walk proudly along can not 
tell them how they keep on it. They are even told, " You do it on pur- 
pose !" As if they were not writhing with shame every time they open 
their mouths 


A writer in Fraser's Magazine after recommending, very judiciously, a 
persevering course of physical exercises calculated to expand the chest, 
strengthen the respiratory organs, improve the health, and give a manly 
bearing, thus concludes : 

"Meanwhile, let him learn again the art of speaking; and having 
learned, think before he speaks, and say his say calmly, with self-respect, 
ns a man who does not talk at random, and has a right to a courteous 
answer. Let him fix in his mind that there is nothing on earth to be 
ashamed of, save doing wrong, and no being to be feared save Almighty 
God ; and so go on making the best of the body and soul which Heaven 
nas given him, and I will warrant that in a few months his old misery of 
stammering will lie behind him, as an ugly and all but impossible dream 
when one awakes in the morning." 

This is truth, every word of it. The habit of stammering can be over- 
come. Right methods, persevered in, will in the end be crowned with 
success ; but while cultivating self-reliance, the stammerer should realize 
that all strength con.eth from God, and that if he overcomes the habit, it 
will be due to His blessing upon his own prayerful exertions. 

Hon. Horace Mann said, in a letter to Mr. Wells, "I look upon Phre- 
nology as the guide of Philosophy and the handmaid to Chrisrianity." 




VEItYBOD? rec- 
ognizes the fact 
that the North 
American Indian 

differs from the 
Negro in various 
physical traits,. 
he6ides the color 
of the skin, and 
that both differ 
from the white 
man ; but few 
realize how great 
and fundamental 
this difference is, 
or how perfectly 
it corresponds 
with the differ- 

character, which 
everybody has 
also observed be- 
tween these races. 
The closer exam- 
ination which we. 
as phrenologists 

Fig. 1. — A Noeth Americas Indian. 
•md ethnologists, are accustomed to give, reveals the true basis of character 
in each, and shows why each is what it is rather than anything else — id 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. a 

other words, Phrenology gives us the key to ethnology and to history. A 
luief description of the Indian and the Negro as revealed by Phrenology 



and Physiognomy, will make our meaning clear, and at the same time cor- 
rect some false notions which prevail in regard to both. 

1. The Indian.— We will first look at the sfeull. Here we have it 

(figs. 2, 3, and 4) in several aspects. One of its most distinctive traite. is 

roundness. This quality is very manifest in every view, but especially so 

in those from behind and above figs. 3 and 4. The vertical or coronal 

view in our drawing, which is from 

Morton's " Crania Americana,' shows less 

roundness, however, than the specimens 

in our cabinet now before us. Great 

breadth immediately above the ears and 

in the region of Cautiousness and Secretive- 

ness, and a lofty coronal region, are also 

prominent characteristics. The forehead 

is broad and very prominent at the lower 

part, but retreating, and not high. The 

back-head in the region of the affections 

is, in general, only moderately developed, 

but there is almost always a large and 

sharply defined occipital protuberance. 
The head and the face taken together 

are, in the front view, lozenge-shaped, as 

shown in fig. 1 ; the nose prominent, and 

frequently of the form known as Jewish, or approximating that form ; and 

the jaws strong and angular. The eyes are dark-brown or black, and the 

orbits have little or no 
obliquity ; the mouth is 
straight, and the teeth 
nearly vertical. The 
hair is black, straight, 
and coarse, and there is 
generally little or no 
beard. The natural 
complexion is browr 
rather than copper- col- 
ored, as generally de- 
scribed. The chest is 
broad, the abdnnien 
moderate, and the limbs 
muscular and well-pro- 

In character, the 
American Indian, as 
his organization indi- 
cates, is active, ener 
getic, dignified, grave, 
firm, cautious, cunning 

stern, cruel, revenge 
Fig 5 -Sam. ° 


fill, and unrelenting His perceptive faculties are largely developed, but 
his powers of abstract reasoning are small, and the range of his mind very 

2. The JJegro. — Now let us look at the black man. If we place his 
cranium by the side of that of the Indian, we shall be struck with the 
strong contrast between them. While the latter is broad and round, tho 
former is distinguished by length and narrowness, as shown in figs 6 and 7. 

Comparing these drawings with those representing the Indian skull in 
the same positions (figs. 2 and 4), the difference is seen to be striking_ 
especially in the top views. In that of the Negro, the facial bones are 
compressed laterally, but project enormously in front. 

The Negro is characterized physiognomic-ally by a comparatively narrow 
face, the cheek-bones projecting forward ; a flat nose, with wide notjtrila ; 

Fig. 6. Fig. T. 

4iicK lips ; projecting jaws ; deep-seated black eyes ; black woolly hair 
a.nd beard ; and a black skin. 

The Ethiopian race is made up of a great many sub-races and tribes, 
varying widely in configuration and character; but we may say of tho 
typical negro, that from temperament he is slow and indolent, but pei- 
sistent and capable of great endurance ; and from cerebral development 
sensuous, passionate, affectionate, benevolent, docile, imitative, devotional, 
superstitious, excitable, impulsive, vain, improvident, cunning, politic, 
and unprincipled. He lives in the real rather than the ideal, and enjoys 
the present without thinking much of either the past or the future. He 
is a child in mfir.tal stature, has the virtues and faults of a child, and like 
the child neeas control and discipline, and is capable of indefinite 

Books and information on phrenological subjects, directions for self- 
culture, adapter! to all, and phrenological examinations, at the establish- 
ment of Messrs. Fowlkr and Wells, 753 Broadway. Call and inspect, 
gratis, the Museum of heads, busts, skulls, paintings, drawings, etc., of 
the good and the bad, the great and the imbecile 




As a class, the clergy have the best heads in the world. It is a fact in 
Physiology, that those parts most exercised get most blood, and become 
largest and strongest. A true clergyman attends much to bis devotions, 
lives constantly in its atmosphere, and he thereby cultivates the organs 
in the top-head— Veneration, Spirituality, Hope, Benevolence, and Oon- 
toientiousness. In consequence the clergy, as a body, have high heads, 
fill in the coronal region, but comparatively narrow at the base. Their 
pursuits at the same time developing the intellect as well as the senti- 
ments and emotions, tend to give them those tine foreheads and side 
heads, and that expression of intelligence and culture which the above 
portraits so well illustrate. From Swedenborg to Beecher, and from 
Wesley to Channing. they all, though differing widely in other particulars, 
agree in indicating a predominance of the higher intellectual faculties and 
the moral sentiments over the animal propensities which lie in the base of 
the brain. See the opposite page for the reveise of this picture. Both 
should be studied. Our pvrsuit- save shape to body and brain. 



In striking contrast with the expanded foreheads and lofty top-heade 
represented in the group of divines on the opposite page, are the low 
centers and broad, heavy basilar regions so conspicuous in the above heads 
of the devotees of pugilism. Here we see how opposite conditions, includ- 
ing both original proclivities and subsequent training, result in opposite 
external characteristics. The boxer's education is almost exclusively 
physical. The development of the brain is sacrificed to' the growth ot 
muscle and bone ; and the cerebral organs mainly called into action are 
those most closely related to the animal life and most intimately connected 
with the body. The head is therefore broad at the base, especially im- 
mediately above and behind the ears in the region of Destructiveness and 
Combativeness. The low forehead, narrow at the top and generally re- 
treating, shows plainly enough the lack of intellectual development and 
mental culture. The features differ from those on the opposite page as 
widely as the heads. Here, everything is coarse and animal : there, all the 
parts are fine, delicate, and human. In the one case, all is gross and sensual, 
and lias a downward and earthward tendency ; in the other, there is refine- 
ment, spirituality, and a heavenward aspiration. In both cases the 
indwelling mind, which is above and before its earthly tenement, hat) 
'luilt up an organization corresponding with itsoif 





jHE word apostle is from 
the Greek, and signifies 
a messenger. The title is 
bestowed in the New 
Testament upon all who were 
sent or commissioned to 
preach the gospel, but espe- 
cially upon the twelve whom 
Jesus chose from the whole 
number to be his heralds 
among all nations. The names 
of the original twelve are- 
Simon Peter, Andrew, James 
(son of Zebedee), John, Philip, 
Bartholomew, Thomas. Mat- 
thew, James (son of Alpheus), 
Lebbeus (Thaddeus), Simon, 
and Judas. 
The fate of Judas, the betrayer of his Master, is well known. His death, 
by his own hands, left a vacancy in the ranks of the Apostles, which was 
filled by the selection of Matthias. 

Paul, though not one of the original twelve, is generally mentioned in 
connection with them as " the Apostle of the Gentiles." 

It is always safe and sometimes, even in a worldly sense, profitable, to bo- 
a Christian in a Christian land and age. It was different in the early days 
of Christianity. Tbose who embraced the faith of the despised Nazarene 
did so at the peril of their lives. Those who stood forth as the champions 
and promulgators of the new faith braved dangers such as we, at this day. 
can scarcely realize. They could hardly hope to escape death in some one 
of its most terrible forms. 

All that is with certainty known concerning the Apostles may be found in 
the New Testament ; but there are traditionary legends about them, some 
of which seem to be worthy of credence. These recount, with more or 
less particularity, their travels, preaching, sufferings, and martyrdom. 

Simox Peter. — Peter was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee, and was the son 
of Jonas, whence Christ calls him on one occasion Barjona, or son. of 
Jonah. His original name was Simon. The name Peter, afterward 
bestowed upon him, signifies a stone, in which sense the Saviour uses it 
when he says, " Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church." 
— (Matt. xvi. 18.) The last account we have of Peter in the New Testa- 
ment is his attendance at a council of the Apostles and elders at Jerusalem 
(A. D. 51). The remainder of his history rests upon tradition. Jerome, 
Eusebius, and others assert that he afterward became bishop of Antioch, 
and that he was for the last twenty-five years of his life bishop of Rome, 
.t is pretty certain that he suffered martyrdom in that city during the 
reign of Nero. 


Andrew. — This Apostle was the brother of Peter, and was first a disciple 
of John the Baptist. He was the first called of all the disciples of Christ. 
Little is known of his apostolic labors Origen says he preached in Scythia. 
Tradition reports that he was crucified at Achaia on a cross of this form X , 
which is hence called St. Andrew's cross. Andrew is honored as the prin- 
cipal patron saint of Scotland. 

James (son of Zebedee). — He was the brother of the Evangelist John. 
On account of their zeal and boldness the brothers received the appellation 
of Boanerges, or sons of thunder. He suffered martyrdom by the sword 
under Herod Agrippa. There is a tradition that he went to Spain, of 
which country he is the patron saint. A church in that country (St. Jago 
di Compostella) claims possession of his bones. 

James (The Less). — The son of Alpheus and Mary a sister of the Virgin 
Mary. He was bishop of Jerusalem, where it is said he suffered martyr- 
dom by being first cast from a pinnacle of the temple and afterward stoned. 
He was noted for the purity and holiness of his life. 

Thomas— This Apostle is also called Didymus. Both names have the 
same signification — a twin. Didymus is from the Greek, and Thomas from 
the Hebrew. Thomas is seldom mentioned in the New Testament, and 
very little is known of his history. He was noted for his unbelief in 
what he could not prove by the evidence of his senses. He is supposed 
by some to have preached in India. The time, place, and mode of hia 
death are alike unknown. It is supposed that he was a martyr to his re- 

Matthew. — Matthew was the son of Alpheus, and a receiver of customs 
at the Lake of Tiberias. He was the author of the first gospel. The New 
Testament tells us little of his personal history. He is said to have 
preached during fifteen years in Jerusalem, and afterward in other places, 
and to have been finally burned alive in Arabia Felix. His gospel was 
composed in Hebrew, and afterward translated into Greek. 

John. — John, called the Evangelist, was the son of Zebedee, and tho 
brother of James the Elder. It is believed that he was the youngest of 
the Apostles, and he is described as "the disciple whom Jesus loved." 
After the ascension of Christ, John remained for a time at Jerusalem. He 
afterward abode in Ephesus and in Asia Minor. In the year 95 he was 
banished to the isle of Patmos, where it is supposed the Apocalypse was 
written. He is believed to have died a natural death in the reign of 
Trajan, at a very advanced age. 

Philip. — He was born at Bethsaida, and was the fourth of the Apostles 
who attached themselves to the person of Jesus — Andrew, John, and Peter 
having been called before him. All traditions agree that he met his death 
at Hieropolis. in Syria. 

Barthoiemew. — He was a native of Galilee, and generally supposed to 
be the same as Nathaniel, mentioned by St. John as among the early 
disciples of Christ. He is supposed to have preached in the Indies, and 
afterward journeyed into Phrygia. The time and place of his death aro 
unknown. Some assert, on the authority of tradition, that he was Hayed 


Lebbeus, Simon, and Matthias. — Of these Apostles we have no reliable 
Recounts beyond the mention made of them in the New Testament. 

Paul. — St. Paul, originally called Saul, was a Grecian Jew, born at 
Tarsus, in Cilicia. The exact time of his birth is unknown, but it must 
have been between the years eight and twelve of the Christian era. He 
enjoyed the rights of a Roman citizen, and the educational and literary 
advantages of the Grecian city of his birth, but in religion was a strict 
Hebrew, of the sect of the Pharisees. His persecution of the Christians, 
his conversion, and his zealous labors for the promulgation of the new 
faith are familiar to the reader of the New Testament. The Scripture 
nairative leaves him a prisoner under a military guard at Rome. Thia 
was in the spring of the year A. D. 61. There is a tradition that he was 
brought to trial and acquitted, but some years later was again arrested, 
brought to Rome, and finally beheaded. 

The engraving at the head of this article was made from a copy of a 
medallion said to have been found in the ruins of Herculaneum ; and there 
is at least a strong probability that the original was made during the life- 
time of the Apostle, and is a genuine likeness. The copy is accompanied 
by the following certificate : 


I hereby certify that the accompanying medallion of St. Paul is a correct 
copy of the original, obtained at Herculaneum in 1840 by a gentleman of 
New York city. — William Prescott, M.D. 

The Latin inscription — Paulus Apostolos, vas ekctionis, rendered in English., 
reads, Paul the Apostle, a chosen vessel. [See Acts ix. 15.] 

On the reverse is another inscription, also in Latin, copied from the 
Scptuagint translation of the 26th and part of the 27th verses of tho 
68th Psalm, which may be rendered as follows : 

26. Praise ye God in your assemblies (or in the highest), even the Lord, 
from the fountains of Israel. 

27. Here is Benjamin, the youngest, their leader. [Paul was of the tribe 
of Benjamin. See Phil. iii. 5.] 

Herculaneum was buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79. The 
death of Paul is believed to have taken place but a few years previous to 
that date. 

The copy of the medallion referred to may be seen at our Phrenological 
Museum, 758 Broadway, New York. The original is believed to be deposited 
in one of the New England colleges. Can any one tell us where it is, or 
anything about it ? 

We have long entertained the hope of finding authentic likenesses of 
the Apostles, by which to compare their phrenology, physiognomy, and 
their characters with their writings. There were strongly marked differ- 
ences in character among them, and it would be most interesting to traco 
tho lines of resemblances and differences among these chosen men. Did 
not Christ select these men on account of their peculiar fitness to do a 
certain work? Did he not know them? Aye, verily, and they did their 
work. At another time we may attempt to give an analysis of the charac- 
tei of each, from all the means at our command, including their writings, 


which furnish something of an index to the instrument through which 
the spirit was manifested. 

In studying the characters of modern men, let us not lose sight of the 
old land-marks of the ages which stand out so conspicuously. We should 
become more familiar with them, and with their sublime teachings. 

Two Qualities of Men. — There is a negativeness of character which ii 
often mistaken for amiability, or impartiality, or some other kindred vir- 
tue. The person possessing it never takes sides on a question of impoit- 
ftnce enlisting the interest and action of men, and is equally well pleased 
whichever party wins in the contest. The future of the church, of the 
government, of society, of man, are of but little account to him, so that 
he is left undisturbed in his quiet, plodding, aimless journey through life. 
He avoids the opposition, strife, and bitterness encountered by the posith o 
man, but then he is particularly, and for all useful purposes, nobody , ac- 
complishes nothing in life, and dies, to be forgotten as soon as he is buried. 

On the other hand, there is a positiveness of character not unfrequently 
mistaken for hardness, selfishness, arrogance, querulousness. The posi- 
tive man has a purpose in life, and in all questions of great interest fiimly 
plants himself on one side or the other, and will make himself unmis- 
takably felt, whether the decision be for him or against his cherished 
view. All matters of public interest engage his best powers, and find in 
him either an earnest advocate, or an active, persistent opponent. Men 
will call him hard names, and some will heartily hate him. But then he 
is a force to the world, and all there is of science, art, education, govern- 
ment, is attributable to him. While he lives he is the only useful ele- 
ment in society, and after his death, even his enemies will rejoice at his 
virtues, and vie with his friends in their efforts to perpetuate his memory 
among men. 

Home Courtesies. — In the family, the law of pleasing ought to extend 
from the highest to the lowest. You are bound to please your children ; 
and your children are bound to please each other ; and you are bound to 
please your servants if you expect them to please you. Some men are 
pleasant in the household, and nowheSj else. I have known such men. 
They were good fathers and kind husbands. If you had seen them in 
their own house, you would have thought that they were angels almost ; 
but if you had seen them in the street, or in the store, or anywhere else 
outside the house, you would have thought them almost demoniac. But 
the opposite is apt to be the case. When we are among our neighbors, or 
among strangers, we hold ourselves with self-respect and endeavor to act 
with propriety; but when we get home we say to ourselves, "I have 
played a part lcng enough, and am now going to be natural." So we sit 
down, and are ugly, and snappish, and blunt, and disagreeable. We lay 
aside those thousand little courtesies that make the roughest floor smooth, 
that make the hardest thing like velvet, and that make life pleasant. We 
expend all our politeness in places where it will be profitable — where it 
■till tiring silver or gold. 




has a large strong 
frame and a well 
balanced tem- 
perament. His 
head is very high 
in the crown— 
Firmness, Self ■ 
Esteem, Appro- 
bativeness, Hope, 
and Conscien- 
tiousness being 
among his largest 
phrenological or- 
gans. His will, 
self-reliance, and 
ambition to 
achieve success, 
are immeiw. Nor 
are integrity, re- 
spect, and kind- 
ness less strongly 
marked. Dressed 
in becoming 
black, with a 

white cravat, and a little more Spirituality and Veneration, he would pass 
for a D.D. ; and however indifferent he may appear to be toward sacred 
subjects, and whatever may be his belief or religious professions, we affirm, 
on phrenological evidence, that he is capable of deep devotional feeling. 
He may ignore creeds, systems, and even the most popular beliefs, still we 
maintain that he is capable of the highest religious emotions, and of some- 
thing akin to spiritual insight and prophetic forecast. 

His head is also large in Constructiveness, Ideality, and Imitation. He 
can invent, contrive, perfect, work after a pattern, use tools, and adapt 
himself to circumstances. Intellectually, he is a quick and accurate ob- 
server, and remarkably intuitive in forming business judgments and in 
reading character : a single glance reveals to him, as to an Indian, the 
motives and capacities of men. He reads them as men read common print. 
The fawning sycophant is as soon detected and as much despised by him 
as the honest, straightforward man is discovered and respected. Knowing 
human nature so well, he is at jnce the master of those who do not, and 
it is in this his superiority lies. Hit head is also broad between the ears 
and he is spirited, full of push, enterprise, and executiveness. If high- 
tempered, resolute, and quick to resist, he is not vindictive, nor will he 
pursue a penitent offender. But he will punish severely a willful offender, 
who without cause violates a sacred trust, or takes advantage of the weak 



and defenseless. His Destructiveness and Combativeness are fully de- 
veloped ; so is Alimentiveness, which is also well regulated. Acquisitive- 
ness. Secretlveness, and Cautiousness are not large, but fully developed. 
His many great pecuniary successes have resulted more from his immense 
will-power, sagacity, perseverance, and energy than from " love for 
money," which desire has been amply gratified. He is shrewd, far-seeing, 
and most discriminating, but not cunning. He is even frank with those 
Le can trust ; but he is never timid, hesitating, uncertain, or procrastinat- 
ing. He decides at once, and acts instantly. There is no delay on kii 
part. Socially he is ons of the most affectionate of men, and could not 
iiva alone. Indeed, it requires a temperate, even an abstemious life, on 
his part, to enable him to properly restrain his ardent, loving nature. 

Cornelius Vanderbilt, commonly known as the Commodore, was born on 
Staten Island, New York, in 1795. He commenced life as a boatman on 
New York Bay. At eighteen he owned his first boat, navigating her him- 
self. He is now the largest steamboat and railway owner in the world, 
and one of the wealthiest men. 


They are the books, the arts, tbe academies.— Shaksfhmie. 

CCORDING to Emerson, 
"the eyes speak all lan- 
guages." It would be more 
\s correct to say that they 
^4^ speak a universal language, 
■&h understood the world over, 
and without a dictionary. 
This is the language of ex- 
pression, the rules of which 
it would be difficult to lay 
down, nor is it necessary ; 
jv but there are ' ' signs of 
^character" in the eye that 
x are comparatively perma- 
nent and subject to well- 
understood physiologica' 
laws. These are little un- 
derstood, and may be profit- 
ably studied by all who 

Fig. 1.-NELL GWYNNE. fe^ ^ ^ themgelve8 

and their fellow-men as in an open book. We give a few of them here, 
and refer the reader to our new work on Physiognomy* for a more com- 
plete statement. 

* Physiognomy, or Signs of Chara"ter, bused on Ethnology, Physiology, and 
Phrenology. Illustrated with more than a Thousand Portraits an 1 othei Engravings 
New York : Fowler and Wells. 1865 P<-ice. *5. 



Fig. 2. — The Antelope. 


In the first place, we may consider the size of the eye. Large eyes have 
always been admired, especially in women, and may be considered essential 
to the highest order of beauty, in almost every description of which, from 

Helen of Troy to Lola Montes, they hold 
a prominent place. We read of ' ' large 
spiritual eyes," and 

Eyes loving large. 

The Arab expresses his idea of the beauty 
of a woman by saying that she has the eye 
of a gazelle. Physiologically, the size of 
the eye indicates the measure of its capacity 
for receiving sensations of vision. It is for 
this reason that it is large in the deer, the 
hare, the squirrel, the cat, etc., while the 
hog, the rhinoceros, and the sloth are in- 
stances of small eyes and very moderate 
capacity of vision. Physiognomically, we 
find in the size of the eye the sign of 
Vivacity — liveliness or activity and intelli- 
gence. Persons with large eyes have very 
lively emotions, think very rapidly, and speak fast, unless there be a 
predominance of the phlegmatic tempera- 
ment. Of persons with small eyes the re- 
verse is true. The former are quick and 
spontaneous in their feelings and in the 
expression of them, and are therefore 
simple, like the Highland Scotch, Swiss, and 
all who inhabit mountainous regions. The 
latter are slow and calculating, and there- 
fore artful, like the Gipsies, a people who 
generally inhabit level countries. 

Fig. 3.— The Hog. 


A large development of the organ of Language in the brain pushes the 
eye outward and downward, giving it prominence or anterior projection. 
Prominence or fullness, therefore, is an indi- 
cation of large Language, and persons with 
prominent eyes are found to have great com- 
mand of words, and to be ready speakers and 
writers ; but it may be observed that as a 
projecting eye most readily receives impres- 
sions from all surrounding objects, so it indi- 
g " 4 * cates ready and universal observation, but a Fig. 5. 

lack of close scrutiny and perception of individual things. Such eyes see 
everything in general but nothing in particular. Deep-seated eyes, on the 
contrary, receive more definite, accurate, and deeper impressions, but are 
lees readily impressed and less discursive in their views. 




The most beautiful eyes have a long rather than a wide opening. Eye- 
lids which are widely expanded, so as to give a round form to the eye, like 
those of the cat and the owl, for instance, indicate ability to see much 
with little light, and mentally to readily receive impressions from bur- 

Fig. 8. Fig. 7. 

rounding objects and from ideas presented to the mind, but these impres- 
sions are apt to he vague and uncertain, leading to mysticism and day- 
dreams. Eyelids, on the contrary, which more nearly close over th ■ eye, 
denote less facility of impression, but a clear insight, more definite ideas, 
and greater steadiness and permanence of action. Round-eyed persons see 
much — live much in the senses — but think less. Narrow-eyed persons see 
\e&>, but think more and feel more intensely. 


Sir Charles Bell says, " When wrapped in devotional feelings, when all 
outward impressions are unheeded, the eyes are raised by an action neither 

Fig. 8.- -Pkayerfulness. Fig. 9.— Wm. Ettey. 

taught nor acquired. Instinctively we bow the body and raise the eyes in 

prayer, as though the visible heavens were the seat of God." 
language of the poet - 

" Prayer is the upward glancing of the eye, 
When uone but God is near." 

In the 




The casting of the eye downward indicates Humility. Painters give this 
feeling its natural language in the pictures of the Madonna. Praverfulnesa 
and Humility are mutual in action. We should be first humble, then 
prayerful. Christ says, " Verily, verily I say unto you, whosoever shall 
not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, shall not enter therein." 


Ill re Barrett Browning speaks of one whose eyes 
Smiled constantly, as if they had by fitness 
Won tbe secret of a happy dream she did not care to speak; 

an i Sirs. Osgood describes 

Laughing orbs that borrow 

From azure skies the light they wear. 

Every one recognizes the mirthful expression referred to, hut it would le 
difficult to describe it so far as it affects the eye alone. The action of the 

eyelids, in such cases, 
is susceptible of illustra- 
tion. Fig. 10 shows the 
appearance of the eyelids 
and contiguous parts in 
a person convulsed with 
laughter. Among the 
noticeable traits exhib- 
ited are several furrows 
or wrinkles running out- 
ward and downward 
from the corners of the 
eyes, as if to meet those 
which turn upward from 
the angles of the mouth. 
These wrinkles, where 
the action that primarily 
causes them is habitual, 
become permanent lines, 
and are infallible indica- 
tions of large Mirthful- 
Fig. 10. — Laughter. ness. 


Arranging all the various colored eyes in two grand classes - light and 
dark — we would say that the dark indicate power, and the light, delicacy. 
Dark eyes are tropical. They may be sluggish. The forces they betoken 
may often be latent, but they are there, and may be called into action. 
Their fires may sleep, but they are like slumbering volcanoes. Such eyes 
generally accompany a dark complexion, great toughness of body, much 
strength of character, a powerful but not a subtile intellect, and strong 
passions. Light eyes, on the other hand, belong naturally to temperate 
regions, and they are temperate eyes. They may glow with love and 


genial warmth but they never burn with a consuming flame, like Hit 
torrid black eyes. The accompanying complexion is generally fair and 
the hair light ; and persons thus characterized are amiable in their dis- 
position, refined in their tastes, highly susceptible of improvement, and 
are mentally active and versatile. The light-eyed races have attained a 
higher degree of civilization than the dark races. When the complexion 
is dark and the eyes light, as is sometimes the case, there will be a com 
liination of strength with delicacy. 

In this view of the case, of course the various shades of the light and 
dark e} r es will indicate corresponding intermediate shades of character. 
Brown and hazel eyes may perhaps be considered as occupying the middle 
ground between the dark and the light. 

Phrenology and Physiology. — The temperament, or physical character 
of the human body as a whole, is an important element in deciding the 
character and power of the individual. It is sufficiently correct to consider 
the temperaments four in number, viz. : 

1 . Nervous, in which the brain and nerves seem to be in some sense 
predominant, and to give peculiarity to the physical person. 

2. Sanguine, in which the heart and lungs and the circulating system 
seem to predominate. 

3. Lymphatic, in which the secreting and digestive systems seem to pre 

4. Muscular, in which the bones and muscles seem to be the leading 
bodily characteristics. 

These temperaments are usually mingled, two or more together, and 
afford infinite variety of combination. 

Conscientiousness. — Thousands of pages have been written upon the 
subject of Conscientiousness, yet the Saviour condensed more informa- 
tion in two lines than can be found in them all: "Blessed are they that 
hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled." Phreno- 
logically, Conscientiousness is in our moral nature what Alimentiveness 
is in our physical system — both are blind desires which impel to action. 
In the one case we are impelled to ask the question in reference to any 
given action, "Is it right V" but like the hungering and thirsting of the 
animal system, it is perfectly blind, and requires for its guidance the 
intellect. The spirit of man, and not a personified attribute of the spirit, 
must, through its intellectual faculties, decide from the data before it 
w hether any given act is right or wrong. — Phrenological Journal. 

The Celestial Nose. — This nose serves as a perpetual interrogation 
point. Iu little children, the Snub and Celestial noses are beautiful, 
because congruous with our ideas of the weakness and ductility of child- 
hood. For the same reason, we do not find them without their charm in 
woman, whom we are not displeased to have more or less dependent 
upon us for support and protection. This nose must not be confounded 
with noses of the other classes, which simply turn up a little at the end. 
The true Celestial presents a continuous concavity from the root to the 
tip. — New Physiognomy. 




OOKED at withe at 
the name, what 
]l( /H woum De the gen- 
eral impression 
which this likeness 
would make on the 
observer ? Would 
he infer that it 
represents an essen- 
tially good man, 
or an essentially 
bad man? With- 
out prejudice, bias, 
o r preconceived 
opinion, reader, 
what would he your 
judgment as to the 
leading traits of 
this character? 
Your first search- 
ing inquiry will be 
for a supposed development of Sensuality. Do you see it here ? 

The photograph from which we copy is a recent one, and has been 
exhibited to large numbers of persons who have called at our office on 
Broadway, and the question has been put to each on banding him the 
likeness, "What do you think of this?" And the following indicate the 
general character of the answers we have received : " He looks like a good 
fatherly sort of a man." "A strong and sensible intellect" "An ex- 
ceedingly energetic character." "A man with a will and a way of his 
own." "Kind, but very decided." "A man of ability and resolution." 
And so on, each inferring what he could from the expression. 

Having met the man, and taken his measure years ago, we are prepared 
to speak more definitely and in detail of this remarkable personage. 

First, he is a large, heavy man, weighing not far from two hundred 
pounds, with a broad, firm, deep, and capacious chest, well filled out in all 
the vital powers ; wdth luns;s, heart, circulation, and digestion well-nigh 
perfect. And on such a physical basis we find, as a fitting superstructure, 
a very large brain — somewhat exceeding twenty-three inches in circum- 
ference — and it is broad, round, and high. Of course, with such a build 
and temperament it must be heavy in the base. Tie propensities are all 
full or large. There is a good appetite, strong social feelings, with the affec- 
tions, love of home and all that belongs thereto. He is also broad between 
the ears — rather than long from front to back — and there is great execu- 

* Wo have just received, through the politeness of Mr. C. E. Savage, photographic 
mtifct of Salt Luke City. Utah, the photograph from which the above portrait is copied. 


tlveness, resolution, resistance, self- protection, and fortitule. Combative- 
ness and Destructiveness are large, so is Acquisitiveness. There is great 
economy and a high regard for property, Constructiveness and Secretive- 
ness giving policy, management, and power to restrain and regulate. 
Cautiousness is les>- distinctly marked, and he is without the feeling of 
fear. What prudence he exhibits is more the result of intellect than of 
fear, timidity, or solicitude. Approbativeness is evidently large, and ho 
becomes inspired through his ambition. Words of approval would not be 
lost on him ; still, neither blame nor praise would induce him to change 
ais course when once decided. He is eminently self- relying. Though 
born with the spirit of a captain, he is not arrogant, over- dignified, or at 
all distant, but rather easy, familiar, and quite approachable. 

Among the moral sentiments, which are certainly strongly marked in 
his head, the most prominent is that of Veneration, while Hope and 
Spirituality are also conspicuously developed. Whether exercised in a 
normal or in an abnormal way, is not for us to decide. His Benevolence 
will show itself, not in public charities, by building hospitals, asylums, 
poor-houses, etc., but in a more limited way. He will be kindly to friends, 
family, the young, and indeed to all his household and people ; but for 
every dollar expended in behalf of any person, he will exact its return 
with interest. That is a temperament which gets rather than gives 
money. Nor do we in this connection pass judgment upon his opinions. 
We simply have to describe character Whether he be true to his natural 
organization, or whether he be perverted, is a matter between himself and 
his Maker ; certain it is, he is exerting an extensive influence on the minds 
of others ; whether for good or fur evil, each will judge for himself. 

He has large Ideality, Sublimity, Imitation, and Mirthfulness ; and he 
is a natural orator, a wit, an actor, and he may be said to be a perfect 
mimic. He can " take off" the peculiarities of a man or a monkey, and 
do anything he sees done ; while the intellectual faculties, as a class, are 
considerably above the average. Causality and Comparison are conspicu- 
ously prominent ; nor do we observe any deficiency in either the percep- 
tives or reflectives ; all are large or full. Order, Calculation, Individuality, 
Eventuality, Size, and Form are the same. Language is full, and if edu- 
cated for or trained to either writing or speaking, he would do it with 
fluency. He also has great powers of discrimination, and can read char- 
acter intuitively. 

In his physiognomy may be seen a prominent and somewhat pointed 
nose, indicating a resolute spirit and an active mind. He has a large 
mouth, with lips only moderately full and slightly compressed. There is 
nothing specially voluptuous in these features, however much there may 
be in his temperament. The chin is large and the jaws strong. The 
upper lip is long corresponding with his love of liberty and his disposition 
to lead. The eyes are light, well set, and decidedly expiessive ; when 
excited, they fairly blaze. The cheeks are full, but not over-fleshy. Con- 
eidering his age, the hardships he has endured, the pioneer life he has 
ted, the cares which he has assumed, and the difficulties he has had to 
contend with, he is an exceedingly healthy and well-preserved old man. 


He would lo jk well after health, wealth, and the comforts of life. He is 
also profoundly religious, whether in truth or in error, whether a Christian 
or not. 

As to the number of his wives or children we know nothing except bj 
hearsay, but we have every reason to believe that Brigham Young is to- 
day less sensual in his habits than many who profess to live lives of " single 
blessedness. ' ' 

In almost any position in life, such an organization — with such a tem- 
perament — would make itself felt, and would become a power within 
itself. Were the question put, as to the most suitable occupation or pur- 
suit, we should reply : Being qualified for it by education, he could fill 
any place, from that of a justice of the peace to that of a commander, a 
judge, a representative, a senator, a diplomatist, or ambassador down tc 
that of a business man. He would make a good banker, a merchant, a 
manufacturer, or a mechanic. He has all the faculties required to fill any 
place or post in private or in professional life. God will hold him account- 
able for the right use of a full measure of talents. His accountability and 
responsibility will be in exact accordance with his capability, which is 
much above that of the common run of men. He may be a saint — he is 
probably a sinner— but he is neither a fool nor a madman. As to the 
correctness of his judgment there will be two opinions, as there is in 
regard to all religions. But there is the man. 

Brigham Young was born at Whittingham, Windham County, Vt., 
June 1st, 1801. He was the son of a farmer who had been a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. Brigham made his first appearance at Kirtland, Ohio — 
then the headquarters of the Mormons — at the close of 1832, and was soon 
ordained an elder, and began to preach. 

He was formerly a Methodist minister. While at Kirtland, in the capacity 
of elder, his talent and shrewdness speedily made him prominent, and in 
February, 1835, when another step was taken in the organization of the 
hierarchy by the institution of the quorum of the twelve apostles, he was 
ordained one of the twelve, and was sent out to preach. His field of 
labor was the Eastern States, and he was signally successful in making 

Brigham Young appeared at Salt Lake City, July 24th, 1S47, and was 
soon followed by his disciples, when a settlement was made. 

In March, 1849, a convention was held in Salt Lake City, and a State 
was organized under the name of Deseret. A legislature was elected and 
a constitution framed and sent to Washington, but Congress refused to 
recognize the new State, and the country was organized into the Territory 
of Utah, of which Brigham Young was appointed Governor by President 
Millard Fillmore. The following year the federal judges of the Territory 
were forced by threats of violence by Young to leave Utah. This led to 
his removal, when Col. Steptoe, of the United States army, was appointed 
in his place. But shortly after arriving there he resigned, leaving Brigham 
to carry out his plans, since which he has filled the post of governor oi 
that people, which numbers not far from n 00 000 in the United States, and 
the ?ame number in the Old World. 




The head of Mr. Cobden was very large— upward of twenty-three and a 
half inches in circumference, and high in proportion. The perceptive 
faculties were immensely developed, and the entire intellectual group was 
considerably above the average, even of scholars and statesmen. Among 
the most conspicuous organs were those of Conscientiousness, Benevolence, 
Cautiousness, Constructiveness, Causality, Calculation, Size, Form, and 
Order. Imitation was large ; so was Mirthfulness, Hope, Combat' veness, 
and Firmness. His Veneration, though full, was not so large as Benevo- 
lence, and he was more kind than devotional, and more honest than be- 
lieving. He was of and for the people. To do good and to do right— to ele- 
vate and improve the condition of the race throughout the world, nithoui 
regar 1 to degree or complexion— was his leading impulse, motive, an I desire. 


la build, he was an Englishman, stocky, inclined to he stout, broad 
across the shoulders, and deep-chested. Though temperate, he was a good 
liver, providing liberally for the inner man, but plain in all things — ex- 
travagant in nothing. 

His complexion was light ; hair naturally a light brown, which had he- 
come thin and slightly gray. His eyes were light blue, and his skin soft 
and fine. He was every way well-made, and had it not been for a fixed 
infirmity- -wo think inherited, and aggravated by intense mental applina 
tion — he could have lived to a very old age. 

Richard Cobden was born nearMidhurst, Sussex, England, June 3, 1801, 
and was consequently about sixty-one years old when he died, April 2, 
180.3. His father was a substantial farmer, who was able to give him only 
limited educational facilities ; but he learned to read, write, and cast ac- 
counts, and these humble acquirements served to give him a position 
which was as the first round of the social ladder which he had both the 
strength and the will to climb. 

He was the leader of the Anti-Corn Law Leaguers, and contributed more 
than any other man to the final triumph of the measures they advocated. 
He visited the United States twice during his lifetime, and was always a 
^reat admirer and defender of our country and its institutions. In regard 
to the late war, he took ground from the first in favor of the Northern 
people, and confidently predicted the overthrow of the slave power of the 
South, and the establishment of the authority of the United States on a 
firmer basis than ever. He was one of the few men whose name finds 
nonor everywhere— whose fame folds in the orb of the earth. 

Phrenology at Home — "The Student's Set."- How can I learn Phre- 
nology ? What books are best for me to read ? Is it possible to acquire a 
practical knowlege of it without a teacher ? 

These are questions put to us daily ; and we may say in reply, that we 
have arranged a series of the best works on the subject, with a New Bust, 
showing the exact location of all the phrenological organs, with such 
illustrations and definitions as to make the study simple and plain without 
the aid of a teacher The cost for this " Student's Set," which embraces 
all that is requisite, is only S10. It may be sent by express, or as freight, 
safely boxed— not by mail — to any part of the world. Orders should be 
addressed to Fjwler and Wells, 753 Broadway, New York. 

Phrenology and Education. — The whole being, physical and mental, 
should be trained in symmetry. Deficient faculties should be the mort 
exercised ; excessive ones kept quiet ; and above all, the controlling o» 
superior faculties taught to exercise their office, and combinations ot 
others to fulfill the place of any which culture can not enough improve. 
All the powers of man are good, and were given for good purposes. Nouii 
of them should be exterminated, or stunted, or neglected ; but thej 
should be so trained and directed that all may act harmoniously and hap- 
pily together. It is the perversion of the faculties which leads to evil. 




General Sherman is tall and slim rather than stout and heavy, and 
tough and wiry rather than dull and phlegmatic. The nervous system 
predominates. More blood is thrown to the brain than to the lower ex- 
tremities, and he lives in his mind rather than in his body. There is no 
adipose matter in his system. All is of fine texture and excellent fiber. 
He is elastic, supple, and energetic. Observe the shape of the head ? It 
ib at least a story higher than the average, but neither remarkably large 
in circumference, nor very broad at the base, at the temples, or even in 
the intellectual region. It is long and narrow — built on the Havelock 
plan, and there is some resemblance in character as well as in configura- 
tion between our subject and this English general. 

Though an eminently successful soldier, General Sherman is none the 
less kind, humane, domestic, and devotional. The upper portion of the 
head predominates over the lower, and he has a skylight to his brain. 
Indeed, he would become inspired, in a degree, on any great occasion, and 
bo able to see farther into the future than most men. There is dignity 


and decision indicated in this head ; Constructiveness and inventive 
talent and mechanical ingenuity are fairly represented ; and there is also 
fair, practical common sense. The intellect as a whole is large, and there 
is order, taste, and refinment ; skill to plan and judgment to execute, with 
caution enough to appreciate the danger, and sagacity enough to escape 
it. He is courageous and resolute without being rash ; frank and open 
rather than cunning or secretive; somewhat cranky and willful when 
apposed, but kind and yielding when his sympathies ai'e awakened. 

The features are clearly cut and well defined ; the nose is prominent but 
not coarse, with large nostrils, showing good breathing powers : the eyee 
well set and expressive ; the chin prominent; the lips full and long ; and 
the whole face denotes cultivation, activity, and intensity. 

General Sherman is perfectly honest and sincere, and though his judg- 
ment, like that of most other men, may sometimes be questioned, his mo- 
tives never can be by those who know the man. 

William Tecumseh Sherman was born at Lancaster, Ohio, February 8th, 
1820. He is the son of Charles Sherman, formerly a judge of the Superior 
Court of Ohio, and of New England Puritan descent. He was educated at 
West Point ; served in the Florida and Mexican wars ; resigned his com- 
mission in 1853 ; and became President of tbe Louisiana Military Academy 
in I860. When the State of Louisiana was about to secede, he promptly 
announced his adherence to the old flag, and resigned his place. His 
splendid military career in the army of the Union is a matter of history 
familiar to every patriotic American. 

Physiognomy. — Some idea of the character and scope of our new Illus- 
trated "Physiognomy" maybe gathered from the following list of some of Inn more im- 
portant topi s discussed, as indicated by the heads of ihe chapters: Previous Systems 
(those of Lavater, Walker, Redfield, .nd others ; Structure of the Human Body ; General 
Principles; The Temperaments; Man and Woman ; Gene'al Forms; Outlines i.f Phre- 
nology : Anatomy of the Face; The Chin; The Jaws and Teeth: The Lips; About 
Noses; Language of the Eyes: The Cheeks; The Forehead; Neck ami Ears; The 
Hair and Beard; Hands and Feet (including the Walk, Shaking Hands, etc.} ; Tbe 
Voice; Insanity ; Idiocy; Types of Mankind (Ethnology) ; Comparative Physiognomy 
(Men and Animals); Physiognomy of Classes and Professions; Contrasted Facps; 
Grades of Intelligence; Personal Improvement, or How to Grow Beautiful; Charac- 
ters Analyzed, etc., etc. Over 1,000 beautiful engravings. 

A New Library of Mesmerism and Psychology. Complete in one 12mo 
volume, of about 900 pages. Illustrated. With practical instruction to learners. 

Comprising The Philosophy of Mesmerism. Clairvoyance, and Mental Elec- 
tricity.— Fascination, or the Power of Charming, illustrated. — Tins Macrocosm 
and Microcosm, or World of Sense and tbe World of Soul.— Electrical Psychol- 
ogy, the Doctrine of Impressions, including the Connection b-twe-n Mind and Mat- 
ter; also, the Treatment of Disease.— The Science of the Soul, considered Physi- 
ologically and Philosophically, with illustrations of the Brain and Nervous Sys'em. 
What is second sight, prevision, or somnambulism ? What is trance, ami how to pro- 
duce it? What is biology? And what of the " circles?" The hook is elaborate, con- 
taining a thorough exposition of the subject, embracing all that is necessary to a com- 
plete understanding of the mysterious laws and intensely interesting phenomena of 
mind in its abnormal and supersensuous manifestations Sent prepaid by first uost, oi 
Express, for $4, by Messrs. Fowlkk and Wells, 753 Broadway, New York. 



John Bright is stoutly built, with a broad, deep chest, large lungs, 
large heart, and all the vital organs fully developed. Though stocky, and 
with something of the lymphatic in his temperament he has also the 
nervous system strongly represented. Observe the prominence and point- 
edness of his nose and his expressive features, backed up by a large, broad 
brain, indicative of activity and propelling power ! The head is consider- 
ably above the average in size, exceeding twenty-three inches, and is high, 
loug, and broad. There is a large cerebellum, indicating both procreative 
and recuperative power. Among the largest organs in his brain are thoso 
of Combativeness, Destructiveness, Firmness, Conscientiousness, and Be- 
aevolence. The social group is also decidedly large, exerting a marked 
influence on his character. Of the intellect, all the organs, or nearly all, 
are large or full. Causality and Comparison, and the perceptive faculties 


we prominent ; while Language, indicated by a large and full eye, is well 
developed. The complexion is light ; eyes blue ; hair brown and silky ; 
dun fine and ruddy ; lips full, but not voluptuous ; and the whole face 
expressive of a clear and comprehensive mind, good judgment, settled 
convictions, and a will to execute. 

Though naturally a jovial, mirthful, and almost a rollicking nature, 
fond of fun, and overflowing with youthful feeling and spirit, he has, 
under the weight of cares and responsibilities, acquired a more subdued 
and sedate expression. Constructiveness, Ideality, Sublimity, and Imita- 
tion are large. Hence he has inventive, mechanical, and artistic abilities, 
with powers and capabilities adapting him to any industrial interest or 
pursuit. He is tasteful, but not fastidious ; imitative, but no mimic ; 
mirthful and even witty, but not given to making fun. His religion con 
sists in devotion, regard for sacred subjects, kindness, sympathy for all, 
integrity, and an active sense of justice, with a good degree of faith, hope, 
and trust in Providence. He is the opposite of both the cold skeptic and 
the blind bigot, but will worship intelligently and in accordance with the 
true Christian spirit. He is not haughty, though confident and self rely- 
ing, and is firm and decided, with great perseverance, love of liberty, 
fixedness of purpose, and tenacity of will, yet not obstinate. He is sensi 
tive in matters of honor and integrity, though he cares comparatively 
little for praise or blame, and will play the sycophant to no earthly power. 
His accountability is to his Maker rather than to men. Cautious, watch- 
ful, guarded ; prudent, but not timid or irresolute, he is frank, candid, 
open, and free from concealment. He is a comprehensive and compact 
thinker ; logical and analytical rather than abstract, and a capital critic. 
He reads character well, and can readily judge the motives of men. He is 
more definite, direct, and even blunt than bland or persuasive. He drives 
the matter home in a sledge-hammer style, impressing all with his sincerity, 
if he does not convince. He will not compromise and dally where princi- 
ples are involved. He has high business capabilities— would excel in 
mercantile life, in law, in authorship, art, mechanism, agriculture, or in 

John Bright was born in 1811, at Greenbank, near Rochdale, Lan- 
cashire, England, and is the son of John Bright, cotton-spinner and manu- 
facturer of that place. He began his career as a temperance lecturer, and 
still advocates and practices the principles he so zealously propagated in 
his youth. He is best known, however, in connection with the anti-corn 
law and general free-trade agitation in England. In the "League" he 
occupied a place second only to Mr. Cobden. He was first elected to Par- 
liament in 1843. Like Mr. Cobden, he is a great friend of America and 
American institutions, and is not less honored here than in his own 
country. , _____ 

Pictures.— A room with pictures and a room without pictures differ 
about as much as a room with windows and a room without windows. No- 
thing is more melancholy, particularly to a person who has to pass much 
time in his room, than bleak walls and nothing on them ; for pictures aro 
loop-holes of escape for the soul. 


HE term Hindoo ot 
Hindu is often applied 
in a loose way to 
tribes having little if 
any affinity with the 
true Aryan or domi- 
nant race. The high 
caste Hindoo is a be- 
ing of refined and del- 
icate organization, a 
highly nervous tem- 
perament, and beau- 
tifully molded fea- 
tures, indicative of 
gentleness rather than 
energy ; and he is 
evidently the product 
of along existent but 
decadent civilization. 
He bears the stamp 
of its culture, but suf- 
fers somewhat from 
the decrepitude con- 
Fig. I.-High Caste Hindoo. sequent upon its ex- 
haustion. An illustrious example of the great Oriental branch of the 
Aryan stock, he presents the grand characteristic by which they are dis- 
tinguished from their Western brethren in considerable force — the pre- 
dominance of the moral and imaginative over the intellectual nature, and 
manifests this more especially in the magnificent development of his Ven- 
eration, which makes his whole life a series of religious acts. 

The cranium of the true high caste Hindoo is small but beautifully 
formed and fine in texture, and indicates an organization allied to the 
noblest races of Europe. Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5 are accurate views of a gen- 
uine high caste Hindoo skull in our collection. It is a fair specimen in 
every way, showing the prominent traits of the race in excellent relief 
It is small, fine-grained, and symmetrical. 




Fig. 1 represents an old Hindoo of the Brahmin class, with a lofty 
coronal region and a mild and reverential expression of countenance. 

Very different from the true high caste Hindoo (fig. 1) are such filthy 
fanatics as fig. G. Low, gross, groveling, ignorant, superstitious, and yet 

Fie. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

religious — for even he has large Veneration — they are but little above the 
brute, save in capacity for culture, and are only bigots and impostors. 
Still, they are human beings, capable, like others, of almost illimitable 
improvement and development. It must be the work of long duration to 
lift them up to the level of our best estate. 

According to the belief of the more ignorant Hindoos, however, these 
Fakirs are the very holiest characters, who can not do anything wrong, 
and are therefore worshiped by the people. They spend their time travel- 
ing from city to city, and in the guise of sanctity really do great harm 
wherever they go. They carry a bag, in which they place the money and 

Fig. 4. Pig. 5. 

food collected from their deluded admirers. They are really great knaves, 
and would not be tolerated in any country where superstition did not 
sway the multitudes. 

As their influence and existence depend upon keeping the masses in ig- 
norance, the Fakirs have been found the most bitter opponents to tho 
progress of civilization and Christianity. Our illustration shows the fan- 
tastic dress and appearance of one of these impostors, and it is difficult foi 
us to conceive how such repulsive barbarians can secure the regard and 


Fig. 0. — A Hmuoo Fakib. 

confidence which are accorded to them. Clothed in a coarse hempen clotb 
tied about them, they wear their hair in a long, shaggy, matted state, 
with half-whitened faces and foreheads covered with large Brahminical 
marks made with dirt taken out of filthy cowsheds. Christianity and 
enlightenment appear to he forcing their way gradually, through mis- 
sionaries, into India, and in a few years these Fakirs will lose theii 
power and be remembered among the North American Indian medicine 
men as relies of the past. 



Daniel Lambeht.* 

Calvin Edson.t 



Let me have men about me that are fat, 

Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o 1 nights ; 

Yond' Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 

He thinks too much ; such men are dangerous. — Skatepcare. 

E Americans are not a fat people. As a general rule, we have reason 

to be more interested in learning how to gain flesh than how to lose 

nevertheless there are corpulent people even among us, and soma 

* One of the most corpulent persons ever known was Mr. Daniel Lambert, of Lei- 
cestershire, England, who weighed five hundred and twenty-eight pounds. 

+ Dr. Calvin Edson, who was exhibited as the "Living Skeleton," weighed only 
forty-five pounds at the time of his death, which took place in 1833. Dissection 
showed that the thoracic duct, which conveys the nutriment of the food into the 
blood, was constricted. 


may be desirous of learning what is known of the causes and cure of 
obesity as well as of leanness. 


The causes of corpulence are various. The principal ones are : I. Con- 
stitutional Predisposition ; II. Indolence and Apathy ; and III. Farina- 
ceous Food. 

1 . In some persons the vital temperament greatly predominates. There 
if an excessive action of the nutritive function. The digestion and as- 
similation of food are so rapid and complete that the flesh and fat forming 
principles are produced more rapidly than they are required to repair the 
natural waste of the body. The result is an undue deposit of adipose 
matter -a fatty congestion, as it were, of all parts of the body. 

2. The tempermental conditions just described predispose to indolence, 
a love of ease, and a fondness for sleep, all of which, if indulged, tend to 
corpulency by lessening the waste of the system, while permitting the 
restorative processes to be carried on with increased efficiency. 

3. Carnivorous animals never get fat. Lions, tigers, wolves, jackals, 
birds of prey, etc., are always lean. Herbivorou animals do not grow 
fat unless they feed upon farinaceous substances, potatoes, or starchy and 
saccharine matter in some form. These fatten them rapidly. The same 
dietetic law applies to man. 


Mr. Banting, whose case has created so much talk in Europe, is an En- 
glishman who gained the bulk of Falstaff by living chiefly on farinaceous 
food, and reduced his weight by taking up a meat diet. His system, as 
it is called, consists merely in abstaining, so far as practicable, from arti- 
cles of food containing starch and sugar. 


The principle which underlies Mr. Banting's plan was announced more 
than forty years ago by M. Brillat-Savarin, author of Plujsiologie du Gout, 
in which work it may be found clearly set forth and practically applied. 
He says : 

" The anti-corpulency system is plainly indicated by the most common 
and the most active cause of corpulency ; and, as it has been proved be- 
yond a doubt that fatty substances are formed of farinaceous food in men 
as well as in animals, and, as regards the latter, we positively fatten them 
up for commercial purposes, we may come to the deduction, as an unchal- 
lengeable fact, that a more or less strict abstinence from all farinaceous food will 
tend to diminish corpulency ." He adds in another place: "Avoid beer like 
the plague ; eat radishes, artichokes, celery ; eat veal and chicken in 
preference to beef and mutton ; sleep moderately ; and take plenty of 
exercise on foot or on horseback." 

We would give more prominence to exercise, and make it include the 
mind as well as the body. We should insist that the patient, no matter 
how wealthy, ehould have some regular business which would give full 


employment 10 the mind and constant exercise to the body. This, perse- 
vered in, would have a tendency to increase the mental and locomotive 
systems, to correspondingly depress the too great activity of the vital 
functions, and thus to produce a radical modification of the temperament. 
A diet composed largely of meat will not do for all persons, and may 
prove very dangerous to some in hot weather. The corpulent who are 
disposed to try Mr. Banting's system should make the change from their 
ordinary diet gradual, and watch carefully the symptoms produced. 


The causes of extreme leanness may be arranged under three general 
heads : I. A Constitutional Predisposition ; II. Diseased conditions affect- 
ing Digestion and Assimilation ; and III. A deficiency of the proper kind 
of food. 

1. A large predominance of the nervous and mechanical or locomotive 
systems of the body over the vital predisposes to leanness, by causing so 
great an activity, physical and mental, as to use up the materials of 
growth as fast or faster than they are supplied. 

2. But a majority of those who are remarkably thin have become so 
through actual disease. Their nutritive system is disordered or weak — in 
other words, they are in some form and degree dyspeptic. 

8. The third cause need hardly have been mentioned in this land of 
abundance, where the poorest seldom suffer for the lack of a sufficiency 
of good food. There may, however, be a bad choice of food, and a conse- 
quent failure to make the best of one's circumstances. 


The learned author of Physiologic du Gout having asserted that leanness 
is no disadvantage to men, directs all his attention to the fair sex, with 
whom, he says, " beauty is more than life, and beauty consists especially 
in the rounded limb and the graceful curve." There is no reason, he 
adds, why a woman who has a good stomach should not be fattened as 
well as a fowl. He recommends fresh bread, soups, rice, fresh eggs, bis- 
cuits, macaroni, sweet pastry, farinaceous preparations generally that con- 
tain eggs and sugar, beef, mutton, fish, chocolate, and cafe au laii (coffee 
with plenty of milk). He adds : 

" Avoid acids ; except salad, which gladdens the heart. Eat sugar with 
your fruit, if it admits of it. Do not take baths too cold ; breathe tho 
fresh air of the country as often as you can ; eat plenty of grapes when in 
season ; do not fatigue yourself ; and go to bed early. Everything that eats 
can be fattened, provided the food is icell and suitably chosen." 

This is very true and excellent so far as it goes, but we may add : 

1. If you are sick — and ten to one you are, if you are very thin — the 
first thing to be done is to get well ; then you may grow fat at your leisure. 

2. As imperfect digestion is the principal cause of leanness, you must 
begin the consideration of your emaciation with the physiological fact, 
that the quantity and quality of your flesh depend upon the character of 
your food and digestion. Remember, it is not the quantity eaten, but that 


digested, which determines your flesh and strength. Eat less ! Masticato 
thoroughly, drinking little or nothing hy way of helping the food into 
your stomach. 

3. For breakfast, eat coarse bread, cream, and baked sweet apples; for 
dinner, beef or mutton (not veal or lamb), with coarse bread, potatoes, 
and all the vegetables of the season ; for dessert, use fruit ad lilritum. If 
possible, sleep a little after dinner. Let the supper be very light, or omit 
it altogether, taking the second meal at three o'clock. 

4. You must sleep in a pure atmosphere ; go to bed as early as nine 
o'clock, and, rising by six, walk slowly in the open air half an hour or more. 

5. Spend the evening in social enjoyment. Happiness with laughter 
are the best friends of digestion. 

6. Live as much as possible in the open air, never forgetting that after 
the food has been well digested in the stomach, it must mingle with a 
good supply of oxygen in the lungs before it can be transformed into the 
tissues of the body. 

7. Bathe frequently, that the effete matter in the system may easily 
escape, and thus afford the best opportunity for the deposition of the new 
material. Take the Turkish bath, if accessible. 

8. Cultivate repose and the genial and quieting sentiments of social and 
domestic life ; don't fret, and never be in a hurry. There is time for all 
the work that is required of us, and, after doing our duty, we may safely 
leave the rest to Him who " doeth all things well." 

9. Lean persons should take especial care to be well clothed, according 
to the season and climate, keeping the extremities always warm, and the 
circulation uniform. 


We add dietaries for the two classes of persons of whom we are writing. 
Judgment must be used in apylying them, as well as the preceding rules 
and remarks, to individual eases. 

What Fat Folks may Eat and Drink. — Lean beef, veal, and lamb ; 
poultry, game, and fish, except salmon ; eggs ; dry toast ; greens, cab- 
bage, turnips, spinach, lettuce, and the salad plants generally ; tea and 
coffee without sugar or cream. 

What Fat Folks should avoid. — Fat or potted meats ; bread as far as 
rracti cable (except the dry toast) ; biscuits, rice, arrow-root, sago, tapioca, 
macaroni, and vermicelli ; puddings and pastry of all kinds ; custard, 
cheese, butter, cream, milk, and sugar; potatoes, carrots, parsneps, and 
beets ; all sweet fruits ; cocoa, chocolate, beer, and liquors of all kinds. 

What Lean Folks mat Eat and Drink. — Fresh beef and mutton ; poul- 
try and game ; fresh fish of all kinds ; soups, broth, and beef tea ; eggs, 
butter, cheese, cream, and milk ; sweet fruits, jellies, sugar, and honey ; 
bread biscuits (not liot, however), custard, rice, tapioca, and other farina- 
ceous substances in puddings and otherwise ; potatoes, beans, peas, beets, 
parsneps, carrots, cauliflowers, asparagus, and sea kale ; cocoa, chocolate, 
tea, coffee, and milk. 3 

What Lean Folks should avoid. — Salted meats of all kinds ; salted 
fish ; pickles, lemons, salads, and vinegar ; acid drinks ; very sour fruits. 

♦ This dietary presupposes unimpaired digestive powers. Individuals taking it as a 
general guide must omit such articles as they flud their stomachs incapable of digest' 
lug, or as in any way disagree with them. 




I. It is now a fixed and universally admitted axiom of science, that 
forces, like substances and material elements, are indestructible. Scientific 
men have designated this principle by the phrase, "The conservation 
of force." It may be illustrated thus : The power operating through the 
steam-engine is dependent upon the expansion of vapor, and this, again, 
is referable to heat concentrated under such conditions as to force the va- 
porizing atoms apart. Now that heat was not created, but simply developed, 
by combustion, and before combustion commenced it was all contained 
latent in the fuel ; and even before the fuel existed, it was contained in 
the rays of the sun and the surrounding atmospheric and terrestrial ele- 
ments. And so after it passes off through the machinery, it is not anni- 
hilated, but is reabsorbed in different forms in surrounding elements, 
diffusing itself to remote distances, and acting upon the aggregate mate- 
rials that receive it with an aggregate force equal to that exerted in 
concentration through the steam boiler ; and from this diffused state it 
may again be collected. 

spiritual force. 

If this is true of physical force, must it not be correspondingly true 
of spiritual force — the force of affection, thought, and volition 1 Let the 
reader conceive, if he can, how this force can be lost or annihilated any 
more than can the physical force generated by, or rather residing in, 
heat, or any other physical force whatsoever. And this argument might 
be rendered more emphatic if we had time and space to show, as we think 
it might be shown, that even all so-called physical force originates, at the 
ultimate analysis, in spiritual force— in the love, wisdom, and volition of 
the Divine Mind. We have not yet come to argue the preservation of the 
soul's identical individuality. Let it simply for the present be borne in 
mind that no spiritual force can ever be annihilated any more than can a 
physical force. 


II. We may advance the argument a step further by considering the 
conscious nature of the human soul, and its relations to the universe. 
The universe, as we understand it, is a multitudinous assemblage of cog- 
nizable and conceivable objects, governed by cognizable and conceivable 
laws and principles, and so united and harmonized as to present the char- 
acter of one grand system. If there is any object or principle in being 
which, with any possible development of the human intellect, is neither 
cognizable nor conceivable, then that object or principle is and must forever 
remain to us virtually and practically a non-existence. The soul has no 
relation to it whatever, and never can in the least degree be affected by 
it, much less can it amalgamate with it so as to destroy or impair ita 


It is a strictly logical statement, therefore, that the universe and the 
human soul stand toward each other in the relation of cognizable objects 


and principles, and cognizing, and what may yet possibly be developed, 
as cognizing faculties ; and in this respect they are the counterparts, cor 
respondents, and equals of each other. This accords with the doctrine 
of the most profound psychic philosophers of all ages, who have regarded 
the human soul as a " microcosm," or a little universe of itself — meaning 
by this that the soul contains all spiritually that the universe contains phys- 
ically. Now if the human soul is thus the counterpart, correspondent, 
and equal of the universe, it must at least be equally lasting with the uni- 
verse, unless some power superior to its own power of maintaining 
an existence acts upon it and destroys it by violence. Such power, it 
may be presumed, only resides with God. 


III. It may be safely asserted, as a law of balancing harmonies in the 
physical and sentient universe, that that for which there is a physical or 
moral necessity to any creature or being, or that for which any being Las 
a natural hunger, thirst, or aspiration, does somewhere exist Even in 
the realm of gross material creations do we see this principle sometimes 
exemplified ; and by observing a deflection of the planet Herschel from itb 
orbit, reaching out into space as though it were hankering for a closei 
proximity to a remoter and "hitherto undiscovered planet, Le Verrier not 
only confidently announced the existence of that planet, but precisely 
indicated the point in the heavens where it might be discovered at a 
given hour and minute ; and when the telescope was directed to the 
specified point at the hour and minute indicated, lo the new world flashed 
upon the human vision for the first time since its creation ! 

If in a but partially explored country an animal is discovered whose 
teeth, stomach, and other organs adapt it to the use of a particular 
kind of food, it would be safe to conclude that that food, though as yet 
undiscovered, is produced in the country to which it belongs ; and if it 
could be proved by any physiological investigation that a particular num- 
ber of years would be required for it to develop and mature its being, and 
exhaust its constitutional powers to maintain a desirable existence, that 
period might safely be assigned as the natural duration of its life. Now 
so perfectly is this law applicable to man in his connection with this 
world, that it is said tbxt even the diseases to which he is subject in par- 
ticular climates are provided for by vegetable and other remedies which 
are produced in those climates. 


But let it be marked well, that the human soul is so constituted that 
an eternity would be required for it to fully develop and mature its being. 
The soul of a Bacon, a Kepler, or a Newton feels, in passing out of the 
body at death, that it has only just begun to grow, and that if it only may 
be continued in being it may go on learning more and more to all 
eternity, without reaching the limits of its powers or fathoming the last 
mysteries of God and his creation. 

88 U B A N N UAL. 


Moreover, for this immortal existence the soul has a desire and aspira 
tion, which are the strongest and most characteristic of all its desires and 
aspirations. And so far from this being a mere abnormal and unnatural 
sentimentality, man is expressly provided with phrenological organs 
through which these desires and aspirations may be manifested to the 
external -world ; and it is especially worthy of remark, that the more 
fully, purely, and beautifully the character is developed, the more fully 
this aspiration is unfolded, and the more clear and undoubting becomes 
the faith in its object. Indeed, the normal and most essential food of the 
soul — the food on which it most thrives, and with which it deelopsits 
most Godlike traits, is the belief and contemplation of an immortal ex- 
istence ; and without this food it necessarily remains in a comparatively 
low, groveling, and brute-like state. Can it be possible that this law, by 
which supplies are made to answer constitutional demands, by which 
food is provided to gratify hunger, by which objects are created to satisfy 
aspirations, while applying universally elsewhere, rinds its only exception 
just here, which is the very place where above all others it ought not 
to fail ? 


Many phenomena of the soul's powers show that it is not a mere result 
of the physical organism, but that while acting through the latter as a 
medium, it is something distinct from and superior to it. Physiologists 
tell us that the whole material composition of the body changes once in 
about every seven years, so that at the end of that time net an atom re- 
mains in the organism that was in it at the beginning. The impressions 
of thoughts and experiences, however, have often lain dormant in the soul 
for forty years, and at the end of that time been revived with all the 
freshness of their original occurrence, although during the interval the 
body has totally changed its composition five or six times. Persons have 
frequently told us that while falling from high eminences, or undergoing 
the process of drowning, or otherwise in imminent danger of sudden 
death, they have experienced the instant re aval of the memories of even 
the minutest events that had occurred from their cradle upward, and with 
all the vividness of present reality. This phenomenon goes far to prove 
that each thought and experience of the soul is itself immortal, and 
if this is so. there is au end to all doubts respecting the preservation 
of the soul's identity, for the thoughts and experiences of each will, of 
coarse, forever distinguish it from others. 


We may add to this, that the phenomena of somnambulism and clair- 
voyance, in which the soul sees without physical eyes, hears without 
physical ears, and often perceives things and occurrences at vast dis- 
tances, afford another proof that the soul is an entity by itself, and is no' 
necessarily dependent upon the body for its action, though the latter is its 
ordinary instrument of communication with the outer world. What for- 


bi<Is tlie supposition, then, that the soul may dwell in a sphere entirely out- 
side of the body and the material world, and thus free from all materia' 
vicissitudes, changes, and decay ? 

The extreme probability that this is so, is reduced to a certainty by the 
numerous manifestations of souls after the death of the body, of which the 
records of all ages and nations furnish abundant testimony. Of facts 
of this kind we have no room for elaborate details at present ; suffice it to 
say that they are distinctly exemplified in the records of the New Testa- 
ment, especially in the appearance of Moses and Elias to Jesus on the 
Mount of Transfiguration, and in the appearance of one of the old 
prophets to St. John while on the isle of Patmos (Rev. xxii. 8, 9) ; and 
there are at this day thousands of intelligent men, not only in this coun- 
fcry, but in Europe, who, after the most careful and skeptical investiga- 
tion, are willing to testify that they have, beyond all doubt, communicated 
with spirits of the departed. Statements and proofs of these things can 
be given when required ; but for the present, assuming them as true, we 
ask, If the soul does thus survive the wreck of the body, what other vicis- 
situde may be imagined that would be adequate to destroy it? If it dies 
not with the body, we presume few will doubt that it lives forever. 

The Human Face and the Face of a "Watch. — As the face of a watch 
presents to the eye signs of the movements going on within, and ceases to 
tell the hour whenever those movements cease, so the "human face di- 
vine" is an index of internal emotions and loses all power to change its 
expression so soon as the vital powers are withdrawn. Behind the face 
of the watch is the machinery — which is the watch. Behind the human 
countenance are the complicated apparatuses of bones, muscles, and 
nerves which form the human machinery ; but behind this machinery 
there is what the watch has not, a controlling intelligence, which pre- 
cedes the living organism to which it gives rational activity. 

Physiognomy of the Sense of Taste. — That distinguished physician and 
author, Dr. Wm. Elder, maintains that by careful study and observation 
we may determine the flavor of anything that a person may be eating by 
means of the expression which is, as it were, telegraphed from the palate 
to the lips and other features — an acid giving one expression, a sweet an. 
other, and so on . We are not disposed to doubt this statement as the asser- 
tion of a human possibility. — New Physiognomy. 

Dissimulation. — " May I die if that person is not a cheat," said Titus, 
talking of the priest Tacitus ; " I perceived him, in the performance of his 
office, sob and cry three times when there was not anything to affect his 
feelings, and avert his countenance ten times to bide a smile when wretch- 
edness or villainy was mentioned." — De La Clwmbre. 

The Father's— An amiable young man's father addressed him 
at their parting interview — "The whole that I request c r you, my son, i«? 
to return to me with the same countenance." — Lavater. 




I HE features of Carlyle are a 
living embodiment of " Sartor 
Eesartus." Of the tempera- 
ments, the motive is predomi- 
nant, and the mental next. His 
long residence in the British 
metropolis has evidently failed 
to inoculate him with any one 
ingredient of character distinct- 
ively English. The canny Scot 
is everywhere conspicuous. His 
{/ head and face are peculiar in 
organization. There are ex- 
pressions of harshness and soft- 
ness, firmness and concession, 
indiscriminately mingled. Thv.' 
greatness of his intellect lies in 
his large perceptives — Individu- 
Thomas Carlyle. ality, Comparison, and Event- 

uality. Criticism and analysis would be his forte. There would be very 
few honeyed expressions ; very little of the spirit of compromise. This 
face says, My will — not thine — be done. Angular himself, he views sub- 
jects angularly, and he is nothing more nor less than the character he 
seems. Among over jubilant spirits, his presence would serve as a damper, 
while on the more sober and serious he might beget a feeling of hopeless 

Thomas Carlyle, an eminent essayist, was born at Middlebie, in Dum- 
frieshire, Scotland, in 1796, where his father was a farmer. He obtained 
his education at the University of Edinburgh, and afterward taught math- 
ematics for two years. He then devoted himself to literature, contributing 
articles of a critical character to the "Edinburgh Encyclopedia" and 
" London Magazine." The most celebrated of his writings is " Sartor Ee- 
sartus," a work at once profound, sprightly, rude, brilliant, and humor- 
ous. The " French Eevolution," published in 1837, is also considered a 
remarkable work. He has resided since 1830 chiefly at Chelsea, London 
He was recently elected President of the University of Edinburgh. 

Subordination of Clothes. — " Dress is always to be considered as sec- 
ondary to the person." This is a fundamental maxim in the art of cos- 
tume, but is often lost sight of, and dress made obtrusive at the expense of 
the individuality of the wearer. A man's vest or cravat must not seem 
too important a part of him ; and a woman should not be wholly lost in 
her crinoline. If you are not better and more beautiful than your clothes, 
you are, indeed, a man or a woman of straw. 

* " Uow to Behave ; a Manual of Republican Etiquette." [Price 75 cents.] 



Fig. 1.— Bust. 

■«iO master this simple yet com- 
plicated science one needs sin- 
cerity, observation, memory, 
and judgment. He wants 
enough of practical tal- 
ent to make him literal, 
and enough of sentiment 
to enable him to idealize 
his practical information. 
To be a good phrenolo- 
gist one needs to possess 
artistic taste or talent. 
He should learn what 
larmonious, wcll-propor- 
This image he should 
carry in his mind, and when a head is 
in any way distorted from the true 
model, he should be able by his artistic 
judgment to know in what respects 
and wherein it is deficient, and where- 
in it is excessive. He must be able 
to see the proper outline and to know by 
contrast what constitutes its peculiar- 


ity. Persons sometimes in manufacturing articles have a pattern 
will mold, model, ham- 
mer, or file the material, 
and occasionally lay on 
the true pattern. They can 
then see where it needs 
taking off, or where put- 
ting on. In like manner, 
one who is studying Phre- 
nology must carry in his 
mind the artistic, or right 
form of the head, and then 
instantaneously he will be 
able to estimate the eccen- 
tricities of the head which 
is under his hand or eye. 

The person should pos- 
sess a good phrenological 
bust. This is better than 
diagrams of the head, 
because it shows its ro- j?lg. 2.— Diagram. 

tundity, while an unshaded diagram projected on a fiat surface will not 
do this. Fig 2 is a good diagram of a head, and the organs are mapped 



out, showing their location and relative dimensions, or the room each oc- 
cupies on the head. Some heads will have a very much more retreating 
forehead than this ; others will he higher at the crown ; others, again, 
lower at the crown. Some 

will he short from the ears 
Dackward, showing small 
social organs. One head 
is hroad, another is nar- 
row ; one high and thin, 
another low and hroad. If 
heads were all drawn in 
outline on the same scale 
they could he compared 
one with another, as one 
diagram can be laid upon 
another ; hut the student 
must learn to carry the 
diagram in his mind — the 
pattern, the true outline. 
The accompanying skull 
(fig. 3) corresponds very Fig. 3.— The Human Skull. 

well with the diagram. It is hardly full enough, however, in the cen- 
ter of the forehead, not sufficiently rounded in the top-head ; hut it 
would pass for a pretty well-balanced skull. 

There are two or three kinds of foreheads ; one in which the observing 
or perceptive organs are large, making a prominent brow ; another, in 
which the upper part of the forehead, the reasoning intellect, is large, 
giving squareness and boldness to the forehead. Both of these con- 
ditions may exist in the same head ; then the forehead is full, round- 
ed, and complete in all its parts. The student should learn to under- 
stand these discriminations. Occasionally we find a forehead large at the 
top and small at the base, or large at the base and small at the top, and 
accordingly the forehead is square and overhanging, or full at the brow 
and retreating. 'Sometimes the perceptive organs push forward extremely, 
making the forehead seem retreating while the reflective organs are large. 
This was eminently true of Herschell. Dr. Wayland, and others. The 
student should observe as to the wideness of the head. Some heads are 
five inches wide ; others are six and a half inches wide above the ears. 
Some heads are narrow at the base and wide in the upper side-head, while 
others are broad at the bottom and taper up like a pyramid. The broad 
base gives severity, artfulness, appetite, etc. The upper side-head gives 
prudence, sentiment, invention, ambition. Sometimes the crown-head 
looms up. indicating ambition, pride, positiveness, and will-power. Some 
heads are high at Veneration and Benevolence, organs marked on the dia- 
gram 18 and 19, and they may be small at 13 and 14 — Self- Esteem and 
Firmness. In such cases they are gentle, amiable, sympathetical, respect- 
ful, and at the same time wanting in dignity and steadfastness. These 
developments and characteristics are often reversed. 


Students generally first aim to find the large and small organs, and they 
incline to become bumpologists, being guided solely by the surface, the 
undulations on the periphery of the head. They should begin at the 
ripening of the ear and calculate the distance upward, forward, and back- 
ward. They should also measure the width, study the length, and con- 
sider how much the head extends in every direction from the center of 
the brain — the medulla oblongata. This part may be ascertained or esti- 
mated by drawing an imaginary line through the head from ear to ear, 
and half way between the ears on this line this central part is situated. 
Then if the student calculates the distance in every direction from this 
point, he will estimate correctly the development of the brain in its differ- 
ent parts. Sometimes persons have all parts of the head well developed 
except the social ; then the head is short behind. Sometimes the social 
predominates and the intellect is apparently weak ; then the head is long 
behind and short in front. Sometimes the moral organs predominate ; 
then the head is high in the central and upper portion and small at the 
base. The student should observe and thus be able to decide whether the 
mind is predominantly intellectual, predominantly social, predominantly 
moral or animal. After becoming familiar with these general outlines 
of the head, then the study of the relative size of the particular organs 
will be in order. Those who can not avail themselves of practical teach- 
ing in a class by a competent phrenologist, should pursue the course we 
have mentioned, in acquiring a knowledge of the science ; but instruction 
in a class is far better, for a teacher can give a man in one hour more in- 
struction than an unaided pupil could get in a month of personal effort, 
and the oral teaching has this advantage, that the student then knows 
what to accept as true. In making his own observations he is in doubt 
whether his inferences are correct, and not having at hand a cabinet or 
museum of illustration to verify his judgment, it takes him a long time 
to prove the correctness of his observations. Those who contemplate 
teaching Phrenology should, if possible, avail themselves of thorough in- 
struction in addition to all the private study they can give to the subject. 
For twenty-five years we have been teaching classes annually ; but till 
within a year or two this teaching has been what might be called popular, 
rather than professional, more general than specific, more for the citiaen 
than for the practical phrenologist. 

Our annual course commences on the first Tuesday of Oct , each year. 
The lectures and demonstrations will be numerous, and illustrated by our 
large collection of skulls, busts, etc., and it is intended to make the in- 
struction very thorough and complete, so that persons, who having read 
the best text-books and from the bust learned the location of the organs, 
uhall thereafter be able to deliver lectures and delineate character cor 
rectly, and be prepared to teach the science on a sound and practical basis 
We will send— in a prepaid envelope, if properly addressed — a circular to 
all who may desire it, setting forth the particular subjects taught in this 
class, together with time, terms, and conditions. This circular will also 
name the proper text-books and their prices. Address the publishers at 
this office 



Sib Moses Montefioke. 


'THE Jew stands at the head of the Semitic sub-races. He has a largt 
1 head, a strong body, and a marked character. Everywhere and in all 
ages he is the same — the type of stability and permanence — the model of 
steadfastness. Unconquerably true to his racial proclivities and persistent 
in everything he undertakes, we may always know just what he will do 
under given circumstances. He is religious ; he is fond of trade ; he is 
thrifty ;- he is conscientious, in his way, but his ideas of right and wrong 
are based on the Law of Moses, and his justice does not always admit the 
modifying influences of mercy. He is apt to be prejudiced and bigoted, 
stern, exacting, stubborn, irascible, unrelenting, and secretive. 

"Careful investigation," Mr. Brace says, in his "Races of the Old 
World," "seems to show two physical types among the Jews : one dark, 
with black hair and eyes, and the well-known hooked nose ; another, with 
very regular profile and beautiful features, but blonde, with light hair and 
blue eyes This latter type is seen a great deal in the East, especially in 


Constantinople and Africa; even red hair being often met with. The 
blonde type is the one from which the traditional representations of the 
Siivioiu are made, and is not improba-bly very ancient among the Jews. 
The relation of the Jewish type to climate, of which so much is made by 
Prichard, does not seem to bear the test of closer investigation. (See Dr. 
Beddoc, Ethnol. Trans., London, 1861.°) A peculiar physiological fact 
in regard to this people should be noticed here, that they are able to lire 
and multiply in almost all latitudes. Their increase in Sweden is said to 
be greater than that of the Christian population ; in the towns of Algeiia, 
they are, according to Boudin, the only race able to maintain its numbers, 
and ' in Cochin China and Aden, the latter one of the hottest places in 
the world, they succeed in rearing children and in forming permanent 
communities.' " 

Our illustrative portrait represents one of the best specimens of the 
modern Israelite — an eminent merchant of London and one of the leading 
members of the Jewish community of Great Britain. An English paper 
thus speaks of him : " Sir Moses Montefiore, now in his seventy-ninth or 
eightieth year, has, by a long course of social usefulness and beneficence, 
done much to uphold and enhance the respectability of his people, who 
are justly esteemed as inferior to no other class in England in the virtues 
of private life, in their character for commercial integrity, and in their 
zeal for-the public welfare consistently with their belief in the future des- 
tinies of their own religion and race." 

Civilization and Beauty. — M. Alphonse Esquiros says : " One of the 
forms in which the improvement effected by civilization manifests itself is 
variety In the savage state, the females all resemble each other — that is, 
have the same form — while in a higher social condition, the shades of dif- 
ference are innumerable. The uniformity of the women in the state of 
nature, and their variety under the regime of civilization is due, in a great 
measure, to the fact that the physical laws act upon the first equally and 
universally, whereas upon the second, their own volitions and the influ- 
ence of man, in connection with their manner of living, constitute the 
source of illimitable differences As the regime of castes disappears, and 
human individuality is more and more clearly manifested, the counte- 
nance also becomes individualized.' 7 

" r fhc highest order of beauty, and especially of female beauty, is found only 
among civilized people. The savage may be muscular, lithe, erect in bearing, 
and even symmetrical in form, but he is always deficient in those elegant 
iktails of face and figure which are essential to physical perfection. The 
finishing touches of the Great Artist seem to have been withheld, f 

* It lias been claimed that the complexion and hair of the Jew vary according to 
climate, being blonde and light in the northern countries and dark in the southern ; 
but later researches show that the two types above described are found under all cli- 
mates. Climate modifies individuals and nations, but ethnological types are permanent 

t From •• Hints Toward Physical Perfection, or the Philosophy of Human Beauty.' 
By U. U. Jacques. Price, $1 00. 




HE Hottentot tribe 
once formed a nume- 
rous people ; but they 
have been nearly 
exterminated, liko 
the Indians of 
North America, by 
the more powerful 
Europeans, with 
whom they have 
been brought in 
contact. Those 
which remain have 
been driven into the 
forests and deserts, 
where their mis- 
erable descendants 
now subsist un- 
der the name of 
Saabs or Bushmen. 
They are thus de- 
scribed by the learn- 
ed missionary 
jrjg J Adolph Bonatz : 

"These people," he says, "are of small stature, and dirty yellow 
color ; their countenance is repulsive— a prominent forehead, small, 
deeply-seated, and roguish eyes, a much depressed nose, and thick pro- 
jecting lips are their characteristic features. Their constitution is so 
much injured by their dissolute habits and the constant smoking of durha, 
that both old and young look wrinkled and decrepit ; nevertheless, they 
are fond of ornament, and decorate their ears, arms, and legs with beads, 
iron, copper, or brass rings. The women also stain their faces red, or 
paint them wholly or in part. Their 

only clothing, by day or night, is 
a mantle of sheepskin thrown over 
their bodies, which they term a 
kaross. The dwelling of the Bush- 
man is a low hut, or a circular 
cavity, on the open plain, in which 
he creeps at night, with his wife 
and children, and which, though 
it shelters him from the wind, leaves 
him exposed to the rain." Fig. 2.— Skull of a Bushman. 

There are few skulls belonging to this race in either European or 
American museums. There are three in the Mortonian Collection. Phila 


delphia, all females ; but we have no description of them. Dr. Knox, 
who has seen the people in their native country, assures us that the face 
of the Hottentot resembles that of the Kalmuc, excepting in the greater 
thickness of the lips ; and he sets them down as a branch of the Mongo- 
lian race. The width of the orbits, their distance from each other, the 
large size of the occipital foramen, are points in which the Hottentots 
resemble the northern Asiatics, and even the Esquimaux. The annexed 
outline represents the cranium cf a Bushman, in which, however, the jaw 
projects more than in other skulls of the same race. 


(^ Nursing Troubles. — Some people are as careful of their troubles as 
mothers are of their babes ; they cuddle them, and rock them, and hug 
them, and cry over them, and fly into a passion with you if you try to 
take them away from them ; they want you to fret with them, and to 
help them believe that they have been worse treated than anybody else. 
If they could, they would have a picture of their grief in a gold frame 
hung over the mantle-shelf for everybody to look at. And their grief 
makes them really selfish ; they think more of their dear little grief in 
the basket and in the cradle than they do of all the world besides ; and 
they say you are hard-hearted if you say " Don't fret." " Ah ! you don't 
understand me — you don't know me — you can't enter into my trials !" 

The above is a mirror in which certain persons may see themselves 
reflected. As though others- had not trials! They lack Hope. They 
give way to foolish fear ; are cowardly, without faith and fortitude. 
They are poor things ; will not amount to much. Still, it is our duty to 
help get them out of the rut, and encourage them to throw off cares. 


Arranging all the various colored eyes in two grand classes — light and 
dark — we would say that the dark indicate power and the light delicacy. 
Dark eyes are tropical. They n»ay be sluggish. The forces they betoken 
may often be latent, but they are there, and may be called into action. 
Their fires may sleep, but they are like slumbering volcanoes Such eyes 
generally accompany a dark complexion, great toughness of body, much 
strength of character, a powerful but not a subtile intellect, and strong 
passions. Light eyes, on the other hand, belong mturally to temperate 
■/ogions, and they are temperate eyes. They may glow with love and 
genial warmth, but they never burn with a consuming flame, like the tor- 
rid black eyes. The acompanying complexion is generally fair and the 
hair light ; and persons ihus characterized are amiable in their disposition, 
refined in their tastes, highly susceptible of improvement, and arc men- 
tally active and versatile. When the complexion is dark and the eyes 
light, as is sometimes the case, there will be a combination of strength 
with delicacy. 

In this view of the case, of course the various shades of the light and 
dark eyes will indicate corresponding intermediate shades of character. 



Antoine Proust, the murderer of the Deering family, whose name 
excites a thrill of horror, was born in Germany aoout the year 1841, came 
to this country in May, 1863, 
and had scarcely set his foot 
on shore at Castle Garden be- 
fore he was induced by some 
substitute broker to enlist. 
He joined the Twelfth New 
York Cavalry. Military ser- 
vice, however, had no charms 
for him, except so far as pay ( 
and bounty were concerned ; 
he deserted five weeks after 
his enlistment, and made his 
way from Washington to Phil- 
adelphia. Here, not finding 
any employment to his liking, 
he enlisted again, this time 
in the Forty-first New York 
Regiment, and with it went 
to South Carolina. Nine 
months' service appears to 
have been sustained this time 
before he deserted again. His 
regiment having been ordered to Washington, he found opportunity to 
quietly leave it and return to Philadelphia. A third time he enlisted, 
and became a private in the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and served until 
his discharge in the spring of 1865. After that he seems to have done 
little or nothing besides lounging about, the money obtained by his 
treacherous military operations probably conducing to his idleness, until 
his employment by Mr. Deering. The details of that terrible butchery 
which had rendered Probst infamously notorious are too well known to re- 
quire reiteration, and in fact they are too revolting to be laid before our 
readers. The motive of the murderer was the obtaining possession 
of what money Mr. Deering was supposed to have at home. 

Phrenologically considered, the organization of Probst was coarse and 
low, both in respect to the mental and the physical structure. He was 
heavily built, with rather too much flesh, inclined to adipose. His head 
was quite small compared with his body, and the cranial development was 
altogether preponderant on the side of animality. Hence the intellectual 
manifestations were slow, dull, and vapid. If any force or sprightliness 
were exhibited, they were mainly in line of the sensual — eating, drinking, 
carousing — or in the rougher kinds of manual labor. The forehead was 
low — the whole moral region lacking in breadth and height, while the 
basilar organs of the side and back-head were generally large and predom- 
inating. The lerlectives were larger than the perceptives, and taken in 


combination with his dull temperament and large Firmness, Cautious- 
ness, Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness, and fair Constructiveness, served to 
render him a slow, reticent, cunning, designing person. If he had heen 
endowed with a well-developed top-head, the moral qualities exercising a 
restraining and regulating influence over his lower nature, there would 
have been a fair balance, but as it was, the organization was uneven and 
discordant. The religious feelings and the moral sentiments being weak, 
the physical and gross propensities were active and controlling. Hia 
niartial career showed him to be more cowardly than courageous — deficient 
in integrity and manliness— eager to get gain, and stolid as to the conse- 
quences of criiainality. That his moral perceptions were blunted is evi- 
dent from the fact that when the jury gave their verdict of guilty of murder 
in the first degree, he manifested the utmost indifference ; and subsequently 
when his death-warrant was read to him, he heard it with astonishing 


Persons desiring to form a society for debating, for establishing a library, 
or for the promotion of Temperance, Phrenology, or for any other object 
of mutual interest or improvement, will privately, or by public announce- 
ment, call a meeting for the purpose. A few leading minds frequently 
get all the preliminaries adjusted, a constitution, a set of rules, etc. ; but 
it is better to meet without any previous preparation in writing. 

The first business is the choice of a chairman, next a secretary. The 
chairman keeps order, entertains motions, puts questions to vote, and de- 
clares the result. 

The secretary should be a ready and rapid writer, for it is his duty to 
keep a complete record of all the doings — not of the speeches, but of the 
propositions and votes. 

A treasurer may or may not be needed at the preliminary meetings. 
If needed, he may be chosen. 

A committee, consisting vl an uneven number of persons, may be 
chosen to draft a constitution and by-laws for the government of the 
proposed association, to be reported at an adjourned meeting. The 
adjournment to a particular time continues the officers in their positions, 
and at the hour appointed the president or chairman takes the chair, calls 
the meeting to order, and the secretary reads the minutes of the previous 
meeting, which, if correct, are approved. The chairman thdn calls for a 
report of the committee. If they have completed their labors they read 
their report, and it may be adopted as a whole, or what is more generally 
and properly practiced, each article or proposition is acted on separately. 
These may be amended until their original material has been taken out 
and new matter put in its place. If the committee is prepared to report 
in part, they can do so, or they can report progress and ask leave to sit 
again, or they can report in part and ask to bo discharged. A constitu- 
tion always provides for its own amendment, which requires that all 


amendments shall be proposed in writing a certain time or number of 
meetings before the annual meeting, so that the subject may be consid- 
ered and opinions privately exchanged on the subjects to be discussed. 
The permanent officers are generally a president, one or more vice-presi- 
dents, a treasurer, a secretary, and an executive committee, if needed. A 
society should at once procure a well-bound book for its records, and it 
should be the pride and effort of the secretary to keep the records in a way 
not to disgrace him in mature and ripened age. After the society has 
been a year in existence it will have learned its original mistakes and its 
wants, and thereby know what amendments to their constitution and 
by-laws are needed. 

In debate, each member should lay aside boyish trifling, and be as dig- 
nified as good manners and a respectful and kindly spirit can make him. 
In debate, one should never descend to personalities, and never show 
anger. If all will observe this rule, the president will have little else to 
do but to conduct the parliamentary forms usual in such cases. 

Those who would become good parliamentarians will obtain " Jeffer- 
son's Manual ;" and they would find the form of a constitution for a 
debating society in " How to Talk."* 

Matrimonial Mistakes. — While all men and women, not mentally or 
physically deficient to the extent of deformity or partial idiocy, may be said 
to be " born to love and be beloved," there are wide differences in the de 
gree and form in which love manifests itself ; and in seeking its fruition in 
marriage, it is of the highest importance that these differences be taken 
into account and harmonized. Much — everything almost — depends upon 
adaptation. We often see couples united in marriage where both parties 
are amiable, and in some degree affectionate, who nevertheless only 
make each other miserable. Each is capable of loving and making an- ^ 
other being happy, but that other does not happen to be the one to 
which he or she is bound. They are affectionally mis-mated. They do 
not appreciate or understand each other. Heart does not respond to 

In all such cases a mistake has been made — a terrible, irremediable mis- 
take — a mistake which a thorough knowledge of Physiology, Phrenology, 
and Physiognomy would have rendered impossible. f 

Dimples. — The dimple is formed by the muscles which are inserted in 
the angle of the mouth acting on the plump integument of infancy and 
youth. It indicates simple and passive pleasure, like that experienced by 
the little child. The same muscular movement relaxes the lips. 

* Hand-Book for Home Improvement; comprising " How to Write," " How tc 
Talk," "How to Behave," and "How to Do Business," ir one large volume, $2 25. 

t Sec "New Physiognomy," Chap. iXIX. ("Love Signs"), for a full exposition 
or iMb important subject, rprice $5.1 



AS mind fashions mind and directs the physical organization, deter- 
mining the shape of the head, the contours of the hody, the expression 
of the countenance, the tones and modulations of the voice, the man- 
ner of walking, the mode of shaking hands, the gestures — in short, the ap- 
pearance and movements of the individual generally, including the shape of 
the fingers and their motions in forming the characters used in writing, it 
follows that the latter must differ in the handwriting of different persons, 
and be insome mannerand degree signs of character. But while this general 
proposition simply embodies in a peculiar form the great law of the corre- 
spondence between the internal and the external — between character and 
action- -which everybody practically admits, we must bear in mind that 
every general rule, however, has its exceptions— or, more correctly, there 
are minor laws which modify the action of all general laws, in some cases 
practically nullifying them. These minor laws or modifying conditions 
must be understood and taken into account, or the observer will be liable 
to fall into many errors. The admission that there are indications of 
character in chirography does not involve a claim to be able in all cases to 
discover and read them ; and the physiognomist who should set up such 
a claim, in the present state of our knowledge on this subject, would soon 
find himself involved in inextricable difficulties. 

There are as many styles of handwriting as there are styles of composi- 
tion or of delivery in speaking- as many as there are individuals, in fact, 
as no two persons write exactly alike. We may, for the sake of conve- 
nience, however, arrange them all in a few well-defined classes. 


One, like the late lamented President Lincoln, writes in a plain, leg- 
ible hand, which, though it may not always present tho qualities of good 
writing, is nevertheless traced by a sure, calm, and careful hand, so that 
he who writes thus cares more for clearness than for embellishment. It 
denotes reflective intellect, a firm will, 
prudence, and a serious., steadfast disposi- 
tion. We should look to the writer of 

such a hand for well-directed and profita- 
Fig. 1. . 

ble la.bor in any sphere in which he might 

be placed. He would live for usefulness rather than for show, and if not 
brilliant or original, will be likely to benefit the world quite as much at 
many a more aspiring and highly gifted, but less industrious and pains- 
taking person. 


The opposite of the foregoing is the ornate, a style written with ex 
oessive strokes and superfluous ornaments. In teachers of penmanship, 
and to show what training can do in the cultivation of free and graceful 
movements, this is well enough. Such writing, when not professional 01 
a mere matter of education or imitation, denotes a full developmeni 



of Cbnstruetiveness, Form, and Ideality, with less reflective intellect, 

and a light-hearted, 
buoyant, enterprising, 
and adventurous dispo- 
sition, with more en- 
ergy than perseverance, 
and more hopefulness 
Fig. 2. than foresight. 


Large Constructiveness, Form, and Order, with a good degree of Ideality, 
and a calm, cool, equable temper are favorable to the formation of this 
/I . C^y^ C~y "~ y . style of handwriting ; and in a person 

^ y j/f //^rttji^sfi'/i^/^ — } habitually making use of it, we should 
^__/ look for good sense, industry, self- 

Pig. 3. control, taste, neatness, and a mild, 

patient, even disposition, with little imagination or originality, and mod- 
erate executiveness. We shall seek in vain for perfect examples of this 
style among really great men. The closest approach to this style among 
the hundreds of autographs before us is in that of the author of " Prover- 
bial Philosophy," and here, as usual, "style is the man." 


In contrast with the signature of Mr. Tupper we may place that of 
George Washington, which illustrates the large and bold style of which 


Fig. 4. 

the noted autograph of John Hancock on the Declaration of Independence 
is a still more striking example. This style is generally, but not always 
regular, and legible as well as strong. It indicates a mind more manly, 
broad, and strong than delicate or penetrating ; a spirit firm, resolute, 
and determined, taking hold, without hesitation and without calculation, 
and forming many resolutions which are frequently more rash than wise ; 
an independent, daring, courageous, but benevolent, philanthropic, and 
generous disposition ; free without ostentation in prosperity, and patient, 
spirited, and inflexible in adversity. A person thus characterized is capa- 
ble of undertaking very difficult, severe, and dangerous enterprises, 
seldom lacking the necessary power and will to execute them, if there be 
sufficient talent or genius for their conception 


In this style the letters are badly shaped, lack completeness, and mani- 
fest general disorder. The lines are usually as irregular as the letters and 


i^cKZ C ^j L X^. 

words, being jumbled together, and seldom keeping the proper horizontal 
direction. We 
infer from it 
a lack of Con- 
st rue tiveness 
and Order, and 
q want of har- Fig. 5. 

mony in the action of the various faculties. There must be either ab- 
straction and inattention, or indecision and unsteadiness, and perhaps all 
of them. There may be talent and energy, but we should expect much 
ill-directed effort. Mr. Greeley's handwriting combines with many of 
the characteristics of this style some also which belong to the Angular 
and Pointed. 


The characters in this style seem to be formed, as it were, by sudden 
jerks, and possess more force than grace. It may be more or less regular 
and beautiful, depending for these qualities upon the greater or less de- 

Pig, fi. 
velopmcnt of Constructiveness, Order, and Ideality, but it always has 
definiteness and directness. It indicates talent and energy. The writer 
may be rough and uncultivated, but he will be found to have great mental 
vigor and originality, and a strong will. He is likely to be impatient of 
restraint, independent, self-reliant, courageous, and steadfast. 

The signature of General Andrew Jackson is strong and bold as well as 
angular, and on every stroke may be traced his indomitable will and 
directness of purpose. 


In this style the letters appear to have been commenced with hesita- 
tion, as if there were doubts in the writer's mind of his ability, through a 
lack of strength or of resolution, to completi them. It seems to indicate 
weakness either of body or of mind. The , -, * 

writer of such a hand except in cases it 0^^ ^M^tyyjJ 
which it is the- result of old age, disease, or, "^ "'" 

^s in the case of our example (Tom Thumb), Flg ' '• 

a dwarfed body, will be found to have large Cautiousness combined with 
small Hope and little Executiveness. He will be easily disconcerted and 
discouraged if hindered in the performance of anything, and even fearful 
hi doing that which it has the power to begin. 


In this kind of writing the words seem to be thrown upon the paper 
with so much hastiness that the letters are scarcely formed, and indicate 
an intellect generally well developed, sometimes even illuminated 1." 


genius, but in every case under the control of a lively and fertile imagina- 
tion. The spirit is turbulent, carried away by the force of an inspiration, 
often too exuberant, while the hand, striving to keep pace with the 
thought, finds itself incapable of expressing the ideas and sentiments with 

Fig. 8. 
corresponding rapidity. The character is often lively, impatient, ambi- 
tious, violent, incapable of bearing contradiction, and hot in controversy, 
and in matters of affection, devotion, charity, and philanthropy it ex- 
hibits a like fervor and enthusiasm. It is hardly to be expected that the 
reader will be able to decipher our illustrative example (fig. 8). It is the 
autograph of Caleb Lyons, of Lyonsdale. 


We claim nothing like absolute correctness on every point for the fore- 
going remarks on the indications of the various kinds of handwriting. 
We believe that they will be found in the main theoretically sound — in 
other words, that supposing a person to trace his letters and words freely, 
untrammeled by educational bias and uncontrolled by a too active organ 
of Imitation, he will express something of his character in them, and 
that its indications are as we have stated them. It does not follow that 
we (and much less the inexperienced reader) can tell every man's charac- 
ter by inspecting his handwriting. There are many incidental condi- 
tions, modifying these general rules, which must always be taken into 
account. For a statement of these, together with further examples and 
an account of the ancient system of Palmistry, see " New Physiognomy." 

How We Change, and Why. — It must be evident that whatever has 
power to change the shape of the head and the permanent expression 
of the face may be capable of modifying, in the same degree, the temper- 
ament, and consequently the contours of the body. The cultivation and 
continual activity of tho intellectual faculties have a tendency to diminish 
the action of the motive and vital systems, and while they impart ex- 
pression and refinement to the features, render the body more delicate and, 
within the limits of physical health, more beautiful. Or let a well-edu- 
cated person of an intellectual organization be deprived of his books and 
intellectual companionship, thrown into the society of coarse, uneducated 
people ; subjected to rude labor or exercise, to the almost entire exclusion 
of consecutive thinking ; and made to adopt the gross diet which usually 
accompanies the other conditions we have named, and mark the result. 
Another set of faculties are now brought into action. The base of the 
brain expands ; the lower features grow broader, the neck thicker, the 
eyes duller, the mouth coarser, and the face, as a whole, rounder and less 
expressive. The whole frame shares in the degeneracy. The muscles be- 
come thicker, the joints larger, the limbs less graceful, and the body 
Btouter and grosser. If. further, the privation of accustomed mental stim- 
uli shall lead, as it likely is to do, to the undue gratification of alimentive- 
ness, by means of intemperate eating and drinking, an additional measure 
of grossness both of face and form will be the result. — Physical Perfection. 


In general society, nothing shows good breeding, or the want of it, more 
than the manner one receives or dismisses friends, or passes the ordeal 
of introducing persons who are strangers, or being so introduced. In pub- 
lic life the same may be said respecting the conduct of public meetings. 

We happened, a few years ago, to attend the annual meeting of the 
alumni of an academic institution, when one of the members was called 
to the chair ; but he did not know the duties of the position, and every- 
body present pitied him ; and we learn that he has since said he would 
never again accept such a post ; yet the duties were very simple ; he had 
seen them well performed many times, but had not so learned them that 
he could in the embarrassment incident to bashfulness remember those 
duties and properly put them in practice. Every young man should 
observe the usual forms of conducting public meetings, so that if called 
on to preside or otherwise to take a prominent part in them, he may not 
be unprepared. Let us suppose a public meeting to be assembled. Some 
one who had to do with calling the meeting either rises himself or pri- 
vately invites some one else to do so, calls the meeting to order, and 
perhaps reads the call or briefly states the object of the meeting, and 
nominates a person to act as temporary or permanent chairman, and asks 
the audience to vote upon the nomination. This is put in this manner : 
"All who are in favor of the election of Mr. A. B. as chairman of this 
meeting, will please say Aye. Those opposed. No. The Ayes have it. He 
is chosen. Mr. A. B. will please come forward and take the chair." Or 
the voting may be done by holding up the right hand. If the meeting is 
one of ;*reat importanee, and the result of much preparation, some gentle- 
men a; 3 invited to conduct the president to the chair. If he be a man 
fond o' - speaking, or if the occasion warrant it, the chosen chairman 
makes i short, clear, strong speech, setting forth the purposes of the 
meetinf, and urging prompt and efficient action. Such a cbairman is a 
man of mark and influence generally, and his views, prepared Deforehand, 
are Buy^iosed to embody the best public sentiment on the subject to be 
acted r o. His speech gives tone to the meeting, and if he is cordially re- 
ceive 1 and his speech warmly applauded, half the work is done. He then 
calls for the nomination of a secretary, who is chosen ; also a treasurer, 
if any funds are to be raised and used, and as many vice-presidents as 
may be desired — for instance, one from each county or ward, or, as is gen- 
erally the case, a long array of respectable names, sometimes fifty, with a 
view to enlist the men in the cause by tLe compliment, and also to give 
to the doings of the meeting strength and respectability. The officers 
being chosen, the chairman calls for business. Somebody, of course, has 
business cut and dried ; or if it be an impromptu assemblage, somebody is 
full enough of the subject to bring forward propositions or offer resolu- 
tions, and on these the discussion commences. The duty of the chairman 
is to maintain order ; to allow but one person to have the floor at a time, 
and to put all proper motions in the order in which they are proposed, and 
declare the result. It is the duty of speakers to address the Chair — tooonv 


raenje by saying, " Mr. Chairman," or " Mr. President." The chairman, 
on recognizing the speaker, calls his name, and he has the floor. He then 
proceeds with his speech, avoiding personalities, always addressing the 
chairman, not other persons in the audience. If one wishes to interrupt, 
he rises and says, "I rise to a point of order" or of " privilege." The 
speaker will st ,p and wait for the chairman to decide the matter. The 
chairman sometimes asks the speaker if he will give way for a question or 
an explanation. If he consent, the person interrupting explains to the 
chairman his point, or says, "I desire to ask the gentleman" so and so, 
and takes his seat. The man who has the floor replies to the question or 
objection, or declines to be, at that time, thrown from the line of his 
argument, and perhaps promises to reply to the point raised before he 
concludes. So soon as he resumes his seat, those who wish to get the floor, 
to follow in the same strain, or controvert or oppose, call out, " Mr. Chair- 
man," or " Mr. President," or (in a legislative assembly') " Mr. Speaker!" 
The presiding officer professes to hear the first one up. and assigns the 
floor to him by repeating his name or saying, "The gentleman from 
Iowa," or "The senator from Massachusetts," or if in a State Legis- 
lature, " The senator from the fourteenth district." 

When no further discussion is offered, the chairman says, " Gentlemen, 
are you ready for the question ?" He then states the question clearly, or 
reads the resolution, or has it read by the secretary, when he puts the 
question. If it be carried, he says, " The Ayes appear to have it." If it 
De not questioned, he then says, " The Ayes have it." If questioned, the 
Chair calls for another vote. If this be disputed, he orders a division 
of the house, and the Ayes are invited to rise and stand till counted ; then 
the Nays, which decides the matter. A motion may be made, and if it 
be seconded it is before the house, and must be disposed of unless with- 
drawn by the mover by general consent. Amendments may be offered, 
and amendments to amendments, and these must be acted on separately ; 
and when all the amendments are disposed of, the question recurs on the 
main proposition, which may fall, though all the amendments were passed. 
A motion to adjourn takes precedence of anything else except a speech 
being made. If one who is speaking gives way for a motion to adjourn, 
he has the floor, when the meeting reassembles, and holds it so long as he 
speaks in order. If out of order, he may be required to return to order 
or to sit down. 




ELIZA COOK, well known 
as a metrical and prose 
writer, author of "The 
Old Arm-Chair," was horn 
in London ahout the year 
1818. At the age of fifteen 
she lost her mother, a wom- 
an of culture and refinement, 
much above her social con- 
dition. Her own disposition 
and tastes being of an ele- 
vated character, she there 
after found little in her 
domestic associations in sym- 
pathy with those feelings. 
Actuated by the desire to 
emancipate herself from the 
uncongenial circumstances by which she was surrounded, she attempted 
the expression of her feelings in poetry, and was successful, meeting with 
a cordial reception. Subsequently she became the editress of " Eliza 
Cook's Journal," a weekly publication, and achieved fortune and reputa- 
tion with her vigorous pen. She now contributes both in prose and verse 
to several British periodicals. 

In Eliza Cook we have a happy illustration of a full vital temperament 
associated with authorship, which is quite in contravention of the gen- 
erally received idea of "spare and lean writers." She is, however, truly 
English. The head is evidently much larger than the average of woman, 
especially in the regions of Ideality, Sublimity, and Mirthfulness. She 
should be known for imagination and sprightliness conjoined with a 
strong vein of the mirthful and humorous. The emotional and reflec- 
tive organs predominate over the perceptive and merely passioual ; still, 
the base-of-brain is large enough to render her hold on life and society 
tenacious. Hope is also strong, which renders life attractive in its many 
phases. Buoyancy, elasticity, and exhilaration should be characteristics 
of her disposition, and impart their inspiration to her pen. That is a 
jovial, jolly, happy face, almost rollicking. Good-humor and good health 
are clearly expressed in this full-formed English woman. 

Beauty, or, rather, perfection of form, is the harmony of devdcypment pro 
duced by the hidden operations of that incomprehensible agent of Life 
which men denominate the vital power. There is that, even in mere 
physical beaut}', which exercises an irresistible sway over the hearts and 
minds of men. The mighty and proud bow down before its influence ; it« 
charms are alike powerful for good and evil ; and it is symbolical of that 
purity which we conceive of as pertaining to the angels — a thing of joy, 
the blessing of God. — Notes on Beaut//, Vigor, and Development. 




James Martixeau, an English Unitarian clergyman and author of good 
repute, was born in Norwich, England, in 1805. Aiming at the ministry, 
he studied for that purpose in the Unitarian College at York, and subse- 
quently wae settled in Dublin and in Liverpool. In 1853 he was called to 

the chair of moral and met- 
aphysical philosophy in Man- 
chester New College, Lon- 
don, and in 1858 to the joint 
pastorate with Rev. John J. 
Taylor, of the Unitarian 
church in Little Portland 
Street. He is the leading 
representative of Unitari- 
anism in England, and is 
said to he a most acute 
thinker. He has published 
several volumes of lectures 
and sermons, some of which 
have been republished in 
America, He is a brother 
of the well-known English 
authoress Harriet Martineau. 
Calm aud dispassionate, clear and acute in perception, and critical in 
taste and judgment, Mr. Martineau is an excellent specimen of the English 
essayist. He is not lacking in decision or dignity, either of manner or ex- 
pression. The fullness of the eye-sac evinces lingual talent and facility in 
the expression of thought. His mental susceptibility is certainly much 
above the average — see how very large the perceptive faculties ! — while the 
feelings are not less strongly marked. The prominent nose and chin dis- 
play a nature far from weakness or indifferent to the enjoyments of social 
and domestic life, and the whole expression and constitution show ner- 
vous life and a keen appreciation of whatever circumstances may impress 
upon the mind or heart. There are powerful under-currents here. 

Average of Children. — Two children a-piece is the average of mortal 
mothers at the present moment — so says the great authority Dr. Farr, in 
the English Pall Mall Gazette, adding also that there are, in England and 
Wales alone, more than one million of childless families. (A-lass the un 
matriculated milk ! " for," says the aforesaid Gazette, "it is growing daily 
more difficult to become a wife [in England], and curiously daily more dif- 
ficult to become a mother!") But it is recorded as an unaccountable 
statistic, by the scientific journals, that eggs, of any and every kind, do not 
hatch well near railroads much used. [Which, being interpreted, means, 
that mental excitement, high-living, fashionable dissipation, etc., are at 
unfavorable to maternity as they are to health and long life.] 




Edward B. Pdset. D.D., was bom in England in the year 1809. Being 
intended for the Church, he was educated at Christ Church and Oriel Col- 
leges, Oxford, and in 1823 was ordained in the Episcopal Church He is dis- 
tinguished as a writer on doctrinal subjects, but especially for h.s advocacy 
and leadership in the movement for 
the union of the Roman Catholic and 
Episcopal Churches, which was in- 
augurated by him in conjunction 
with Dr. Newman in 1833. The fol- 
lowers of his doctrines of faith and 
practice in religious matters are 
known as " Puseyites," of whom there 
are now a large number in England. 
The most prominent work from the 
pen of Dr. Pusey, the subject of 
thirty years' careful consideration, is 
"A Commentary on the Minor 
Prophets," which is yet incomplete. 
This is a superior mental tempera- 
ment ; indeed, it is one of the 
finest Acuteness of mental per- 
ception and talent for minute logical discrimination must be credited 
to the owner of such an organization. The head is remarkably high 
and long on top ; the moral organs are all very large, especially 
Benevolence, Veneration, Spirituality, and Conscientiousness. Self-Es- 
teem and Firmness are not wanting, but serve to render more active 
and unswerving the operations of the former, while the base of the brain 
is small. See how narrow between the ears, and how short the head back 
of the ears ! The expression of the face is altogether one of profound 
meekness and humility, with a vein of asceticism. The social region, how- 
ever, is not very strongly marked, and is entirely subordinate to the 
spiritual and intellectual. Gentleness and cordiality would be shown to 
all, the spirit of the religious predominating over mere ties of blood and 
kinship. With this portrait before us we can not wonder at the religious 
tendencies of the original, but can see very plainly the spectacles — phre- 
nological organs — through which he looks at subjects. Would he not 
" split hairs?" Celibacy would be no great cross to such a mind. It will 
be a long time before mankind will come to resemble, very closely, one 
so exquisite and so exalted. It is a singularly-formed head. 

Blushing.— The sudden flushing of the face in blushing belongs to ex- 
pression, and is a sign of sensihiliUj. "This suffusion," Sir Charles Be'u 
says, "serves no purpose in the economy, while we must acknowledge 
the interest which it excites as an indication of mind. It adds perfection 
to the features of beauty. In this respect the fair races have an advantage 
over the dark ones. A blush can not be seen in the African or the Indian 



James Anthony Froude, an English historian, was born in Totuess, 
Devonshire, in 1818. He pursued a course of collegiate training in Oriel 
College, Oxford, and then studied for the Church ; was ordained a deacon 
in 1845, but soon afterward abandoned theology for literature His 

' ' HiAory of England, ' ' so far as 
published, is distinguished for the 
boldness and originality of the 
author's views on important events, 
especially for his attempted vindi- 
cation of Henry VIII. Besides this 
history he has written on various 
subjects, mainly for the leading 
periodicals of England. He occu- 
pies the foremost position among 
British historical writers of the 
present day. The expression is not 
unlike that of the philosophical 
Herbert Spencer. There is, how- 
ever, more of the practical and mat- 
ter-of-fact in this mental make-up. 
The direct look and the close lips indicate purpose. If he be opinionated, 
his whole physiognomy warrants our inference of that purport. He would 
be known, as a writer, for boldness and clearness of statement and for orig- 
inality of conception. Caution and Secretiveness are not sufficiently 
potential to render him very guarded, though correct in the choice of ex- 
pression : while Self-Esteem, Combativeness, and Destructiveness are strong 
enough to render him earnest and outspoken and disinclined to evade. 
This is an almost purely mental temperament, and the organization is 
every way adapted to the subject's chosen pursuit — literature. 

Dissimulation. — " May I die if that person is not a cheat," said Titus, 
talking of the priest Tacitus ; " I perceived him, in the performance of 
his office, sob and cry three times when there was not anything to affect 
his feelings, and avert his countenance ten times to hide a smile win in 
wretchedness or villainy was mentioned." 

Insanity. — Insanity is declared by medical writers to be a disease of 
nigh civilization. Nations who are most civilized and enlightened are 
more apt to be afflicted with it than those who make little or no mental 
exertion. It is very rare among the Africans or Indians, because they do 
not exert the mind to any marked degree. Dr. Livingstone states that 
up ouiv found one or two instances of it among the tribes that he visited. 




Louis Adolpiie Thiers, the distinguished French statesman and liisto 
rian, was born in Marseilles, April 16, 1797. He was the son of a poor 
•workman, but discovering considerable talent, was enabled through some 
influential relations to obtain a thorough education. He studied law at 
Aix, but did not follow that 
profession, preferring the 
ptudy of history and philoso- 
phy. At the age of twenty- 
four he became known as a 
first-class journalist, contrib- 
uting extensively to the lead- 
ing newspapers and periodi- 
cals of the day. The history 
of the French Revolution, 
undertaken i n connection 
with Felix Bodin, was com- 
pleted by him alone in 1827, 
and attained great popular- 
ity. Previous to the acces- 
sion of Louis Napoleon, Thiers 
occupied important posts in 
the government — at one time the premiership of France, and exercised a 
widespread political influence. After Napoleon III. was proclaimed em- 
peror, Thiers withdrew from active politics and resumed his literary pur- 
suits, which he still industriously prosecutes. 

Thiers possesses a head much above the average size ; indeed, it is very 
large for a Frenchman, and being broad and high, gives him character for 
energy, executiveness, and moral inflexibility. There is more of the Saxon 
than of the Celt here, so far as the general appearance is concerned. 
See how snug, compact, and solid the organization ! There is solid mate- 
rial here. He should be known for that spirit of decision which can best 
be defined as sturdy positiveness. The sprightliness and versatility of the 
true Frank do not enter very largely into his composition. Large Con- 
structiveness, Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness, and Caution combine to make 
him politic, shrewd, guarded, and economical. The forehead is ample, 
manifesting ability as a reasoner, and breadth of mind sufficient to com- 
prehend large interests. He would rarely lose his own individuality or 
compromise his special views ; in fact, as already hinted above, the ten- 
dency is toward distant dignity, if not dogmatism. He would " have his 
own way," at any cost, and be usually in the right. 

Cultivate the physical exclusively, and you have an athlete or a sav- 
age ; the moral only, and you have an enthusiast or a miniac ; the intel- 
lectual only, and you have a diseased oddity — it may be a monster. It is 
only by training all together — physical, intellectual, social, and spiritual — 
thnt the complete man can be formed. — Illustrated Phrenological Jovnal. 




John Ruskin, distinguished as a writer on esthetics, was born in 
London, in February, 1819. He was graduated from Christ Church Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1842, and immediately thereafter devoted himself to the 
study of Art. His own productions as a painter are not remarkable ; 

but as an Art critic and an elab- 
orate writer on painting aud 
architecture he ranks foremost 
He has written considerably on 
other subjects with marked suc- 
cess. He is still engaged in the 
study of Art, and gives much of 
his time, in a friendly way, to 
instructing others in its various 

This portrait exhibits an ex- 
cellent temperamental balance, 
and an organization of a supe- 
rior type. Softness and mellow- 
ness of soul are eminently his, 
combined with an acute sensibil- 
The earnest eyes show depth of feel- 
ing and facility in the expression of sentiment. Perception is more mark- 
ed than reflection. The organs of Form, Size, Weight, and Individuality 
are especially large and influential, greatly aiding their owner in the pros- 
ecution of his chosen profession, that of Art criticism. The full lips and 
ample chin indicate a warmly social disposition, and the whole expression 
is that of conscious joyousness and serene happiness. He could hardly be 
severe or persistently stern. Good health, an elevating vocation, and a 
steady flow of genial feeling, in all probability, render his life one of spir- 
itual sunshine and exhilaration. If plain-looking, he has a.n exquisite 
sense of the beautiful and the perfect. There is nothing coarse or gross 
in this organization. Hair, skin, bone, nerve, and fiber are all of the 
finest texture, and his mind is in keeping with the brain-material through 
which it acts Ruskin is original, and is open, frank, and free. 

ity to the esthetical and emotional. 

A Singular Bequest.- — Doctor W. Byrd Powell, who died in Coving- 
ton, Kentucky, a few months ago, bequeathed his head to F. H. Kinzie, 
of Cincinnati, to be used for scientific purposes ; in accordance with this, 
a surgeon cut off the Doctor's head, and it is now in the possession of 
that person. — Exchange. 

Dr. Spurzheirn wilh,d his head to a phrenological society. Dr. Warren, 
of Boston, gave his body to the Medical College, of which he was presi- 
dent so many years. If it be right for one, why not for another? The 
only objection we can see is the fact, that it is not according to custom. 
Some burn, some embalm, and others bury, the dead. 



REV. CHARLES KINGSLEY. Kingsley, a clergyman, novelist, and poet, was born in Ho] ne, 

Devonshire, England, June 17th, 1819. His education was superior ; at 
the University in Cambridge he exhibited unusual intellectual ability. 
After a few months' study of the law he entered the Church. His minis- 
try has been characterized mainly 
by earnest efforts in introducing 
Christianity into the every- day life 
of the people, especially the work- 
ing classes. He belongs actively to 
that movement fostered by that 
portion of the established church 
in England called the " Broad 
Church Party." He is known 
widely as an author, having pub- 
lished a large number of books 
consisting of sermons, novels, 
poems, essays, etc., which are es- 
pecially distinguished by their 
humanitarian spirit. 

The mental temperament much 
in excess and an organization of 
the finest temper conspire to make 
Charles Kingsley one of the most brilliant of authors. His intellectual 
faculties appear to be on the strain ; the countenance wears an expression 
of such great sensibility and intense susceptibility that it is almost painful. 
How wide the head at the top ! How large in Ideality, Mirthfulness, and 
Constructiveness ! Comparison is also greatly developed, and the organs 
of the top-head generally are large, especially Benevolence. Approbative- 
ness, Firmness, and Caution are influential, and have their physiognomical 
marks well indicated. Language is large, and with a temperament so 
free and susceptible, an imagination so creative, he should be fluent as a 
speaker and copious as a writer. There is kindness, justice, hope, faith, 
and devotion, combined with an enlightened intellect, which mvst make 
itself known and felt. We would admonish this great mind to " slow up" 
and " cool off," lest at an unlooked-for moment it suddenly succumb to 
the abnormal strain and break down irreparably. 

Memory. — The great philosopher Dr. Watts, treating of " Memory," in 
his celebrated work on the " Improvement of the Mind," has the follow- 
ing passuge which is strongly like the reasonings of Phrenology : " It is 
most probable that those very filters, pores, or traces of the brain which assist 
at the first idea or perception of any object, are the same which assist also 
at the recollection of it ; and then it will follow that the memory has no 
special part of the brain devoted to its own service, but uses all <hof« 
parts in general wbiah subserve our sensation as well as our thinking and 
reasoning powers." 



THE following Charter was obtained from the legislature of the State of 
-*- Now York at its session of 1866. We regard it as the legal foundation of 
an institution that shall last in its beneficent influences, if not in its name, 
for a thousand generations. The thought is really inspiring, that one is able 
to begin a work that shall never stop ; can set in motion agencies whoso 
effects shall augment in goodness and grandeur as the ages roll onward. 
It should be so ; it is so with every good work. In an organized associa- 
tion based on truth, with man for its subject of study, who can measure 
the extent of its power to bless mankind, who appieciatelhe might of its 
mission ? Now we are prepared to begin the work of consolidating our life- 
labor into an institution which shall not become, like man ; weak with age. 

An Act to incorporate the American Crantological Museum. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do 
enact as follows : 

Section I. — Amos Dean, Esq., Horace Greeley, Samuel Osgood, D.D., A. Oakey Hall, 
Esq., Kussel T. Trail, M.D., Henry Dexter, Samuel R. Wells, Edward P. Fowler, M.D., 
Nelson Sizer, Lester A. Roberts, and their associates, are hereby constituted a body 
corporate by the name of the American Craniological Museum, for the purpose of 
promoting instruction in all departments of learning connected therewith; and for 
collecting and preserving Crania, Casts, Busts, and other representations of the differ 
ent Races, Tribes, and Families of men. 

Section II. — The said Corporation may hold real and personal estate to the amount 
of One Hundred Thousand Dollars ; and the funds and properties thereof shall not be 
used for any other purposes than those declared in the first Section of this Act. 

Section III.— The said Henry Dexter, Samuel R. Wells, Edward P. Fowler, M.D., 
Nelson Sizer, and Lester A. Roberts are hereby appointed Trustees of said incorpo- 
ration, with power to fill vacancies in the Board. No less than three Trustees shali 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 

Section IV. — It shall be lawful for the Board of Trustees to appoint Lecturers, and 
such other instructors as they may deem necessary and advisable, subject to removal 
when found expedient and necessary, by a vote of two thirds of the members consti- 
tuting said Board. But no such appointment shall be made until the applicant shall 
have passed a satisfactory personal examination before the Board. 

Section V. — The Society shall keep for free public exhibition at all proper times 
such collection of Skulls, Busts, Casts, Paintings, and other things connected there- 
with, as they may obtain. They shall give, by a competent person or persons, a 
course of not less than six free lectures in each and every year; and shall have an- 
nually a class for instruction in Practical Phrenology, to which shall be admitted, 
gratuitously, at least one student from each public school in the city of New York. 

Section VI. — The Corporation shall possess the powers and be subject to the provi- 
sions of Chapter Eighteen of Part One of the Revised Statutes, so far as applicable. 

Section VII— This Act shall take effect immediately. 

Our annual private class in practical Phrenology, especially for those 
desiring to follow the science as a profession will commence on the first 
Tuesday of Oct., each year. Circulars will be sent on application. 

Action — Exercise. — We can not stretch out an arm or a foot, or walk, 
or run, or leap, without freshening the life-currents of the system ; send- 
ing new flashes of electric warmth along the nerves and muscles ; and scat- 
tering a cloud of those blue and black devils that buzz around the ears of 
poor sedentary students, stayers at home, and women imprisoned in nur- 
series and amid their household cares. — North American Review. 




There is a signifiance in the different modes of shaking hands which 
indicates, so far as a single act can do, the character of the person. The 
reader who has observed may recall the peculiarities of different persona 
with whom he has shaken hands, and thus note how characteristic was 
this simple act. 

How much do we learn of a man or a woman by the shake of the hand ? 
Who would expect to get a handsome donation — or a donation at all — 
from one who puts out two fingers to be shaken, and keeps the others 
bent, as upon an "itching palm?" (Fig. 6.) The hand coldly held 
out to be shaken, and drawn away again as soon as it decently may be, 
indicates a cold, if not a selfish and heartless character ; while the hand 
which seeks yours and unwillingly relinquishes its warm, hearty clasp, 
belongs to a person with a genial disposition and a ready sympathy with 
his fellow-men. 

In a momentary squeeze of the hand how much of the heart often 
oozes through the fingers ! Who, that ever experienced it, has ever 
forgotten the feeling conveyed by the eloquent pressure of the hand of a 
dying friend, when the tongue has ceased to speak ! 

A right hearty grasp of the hand (fig. 1) indicates warmth, ardor, ex- 
ecutiveness, and strength of character ; while 
a soft, lax touch, without the grasp (fig. 2), 
indicates the opposite characteristics. In the 
grasp of persons with large-hearted, generous 
• tlg - 1- minds, there is a kind of "whole-soul" expres- 

sion, most refreshing and acceptable to kindred spirits. 

But when Bliss Weakness presents you with a few cold, clammy, life- 
less lingers (fig. 4) for you to shake, you will naturally think of a hospital, 
an infirmary, or the tomb. There are foolish per- ^ 
sons who think it pretty to have soft, wet, cold 
hands, when the fact is, it is only an evidence that 
they are sick ; or that, inasmuch as the circulation 
of the blood is partial and feeble, they are not 
well ; and unless they bring about a change, and induce warm hands and 
warm feet, by the necessary bodily exercises, they are on the road to the 
grave ; cold hands, cold feet, and a hot head are indications of anything 
but health. 

Action is life ; inaction is death. Life, in the human body, is warm. 
Death is cold Vigorous bodily action causes the blood to circulate 
throughout every part of the body. The want 
of action causes it, so to speak, to stand still. 
The blood goes most freely to those parts of the 
body or brain most exercised. If we swing the 
sledge-hammer, like the blacksmith, or climb 
the ropes, like the sailor, we get large and 
If we row a boat or swing a scythe, it is the 


Pig. 3. 
strong arms am 


9ame. But if we use the brain chiefly to the exclusion of tlic muscles, wo 



Fig. 4. 

or, when 

nitty have more active minds but weaker bodies. The better condition In 
whicli the entire being — body and brain — is symmetrically developed, 
requires the harmonious exercise of all the parte, 
in which case there will be a happy equilibrium, 
with no excess, no deficiency — no hot headache, 
no cold feet. Headache is usually caused by 
a foul stomach, or a pressure of blood on the 
brain ; cold feot by a limited circulation of blood 
in those extremities which active exercise in the open air would correct. 

There is an old adage which says : " Keep the feet warm and the head 
cool," which was, no doubt, intended to counteract a tendency the other 
way. Certain it is that those who suffer with hot heads usually have cold 
feet and hands. 

Time was, in the old country, wben aristocracy deigned to extend 
a single finger, or at most two, to be shaken by humble democracy. 
Even now we hear of instances in which "my 
noble lady" repeats the offense when saluted 
by a more humble individual. This is an indig- //Jrf^ 
nity whicli no true man or woman will either offer ') ' 
or receive. Eefinement and true gentility give 
the whole hand (fig. 5), and respond cordially, 
if at all. This is equivalent to saying, "You are welcome ;' 
parting, " Adieu ! God be with you." 

There is a habit, among a rude class, gTOwing out of an over-ardent 
temperament on the part of those who are more strong and vigorous 
than delicate or refined, who give your hand a crushing grasp, which is 
often most painful. In these cases there may 
be great kindness and " strong" affection, but 
it is as crude as it is hearty. 

Another gives you a cold, flabby hand, with 
no energy or warmth in it, and you feel chilled 
or repelled by the negative influence imparted, and you are expected to 
shake the inanimate appendage of a spiritless body. 

Is the grasp warm, ardent, and vigorous? so is the disposition. Is 
it cool, formal, and without emotion ? so is the character. Is it mag- 
netic, electrical, and animating ? the disposition is the same. As we shake 
hands, so we feel, and so we are. Much of our true character is revealed in 
shaking hands. 


But why do we shake hands at all ? It is a very old-fashioned way of 
indicating friendsh'p. We read in the Book of books that Jehu said to 
Jehonadab : " Is thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart? If it 
be, give me thine hand." And it is not merely an old-fashioned custom. 
It is a natural one as well. It is the contact of sensitive and magnetic 
surfaces through which there is, in something more than merely a figura- 
tive sense, an interchange of feeling. The same principle is illustrated in 
another of our modes of greeting. When we wish to reciprocate the 
warmer feelings, we are not content with the contact of the hands — we 
bring the lips into service. — From " New Physiognomy." 

Fig. 6. 



| ETTERS are received almost daily at this office requesting information 
* J as to when we can visit this or that city, or send a suitalle person to 
give public lectures, private lessons, and phrenological delineations of 
character. We have "calls" from the chief cities in all the States, the 
Canadas, and other provinces, and from many towns in the Old World. 
Thousands are desirous of hearing Phrenology expounded, but there 
are at present few expounders in America. Only one or two practical 
phren dogists can be found in all New England ; two or three in Old 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; none in the Canadas, New Brunswick, 
or Nova Scotia ; one in Australia, and very few on the continent of Eu- 
rope. Altogether, there is not one good phrenologist to every ten mil- 
lions of people on the globe. Why? It is —or was — unpopular. Its dis- 
coverer, Dr. Gall, was driven out of Austria for proclaiming truths thought 
to be incompatible with the State religion of that country ; and it has not 
had time yet to diffuse itself throughout the world, as it will yet against 
all opposition. We can name no " new idea,'' however, which is gaining 
public favor more rapidly than this. It is accepted by good men as God- 
given for high and holy purposes. The inquiry will some time be, not only 
'• Who am I ?" but " What am I ?" What are my capabilities, duty, and 
sphere ? Where, in the great realm of civilized life, do I belong ? Is it 
in manual or in mental labor, or is it in the two combined ? In agricul- 
tural, mechanical, artistic, or professional life? On the battle-field, or on 
the bench ? Gathering crops, or gelling goods ? Preaching, teaching, or 
editing ? Such or like questions must arise in the mind of every one. 
What system of mental philosophy, except Phrenology, touches these 
momentous questions ? We repeat, there are to-day wanted competent 
practical " phrenologists" in every State, county, town, and city. 

Phrenology is not difficult to learn. The books state the principles — ob- 
servation and practice complete the work. Who will give himself to 
bring this most useful science to the notice of the people ? 

Reader, if you can induce your neighbor to compare the heads of his 
children, or even those of his horses or his oxen, on phrenological princi- 
ples, and note the difference in contour and character, you will have done 
so much toward awakening an interest in, and perhaps increasing his 
knowledge of, important scientific truths. The subject must ultimately be 
introduced into schools ; but where are to be found the necessary phreno- 
logical teachers ? Vagabonds, cheats, and ignorant impostors will not 
answer Nor will self-dubbed doctors or self-appointed professors answer. 
It is for ''competent" men we ask. Who will help? We want help, 
help, help ! 

The Hon. Hotcace Mann, in a letter to Mr. Wells, said " I declare my- 
self a hundred times more indebted to Phrenology than to all the meta- 
physical works I ever read. Again, I look upon Phrenology as the guide 
of Philosophy and the handmaid to Christianity." 


OUR A N N I T A. L . 



Pig. 1.— Bashful. 


mental emotion is more paic- 
ful than bashfulness. Without 
feeling guilty, its subject feela 
crushed. It exists in different 
phases and degrees in different in- 
dividuals ; manifests itself in me- 
thods, or without method, as vari- 
ous as the temperaments and or- 
ganizations of its victims. One 
person writes to us : " Why is it 
that I \\ eep on being criticised 01 
ridiculed, when I am not inclin- 
ed to weep even at the loss Oi 
friends?" Another writes : "Tarn 
troubled with a painful sense of 
bashfulness and timidity in the 
presence of company on being 
spoken to, especially at the table ; and no matter whether 
the person be my equal or my inferior, I blush from the 
cravat to the hair, almost a blood-red, and the very recol- 
lection or consciousness that I am blushing, and that my embarrassment 
is discovered, tends to deepen the blush and heighten the embarrassment. 
Now, to speak plainly, I am blessed with a good figure and face [and his 
likeness sent us at our request proves this fact]. I have a good education ; 
I occupy a good position in society, and have been trusted by my friends 
with official position, and believe myself competent to fill it, and when I 
sit down to meditate I feel no cause for embarrassment or bashfulness ; I 
can converse for hours with persons of culture and superior ability, and 
feel no cause of complaint or shame at the part I am enabled to act ; 
still, if then spoken to suddenly or abruptly, this terrible diffidence comes 
■upon me like a spell and makes me stammer ; my head seems splitting 
with excitement ; my face turns red ; my heart palpitates, and I am no 
longer, for the moment, myself. Pray what is the cause of this, and what 
the remedy ?" 


Bashfulness originates in various constitutional peculiarities. The most 
common cause of bashfulness in persons surrounded by their equals, not 
their superiors, is a sensitive temperament, large Approbativeness, large 
Cautiousness, with relatively moderate Self-Esteem, and generally not 
large Combativeness ; and if Secretiveness be small, it is more likely to be 
undisguised or conspicuously exposed. 

We believe the temperaments or complexions most liable to bashfulness 
ere the fair and the blonde, which are the conditions most sensitive, sus- 
ceptible, impulsive, and, so to speak, tender, and therefore easily acted 
upon. We know that such persons blush more readily ; if frightened 



they turn pale more quickly, and are more likely to faint under the influ- 
ence of pain or alarm than others. There is, in this temperament, an an- 
terior cause for embarrassment and hashfulness. The circulation is more 
capricious, the subjects are more liable to inflammatory disease : a slight 
cold or other difficulty puts them in a fever, and they work off nearly all 
their diseases through inflammatory forms of vital action. When such 
persons are invaded in their rights or reputation, their anger is quick and 
hot ; when circumstances are peculiar and exciting, the heart beats, the 
blood rushes to the brain almost to suffocation. This spasmodic action 
of the heart and all its appendages produces mental confusion, and one 
can not think clearly, nor reason soundly, nor remember ; and stands 
dumb, confounded, bewildered, and can hardly speak his own name, much 
less make a proper defense, if accused, or recall facts and ideas necessary 
to proper explanation. Fearful of these conditions in case of blame, i r 
arraignment for fault, or negligence, or blameworthy transactions, persons 
are intensely embarrassed. Consciousness of innocence, or of less blame 
than is being charged, and of utter inability to explain and defend one s 
position, is calculated to heighten the embarrassment. When a person 

Pig. 2.— An Embarrassing Situation. 

with such a temperament and mental organization is suddenly brought 
into strange and superior society, a similar state of mind and condition of 
body take place. What is more embarrassing and inducjve of bashfulness 
than to be thrust into a glittering room filled with people superior to one's 
self in position, and equally cultured in the knowledge of what is due to 
the place and occasion ? A sensitive, uncultured man or maiden, with 
rustic garb and rustic speech, and little knowledge respecting correct life, 
introduced at once to the presence of cultured ladies and gentlemen, does 
not know what to do with hands or feet ; whether to sit or to stand, or 



to hide. Is it to be wondered at that such a person acts like a culprit 
and feels cheap and diminutive ? 


There are persons organized as not to feel bashful and embarr.'issed. 
riiough they may feel their inferiority in talent, in culture, and accom- 

Fig. 3. — The Self-Confident Man. 
plishments, they will not fejl crushed, or ashamed, or timid. Such per- 
Bons generally have small Appi obativeness— caring little what may be 
thought or said of them — are endowed with a good degree of Combative- 
ness and Destructiveness, which lay the basis 
of coinage ; large Self-Esteem and Firmness, 
which give consciousness of personal conse- 
quence, value, and power ; and though the per- 
son may know he is not able to adapt himself 
to the customs and claims of society to which 
he may be introduced, he will still, like a no- 
bleman of nature as he is in these respects, 
stand erect and feel that he is a man though 
not cultured, that he has personal value though 
he has not personal accomplishments. If he 
has only a medium share of intellect he will 
stand all the easier in the presence of his 

A person with Cautiousness and Approbative- 
ness large and Self-Esteem and Combativeness 
small, if he have a superior intellect and fine 
talent, will be all the more conscious of a dif- 
ference" between himself and those who are cultured. His intuitive in- 



tcllect and native taste will make him feel his deficiency all the more 
intensely, and this tends to heighten his embarrassment. A boor who 
can fiddle a dozen dancing airs, perhaps better than any of his associates, 
would not hesitate to show his skill in a convention of musicians, but 
let him afterward be sufficiently cultured to get a glance at the great field 
of musical attainment, and he would not ckire attempt playing in the 
presence of a master. 


The best guarantee against bashfulness is culture and familiarity with 
good society. If the organization be not adapted to easy. self-possession, 
cultivation will have two effects : first, to familiarize us with what is ex- 
pected and to do that which society claims of us ; and second, this very 
familiarity, and doing the duties incidental to social life, will strengthen 
the qualities which give self-possession, will increase Self- Esteem, will 
modify if it do not reduce the extreme activity of Approbativeness, which 
produces bashfulness in one form, shame in another form, while its pleas- 
urable action produces elation and joy almost to infatuation. 

Those who are troubled with bashfulness should avoid all the physical 
conditions calculated to promote a disturbed circulation of the blood. 
They should refrain from the use of strong tea, coffee, wines, spices, and 
tobacco, articles above all others calculated to disturb the circulation and 
render the action of the heart irregular, thus throwing the blood unduly 
upon the brain and producing a choking sensation about the lungs, and dis- 
qualifying one for clear thinking, correct acting, and proper self-possession. 


We know a person, now an old man, large, heavy, clumsy, who weigh- 
ed one hundred and eighty pounds the day he was sixteen, and was six 
feet and an inch high. He was so awkward, to use his own statement, 

Fig. 5.— Ball-room Manners. 

that he could hardly get into a room where there was company without 
hitting both sides of the door, and copld scarcely sit down without knock- 



ing over the chair, knowing not what to do with his feet, hie hands, nor 
himself. He chanced to have an opportunity to attend a dancing-school 
for three months, though they were not then at all prevalent in the vicin- 
ity where he resided, and he was there trained in the common civilities 
and courtesies of society ; how to get into and out of a room, how to be 
introduced, how to receive and dismiss company. Though he is a farmer, 
not much used to society, there is to-day an easy, quiet grace, and a polish 
of manners that would pass anywhere acceptably, and he attributes it to 
this brief tuition in a dancing-school. While he may not remember much 

Fig. 6. — Tens Reprimand. 
that he learned as a dancer, he remembers all that he learned that is neces- 
Bary for performing the common courtesies of the drawing-room. Some 
persons are organized to be bashful, they can greatly modify, though they 
may not be able to overcome that tendency. Certainly nothing is more 
painful than embarrassment, unless it is shame and remorse combined, and 
this is simply the painful action of the faculties which render one bashful 
with the addition of wounded Conscientiousness, producing remorse. 

Training in the light gymnastics, by those opposed to dancing, would 
probably answer the same purpose. It is the social training that gives 
gracefulness of action. 


We beg of our readers who have children, never to tantalize their deli- 
cate, sensitive natures — never appeal to their shame. They should never 
seek to mortify those who are by nature most assailable in this way, and 
we implore every one who has a sensitive and bashful friend, not to give 
that friend double trouble by assailing him in the very way to produce 
this painful emotion. 

To teachers we would say, never punish your pupils, especially the sen- 
sitive ones, in a way to excite shame and diffidence. Appeal to some other 
emotion. It is sufficient embarrassment to them to be called in question 
even considerately and kindly ; but teachers, mothers, servants, and nur- 
ses, if they find one these bashful beings, more sensitive than the sensi- 
tive plant, they use no lash but the lash of ridicule ; while a tough, 



brassy, audacious, ruffianly subject, who is never assailed by an endeavor 
to produce shame and sensitive embarrassment and mortification, is as- 
sailed with harsh words and overbearing dictatorial language or with 
blows, the very thing that he is qualified to meet and resist. 

There are some who are so sensitive to the imagined or real notice of 
others that they are actually deterred from taking part in the more active 
and demonstrative offices of religion. They are heartily sincere, and mean 
to do their duty, but when the time comes for them to rise from their 
seats and go forward, as in the case of partaking of the sacrament, their 
courage fails, their nervous force is gone, and they feel unable to move. 
Many excellent people suffer keenly from reflections cast upon their piety 
by others because of this unfortunate weakness. Such should be taken 
by the hand and gently encouraged in doing the required part, and not 
wounded by unjust criticism. 

Hundreds of children are made liars and hypocrites through bashful- 
ness. They are ashamed to confess their faults for fear of being laughed 
at or made game of by the family or the school, and they resort to lying, 
which is, in ninety-nine cases in a hundred, merely a refuge of weakness 
instead of the result of a malign purpose. 

Grown-up meu and women may overcome diffidence and acquire conn 
dence by cultivating an implicit reliance on Providence, a feeling that they 
are in His keeping, and that they are accountable to Him rather than to 
persons. Again, let them remember that at longest they have not long 
to live in this work!, and that in the course of time it will make no differ- 
ence to them whether Mrs. Grundy approved or disapproved their course. 
A quiet, calm, serene spirit with correct motives ; a generous willingness 
to confer rather than to receive favors ; to do good, be useful, and to feel that 
you have a mission in the world, will tend to remove that painful diffidence 
which prevents many from boldly " taking up their cross" and going for- 
ward in the service of God and man. 






The present presiding bishop of the United States, exhibits a contour ot 
head not very unlike that of Dr. Weston He should be known for con- 
siderable strength of will, individual opinion, tenacity of purpose, and 
frankness in the expression of his sentiments. We would consider him a 
man influenced much by his first impressions, especially where those first 
impressions have been confirmed by after-experience. He is not an un- 
steady, irregular, transitive, fluctuating spirit, but decided, disposed to 
carry his point where he can by strong and bold declarations, by argument- 
ative force. He possesses considerable policy, can be both easy and frank 
or shrewd and evasive. He is not indifferent to the claims of public sen- 
timent, nor altogether insensible to public approval, but still he dislikea 
to have his authority and opinions ignored, overlooked, or questioned. 
There is not much wavering about him in matters appertaining to his 
calling or to his general mode of thinking or acting. There i« more of 
the Roman than of the Greek in his face, and in his character more of the 
lion than of the lamb. His large brain and strongly marked features be- 
token both mental and physical power. 

John Henry Hopkins was born in Dublin, Ireland, January 30th, 1792. 
and came to the United States with his parents in 18U0. He was liberally 
educated, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1818. In 18-!3 he 
abandoned the law for the work of the ministry. He is now bishop of 
the diocese of Vermont, and presiding bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States. 


Rev. Dr. Weston exhibits a very fair combination of the moral and in- 
tellectual organs. His perceptive faculties are large, showing that he ap- 
preciates the practical and is enabled to realize the worth of material 
things. He has the sense of the divine strongly marked ; large Venera 
tion and Benevolence give him an insight into or an appreciation of the 
supernal. He is positive and somewhat inclined to be dogmatical in his 
opinions. Taking his cue from experience and observation, he will base 
thereupon his opinions and hold them with firmness. His well-developed 
organ of Language indicates the easy speaker, one who can enforce his 
sentiments in adequate terms. He finds no difficulty in adapting words to 
the expression of his ideas. He has self-reliance, strength of mind, and 
unusual force of character for a minister of the Gospel. Of the general 
indications of the face and head we would predicate that he is direct, mat 
ter-of-fact, and bold in his statements, and not disposed to yield a position 
which he has once assumed. As an orator he should be clear and forcible 
in his style, inclined more to state the truth as he understands and feels 
it. in intelligible and argumentative language, than by terms which appeal 
merely to the emotional and sensational natures. All the features — eyes, 
nose, mouth, and chin — mark the man of observation, thought, dignity, 
devotion, decision, executiveness 


Sullivan H. "Weston was born at Bristol, Maine, October 7th. 1816. lie 
was graduated at the Western University, Middletown, Conn., in 1842, 
was ordained a priest in 1852, and became connected with Trinity parish 
New York, which connection he has retained to the present time. He it- 
now assistant minister of that parish and rector of St. John's Church. 


This gentleman may be accounted one of the bulwarks of the denomi- 
tion to which he is attached. He is rather spare in build and lacking 
somewhat in vital power. The mental temperament predominates. A 
close student, an earnest preacher, and a diligent worker, he has evidently 
given less attention to the nourishment of his physical forces than they re- 
quire. The deep-set eyes, and the forehead protuberant in the region of 
reflection, indicate the original thinker, the man of studious habits — the 
scholar. Possessing a hnely cultivated intellect, richly stored with illus- 
tration and example, and possessing also a high-toned imagination, his 
discourses glow with graceful metaphor and delicate imagery. As an ora- 
tor Dr. Bushnell probably stands first among New England clergymen. 
His style is clear, chaste, ornate, and winning. He is the Everett of pul- 
pit orators. 

Mr. Bushnell was born at "Washington, Conn., in 1802. His advantages 
for early education were not the best ; he worked when a boy in a manu- 
factory, but by dint of application prepared himself for college, and en- 
tered Yale, whence he graduated in 1827. In 1833 he accepted the pas- 
torate of the congregation with which he is still connected. 


Good health, good-nature, indeed, a disposition brimful of vivacity and 
sprightliness, speak for themselves in this countenance. The large, full 
eyes indicate fertility of language and susceptibility cf soul. The head 
expanded in the region of Ideality, Constructiveness, and Sublimity indi- 
cates power and breadth of imagination— a nature that can almost soar 
" untrodden heights." The whole face is well proportioned. The mouth, 
as shown in our portrait, is too large to correspond well with the original. 
Practical, yet theoretical ; matter-of-fact, yet in some respects Utopian ; 
hearty and earnest, yet liberal and concessive, this able exponent of Con- 
gregationalism may be taken as an excellent type of American proficiency 
in the realm of pulpit oratory. Liberal, yet politic and prudent ; stead- 
fast, yet aspiring ; strict and precise in whatever appertains to integrity 
and manliness, Henry "Ward Beecher may well command respect for the 
influence which his character and talents universally exert. 

Henry Ward Beecher was born in Litchfield, Conn. , June 24, 1813. After 
completing a course of study at Amherest College, Massachusetts, he en- 
tered the Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, which was at that 
time under the direction of his father: In 1847, he accepted a call from 
Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., a society of orthodox Congregation- 
alists, with which he is still connected. His congregation is said to be the 
largest in the United States. 



Professor Breckinridge possesses a fine moral development, especially id 
the region of Veneration, Conscientiousness, Benevolence, and Firmness. 
He may be said to be even rigid in his views on theological questions. 
Once having fairly taken his stand after serious consideration, he would 
not be the one to yield his position easily. For steadiness and zeal in 
effort he probably has no superior among clergymen. With a mind well 
stored with the teachings of theology, he is well calculated to impart in- 
struction in the interest of his church. He has a fine nose of the Grecwt 
order, and the features, despite their angular outline, are fine and delicate. 
The engraving shows very little of the softness of the photograph, and 
imparts a severity to the look which does not properly belong to it. The 
outline of the forehead is well indicated, and conveys an apt idea of his 
intellectual superiority. 

Robert J. Breckinridge was born at Cabell's Dale, Ky., March 8, 1800. 
After a thorough course of collegiate training he studied law and practiced 
in Kentucky fur eight years. In 1832 he was ordained pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church. Baltimore, in which connection he remained thirteen 
years. In 1845 lie was elected to the presidency of Jefferson College, which 
position he held for two years, and then removed to Lexington, Ky., where 
he occupied the pulpit of the leading Presbyterian Church of that city. 
In 1853 he was elected professor in the new seminary at Danville, a posi- 
tion for which he has shown himself well qualified. 


Dr. Vinton has a head very much above the average size, measuring 
over twenty-three inches in circumference. His body is also well formed 
and sustained, his recuperative powers are in an excellent condition. Pie 
has a very large moral brain, especially in the region of Benevolence. The 
whole character partakes largely of the philanthropist. He has a fine in- 
tellect, evenly balanced, between the reflectives and perceptives. Agree- 
ableness is a distinguishing trait. He is refined and gentle in manner, of 
sound sense, liberal learning, warmest sympathy, an active sense of duty 
and adaptability. He has a warm social nature ; is much interested in 
home and domestic associations. The compression of the mouth as it ap 
pears in our portrait is a little magnified. Although a man of an exceed 
ingly genial nature and quite open to conviction, yet he has a well-sus- 
tained character for decision. There is love of oratory, poetry, music, art, 
and mechanism. He could have excelled in statesmanship no less than 
in the ministry. 

Alexander Hamilton Vinton was born at Providence, R. I., May 2, 1807, 
received his classical education at Brown University, and subsequently 
studied medicine, which he practiced for several years. He entered the 
ministry in 1835. In 1861, he succeeded the late Dr. Anthon as rector of 
8t. Mark's Church, New York. 


This eminent and rising divine is strikingly high in the top-head, and 


should, consequently, be remarkable for Veneration, Benevolence, and 
Firmness. He is essentially a moral man ; the sentiments and the superior 
part of his nature are all-controlling. He is also possessed of large Ideal- 
ity, has high appreciation of the esthetic, and therefore a tendency to 
throw into his discourses much of the emotional, thrilling, and feelingful. 
He is not deficient in self-respect or self reliance, but is open, free, and 
versatile. His mental caliber is of no mean order. He exhibits the hard 
student in every lineament. He lives mainly in a mental atmosphere, and 
consumes his vitality almost as rapidly as it is supplied. This is a nervous 
or mental temperament, an active, go-ahead nature. More calmness, rest, 
and repose would be advantageous to him. He may, ere long, break 
down from over-mental exertion, unless he avails himself of means for 
strengthening and establishing his physical forces. With such a brain 
and such a temperament, and every faculty well educated, it is not sur- 
prising that we find a speaking countenance. That long upper lip means 
independence, decision, and self control. There is originality in this ex- 
pressive face. 

John Cotton Smith was born at Andover, Mass., August 4, 1826, of the 
old Puritan stock of New England. He was graduated at Bowdoin Col- 
lege in 1847, studied theology in the Episcopal College in Gambier, Ohio, 
and entered the ministry in 1849. He is now pastor of the Church of the 
Ascension, Fifth Avenue, in New York city. 


Doth not the soul the body sway ? And mind and soul and heart combine 

And the responding plastic clay To make an outward beauty thine. 

Receive the impress every hour 
Of the pervading spirit's power ? If upward trained, the heaven-born soul 

(God ever nigh, and heaven its goal), 
The finer essence which inlies From earth's corrupting grossness free, 

The frame, to which it giveth guise Will clothe thee with its purity. 

And outward form, expression finds 
In contours changing with our minds. So by the glorious might of mind, 

Let all thy nature be refined, 
Look inward if thou wonldst be fair; Till in the soul's inspiring flow 

To beauty guide the feelings there, Thy beauty shall increasing grow. 

And this soul-beauty, bright and warm, 
Thy outward being will transform. And let the heart rich coloring give, 

And bid the beauteous statue live; 
And inward beauty's forms of grace That gracing earth and fit for heaven, 

Shall set their seal upon thy face ; Life's richest dower to thee be given. 


Large Eyes. — Large eyes have always been admired, especially in women, 
and may be considered essential to the highest order of beauty, in almost 
every description of which, from Helen of Troy to Lola Montes, they hold 
a prominent place. We read of " large spiritual ey-ts," and 

Eyes loving large, 
and of " little, sparkling, beady eyes," to which the epithets "spiritual" 
and "loving" are never applied. 

An Arab expresses his idea of the beauty of a woman by saying that she 
ha« the eye of a gazelle. This is the burden of his song. The timidity, 
gentleness, and innocent fear in the eye of the " deer" tribe are compared 
with the modesty of the young girl : ' ' Let her be as the loving hind and 
the pleasant roe." 




"YXJ AS born in New 
' * York city about 
the year 1820. His 
father was a colored 
preacher in Church 
Street, and intended 
Ira tor the ministry. 
With that view he 
sent him at an early 
age to England to 
be educated. The 
youth, however, did 
not take kindly to 
the course marked 
out for him, but 
having very early 
imbibed a taste for 
theatricals, turned 
his attention to the 
stage. He took an 
active and promi- 
nent part in juvenile 
performances, and at 
length made his ap- 
pearance on the pub- 
lic stage. His first performance before a popular audience was at the 
Royalty Theater, London, where he at once made a favorable impression. 
The subsequent career of the young African Roscius, as he was called in 
England and other portions of the United Kingdom, was attended with 
the most brilliant success. He became a recognized favorite, and was 
held to be one of the most faithful delineators of the immortal Shak- 
speare, always commanding crowded houses at the leading theaters of 
London. As.he advanced in reputation he ventured to appear in various 
Continental cities, at first playing with an English company ; but difficul- 
ties arising in various ways, he determined on trying the novel — but as thu 
result proved successful — experiment of giving his own Shaksperian parts 
in English, while the native company used their own language. A per- 
fect master of his art, Ira Aldridge has been enabled to accomplish in this 
way what was never attempted before. Throughout the chief capitals of 
Europe his ability has been acknowledged by all ; decorations have been 
conferred upon him by various sovereigns as well as the more substantial 
results from crowded audiences. He has been remarkably popular in Rus- 
sia, where he has recently entered upon a new engagement after closing a 
very successful one at Constantinople, where he performed with a French 
company. In the Ottoman capital theatrical celebrities but rarely appear. 
Ristori, who was there some time since, was considered to have made the 
greatest hit, but it r ell very much short of Ira Aldridge's success, as was 


attested by the crowded houses that witnessed his performances up to tht 
last. This was a striking appreciation of the force of his genius from a 
very mixed population, such in fact as is only to be met with in the city 
of the Sultan. As an actor Mr. Aldridge is said by those versed in Thes- 
pian matters to possess qualities of the highest order. In his personations 
of character he appears to realize w. ; th remarkable exactness and vigor the 
conception of the dramatist. His style at once seizes on an audience and 
commands their closest attention and admiration. Perhaps his best role 
is Othello, whom he is said by our consul at Odessa to resemble much in 
character and demeanor. 

The head of this eminent colored man is very much larger than the 
average size for a white man, which, as is generally known, is above the 
negro type of head. According to the measurements sent us by the Amer- 
ican consul at Odessa, it is about twenty-three and a half inches in circum- 
ference. Referring to our portrait we find the indications of an excellent 
combination of the organs, a fair balance of the intellectual faculties. 
The knowing organs are predominant, Individuality, Eventuality, Lan- 
guage, Form, Locality, and Time are large, and give his mind the tendency 
to inquire, examine, observe, and hold in memory tenaciously whatever 
he deems worthy of attention. The high forehead denotes a sympathetic 
nature and considerable ability to read character. Large Human Nature 
and very large Imitation qualify him to enter into the spirit of dramatic 
impersonation and assume with unusual facility the various phases of 
human character as he understands them. He has also much force, reso- 
lution, and positiveness ; much more fire and pluck than is a dispositional 
characteristic of his race. The width between the ears exhibits a large 
degree of Lestructiveness, while the facial indications of Combativenesa 
show a good degree of it. His social nature is strong, evincing warmth 
of affection for friends, children, and home. His interest in woman is far 
from weak. In fact, we are led to believe that he excels most in those 
plays which represent life as associated with the domestic circle, or wherein 
earnestness of affection and vigor of action should characterize the perform- 
ance. He evidently possesses large Approbativeness ; but his Secretive- 
ness and Caution being also strongly marked, render him prudent, careful, 
and shrewd in the prosecution of whatever ambitious designs he may cher- 
ish. Commendation — the applause of the world — is acceptable to him, 
but he would court public sentiment in such a manner as not to manifest 
any special desire or appetite for it. He picks up information rapidly in 
his associations with the world, and has much facility in adapting what he 
learns to his needs and purposes. He does not go through the world 
blindfold, but keeps his eyes and ears open, gathering much from experi- 
ence that is profitable. He has good recuperative powers, an ample chest, 
free circulation, and excellent digestion, consequently his large brain is 
well nourished and sustained. The negro is physiognomically striking, 
and evidences the directness of his origin. His superior talents furnish a 
strong testimonial in favor of those who advocate negro equality ; but un- 
fortunately his like that of Fred Douglas, is an isolated case, and proves 
only rare possibilities or outcroppings from the common stock. Morally 
considered, Mr. Aldridge possesses a very happy organization, such as is de- 
sirable in the case of any one, white or black. 



yOLTAIRE said : ' The more married men you have, the fewer crimes 
" there will he. Marriage renders a man more virtuous and more wise. 
An unmarried man is but half of a perfect being, and it requires the other 
half to make things right ; and it can not be expected that in this im- 
perfect state he can keep the straight path of rectitude any more than a 
boat with one oar, or a bird with one wing, can keep a straight course. In 
nine cases out of ten, where married men become drunkards, or where 
they commit crimes against the peace of the community, the foundation 
of these acts was laid while in a single state, or where the wife is an un- 
suitable match. Marriage changes the current of a man's feelings, and 
gives him a center of his thoughts, his affections, and his acts. Here is a 
home for the entire man, and the counsel, the example, and the interest 
of his ' better half,' keep him from erratic courses, and from falling into 
a thousand temptations to which he would be exposed. Therefore the 
friend of marriage is the friend to society and to his country." 

The illustrious French speculatist was right in his views on this sub- 
ject, no matter how far wrong he may have been on others. The results 
to a community, even where the wedded pair may not be well adapted to 
each other, are advantageous in the main. The notorious immorality of 
New York city life is due chiefly to the fact that the great mass of its 
population is unmarried and quartered in boarding-houses and hotels. 
The married man, once settled in a home of his own, is, to say the least, 
solicitous for its welfare. His position as pater familias induces habits of 
economy and industry. He is an important member of society, and feels 
responsibilities and enjoys privileges and immunities unknown to the 

Tile Boxes of Milton. — In August of 1790, some workmen engaged h? 
repairing the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, found under the floor of the 
chancel an old coffin, which, as shown by the sexton's register, had rested 
there undisturbed for 116 years. For a grown person it was a very small 
one. Its length did not exceed five feet ten inches, and it measured only 
sixteen inches across at the broadest part. The body almost invariably 
stretches after death, so that the bodies of females of the middle stature 
and under, require coffins of at least equal length ; and the breadth, even 
outside, did not come fully to the average breadth of shoulders in adults. 
Whose remains rested in that wasted old coffin ? Those of a man, the 
most truly masculine in his cast of mind, and the most gigantic in intel- 
lect, whom Britain or the world ever produced, the defender of the rights 
of the people of England ; as a scholar, first among the learned of Europe ; 
as a poet, not only more sublime than any other uninspired writer, but, as 
has been justly said, more fertile in true sublimities than all other unin- 
spired writers put together. The small old coffin disinterred from out the 
chancel of St. Giles contained the remains of that John Milton who died 
at his house in Bunhill Fields in the winter of IS"!, the all-powerful con- 
troversialist, who in the cause of the people crushed the learned Salmasiue 
full in the view of Europe ; the poet who produced " Paradise Lost." 




IN New York city there are very many degrees or castes of society ; prol* 
ably in no other city in the world will we find so many phases of human 
life. Some of these, the most palpable, we would consider, and to that 

end refer them to those 
three great thoroughfares 
of trade and travel, the 
Bowery, Broadway, and 
Fifth Avenue, in which re- 
spectively they are the more 
frequently found. The Bow- 
ery Boy is a personification 
of the New York " b'hoy," 
with his careless swagger 
and insolent leer. He cares 
" nothing for nobody," but 
is bent on having a ' ' gen- 
eral good time anyhow." 
Give him his whisky reg- 
ularly, and an occasional 
"muss," and he will be 
quite happy. Interfere with 
any of his pet fancies or 
" little games," and you 
will be visited with a 
"smasher." He is found 
hanging around " porter- 
houses or corner groggeries 
in company with others of 
like proclivities. He is 
well known to the police, 
and well instructed in all 
ingenious dodges for the 
evasion of legal process. 
Wherever there is any 
marked conflict between the 
custodians of the peace and 
the populace — as in a riot, 
a street fight, or a mob— our " b'hoy" is on hand. He is an object of 
aversion to the law-and-order-abiding citizen, of horror to the timid. The 
well-known " Mose" of theatrical notoriety is a fair impersonation of 
this " bruiser." 

The Broadway swell is clean and fastidiously dressed, with hairs frizzed 
and mustache waxed and curled, a la militaire. He attends to some little 
matter which he dignifies by the name of business, but the greater por- 
tion of the day finds him lounging about a hotel or promenading the street 
cane in hand and staring at the lady pedestrians. He may dabble in gold 
and stocks, but his operations are mainly " on the street." He has much 



to do with sham-jewelry concerns, mock-auctions, and faro tables ; is gen- 
erally on the lookout for a green' un wh se pocket he will adroitly lighten 
of his wallet, while graciously showing him many little civilities, and gen- 
erously compassionating his ignorance of city life. He believes in " high 
life, ' ' and he lives "fast." , 

The Fifth Avenue blood claims to be of all others the very 

" glass of fashion and the mold of form." 

lie dresses exquisitely ; bis tailors and barbers are artists, so that his fine (?) 
shape is displayed to the 
best advantage. With mus- 
tache and side whiskers of 
the Dundreary style, and 
eye-glass straining the orbi- 
cular muscles, he rides in 
his shining "dog cart," or 
struts daintily along ogling 
the passers-by. Among his 
peers he is known as a 
' ' good fellow, ' ' liberal with 
his means and frank in 
manner. He believes in 
aristocratic privileges and 
glories in castes ; he is one 
of the " upper crust." He 
belongs to a club which 
supports a brown stone edi- 
fice, elegantly appointed, 
where he can doze the hours 
of morn or eve away, hold 
high discourse with his fel- 
low clubbers, eat sumptu- 
ous dinners and suppers, 
and take a hand in the 
" fashionable" game — bil- 
liards. He is accounted a 
great catch by eligible 
young ladies and maneu- 
vring mammas. He is a 
fair representation, on the principles of comparative physiognomy, of the 
furry- faced monkey, while the Broadway dandy is a good goat, and the 
rowdy an irascible bull-dog. 

Looking now at the phases of woman-life, as she appears in the three 
thoroughfares specified, we see the Bowery girl with her gay turban and 
flopping head dress, yclept "waterfall," aping, so far as her limited re- 
sources will permit, the style of her more fortunate sisters. She steps 
mincingly and stealthily along, casting from side to side covert glances 
through her semi-masque vail. She is cat-like in motion and demeanor. 


Cautious and apparently fearful, she avoids your dii ect gaze, and glides 
vitli averted and depressed head through the throng which traverses the 
sidewalk She makes one of that numerous train of young women whom 
we meet at seven am. and six p.m. hastening to and returning from their 
tuil. She works hard on the hoop-skirt or the sewing machine, and as day 
aftei day glides by without any special improvement in her social and 
pecuniary circumstances, sh? looks to marriage as the only relief from pov- 
erty, and often, trusting too implicitly the representations of a "friend," 
she becomes his victim, and then sinks rapidly into a sad state of moral 

The Broadway belle is an object of much consideration. She saunters 
carelessly" along, indifferent to everything but the admiration of others. 
She is far from indifferent to fashion, but consults contrast and conspicuity 
in her mode of dress. Both the " waterfall" and the drooping curls 
dangle from the back of her head, the former being so adjusted as to give 
a greater fullness to the latter. Does fashion prescribe a large bow to her 
bonnet strings, she is very likely to increase the size of said bow and per- 
mit long ends to flow gracefully down on either side. She is a strange 
compound of simplicity and affectation, of naivete and shrewdness, of in- 
telligence and ignorance ; at one time charming by her vivacity, at another 
repelling by her dullness or airy affectedness. She to a great extent con- 
trols her own fortune, and is not all the painted toy which many account 
her. She is the dashing, sprightly spaniel. 

The Fifth Avenue flirt is a craft of a very different rig. She believes in 
" full sail," in crowding on "all the canvas." Whatever may be the 
current of public sentiment and fashion, she believes in going with it. 
Fashion is one of her chief gods, and they who can not come up to its 
requisitions are dropped out of her "set." She sweeps grandly along 
with an air of assumption and importance that is as ludicrous as it is 
supercilious. She claims for herself aristocratic privileges, and she is not 
to be judged according to the "low, mean" standard of common people. 
Her portrait, as we give it, well portrays the purse-proud, stuck-up senti- 
ments which reign within her mind. She aims to high connections, a 
wealthy alliance, and an elegant equipage. She must shine, or there's no 
comfort in living. She may be likened to the indulged, capricious, and 
fickle poodle. 



Ui\ sluggard, lift thy drowsy head, Miner within the cells of Thought, 

'Tis time thy work were well begun ! Come from thy dream-beclouded land 

Those seams of gold, those veins of red. Fair Truth is waiting to be caught 

Are heralds of the rising sun ! And tutored by thy cunning hand I 

Away, and take thy rusting plow 1 Gather the random shafts of light 

Upturn the fertile fields of clay 1 That fall unheeded on thy way, 

There is no time for toil but now— And pierce the forehead of the night ! 

No promise leans beyond to-day. Arouse, begin thy work to-da.y. 


PROBABLY neither artist nor author, however superior in his 
special vocation, inspires that reverent, almost devotional hom- 
age, which every mind pays instinctively to the sculptor. How 
often we hear the word Divine ! in connection with the works of 
Phidias, Praxiteles, and Angelo. How, with " bated breath " and rapt 
attention, we gaze upon their marbles, fancying the eye and hand that 
fashioned them must own more than human skill. 

Yet, every day, nay, every hour, we are hacking away, Avith what- 
ever weapons come to hand, upon material more precious than the 
snow-pure marble, more costly than bronze, and more enduring than 
granite. We give little thought to our tools, little to the material, less 
to the result, though it is imperishable. 

So pliant is this substance that even a look can aid to mold it, a 
whispered word may stain, or a blow change its expression forever; 
" clay to receive, marble to retain." 

How thoughtlessly, how pitilessly, how weakly, and how wickedly 
we hack and hew at immortal souls! and, unlike the sculptor, we have 
not the prerogative of doing our work first in clay, then patiently and 
skillfully reproducing only perfect lines and curves in the enduring 
stone ; no, our mistakes and sins against our work have no such rem- 
edy. The cruel words that cut so deeply ; the feigned love that warm- 
ed a heart to melting tenderness, then froze it to ice when the love be- 
came no longer amusing or expedient ; the falsehoods that stained and 
marred can never be effaced. The scars and seams made by our weak- 
ness or wickedness on the hearts of our fellow -mortals, neither tears 
nor prayers can erase. 

Everything we do or say, nay more, everything we leave undone or 
unsaid, that would naturally be expected in our position and circum- 
stances, has its effect upon those associated with us. And how careless 
we are about exerting influence ; because we can not do some grand, 
vast good to our race, we think we have no field of labor. We forget 
that often a cheerful, hearty " good-morning " greeting may be the 
very " cup of cold water " that will keep a thirsty, forlorn soul re- 
freshed throughout the day. 

In our indifference or selfishness, thinking we are not " our brother's 
keeper," we cut and rend the finest feelings of his soul, destroy his trust 
in human goodness, weaken his faith in Deity, in truth and love and 
honor, and go calmly on in our own pleasant lives, little thinking, per- 
haps little caring, that we have helped to distort and destroy what, but 
for us, would have been a grandly beautiful life, a source of good and 
joy, a " thing of beauty forever." 

Ah ! we ought rather strive to make our own and others' lives such 
as shall giin a " well done" from the Divine Sculptor. 






Coktents: — Geography of Circassia — The Adigi and the Kabardines — Circassian Tra- 
ditions — Resemblance to the Arabs— Racial Characteristics and Physiognomy — 
Government and Society among the Circassians — Pursuits and Products — Marriage 
Customs — Education of Children — Beauty of the Circassian Women ; their Depcitment 
before and after Marriage — Female Slavery ; how it is considered in Circassia — 
Religion — Literature. 

[1HE great Caucasian range which is one of the boundaries of Eastern 
Europe, and which in all historic ages of the world, has formed the 
barrier between the refined and luxurious inhabitants of Southern 
Asia, and the rude and vigorous barbarians of the North, is the home of 
many tribes of nomadic characteristics. These tribes have been found 
exceedingly int:resting subjects for the study of the ethnologist and 
explorer. Several of them, protected by the natural defenses of their 


mountain retreats and by their martial spirit, have maintained their in- 
dependence against Persians, Greeks, Romans, Mongolians, and Turk3, 
and although in Russian territory, accord but little deference to Russian 
authority. Prominent among these quasi independent tribes are the 
Circassians, who inhabit the region of the Western Caucasus, which lies 
•ilong the norths jstern coast of the Black Sea, between Caucasus and 
the Kuban, and also the provinces farther eastward of Great and Little on the Terek. 

Those people inhabiting the coast of the Black Sea style themselves 
Adigi, and affect superiority of derivation and privilege over those of the 
more interior provinces, who style themselves Kabardines. The Tartars 
call them Tscherkess, whence the common English appellation is derived. 
The Circassians, like their neighbors the Georgians and the Ahassians, 
belong, doubtless, to some ancient races, which differ materially in lan- 
guage and manners from nearly all other nations. In fact, the various 
mountain tribes of the Caucasus, though much alike in their intrepid 
love of independent mountain life, greatly differ from each other in 
language and customs. The Circassians claim that they originally 
descended from the princes of Arabia, and they have traditions asserting 
such claims. . If they resemble any known nation in one or more 
respects, it certainly is the wild rovers of the desert. An Arab mounted 
on his barb, and a Circassian on hie mettlesome steed, as represented in 
our engraving, might be accounted of one blood if met in company, and 
wearing the same costume. The languages, however, of these two races 
ire totally unlike. Another tradition in vogue with the Circassians 
aiakes out their descent from the Natlis, an ancestry which puzzles (lie 
ethnologists to determine. It is conjectured that " Naths" signifies North 
■or Northmen, and that some of the adventurous Vikings pushed their 
conquests and explorations even as far as the forest-robed Caucasus, and 
there founded a colony which has nourished until the present time. 

The Circassians are admitted to be among the best-looking tribes of 
nomads in the world. Though their mental culture and general civiliza- 
tion is much inferior to that of the nations of Western Europe, they 
possess many physiognomical and mental features which claim attention. 
They have the true Roman expression of countenance, added to great 
personal courage and a dignified and impressive bearing. The Tartar 
name Tscherkess is equivalent to cut-purse or robber, wdiile their own 
title, Adigi, signifies " the noble." They are a warlike but also a pastoral 
people, their wealth consisting chieffy in flocks and herds, horses and 
arms. Their government is a kind of feudal system. There are upward 
of fifteen clans or tribes mutually independent, each having an hereditary 
head or chief. Circassian society is divided into several classes, which 
are more n less aristocratic, according to position in the scale. First 
stand the chiefs or khans, next the vourk or ancient nobles, next the 
begualiu or middle class, next the Who kotl or vassals, last the slaves, who 
are mostly prisoners captured in war and employed generally an lower 



servants. T.iese can not be sold singly, and in fact are rarely transferred 
from one master to another. The princes and nobles own the land, 
while the middle and vassal class occupy the relation of tenantry to 
them. There arc no large towns or cities in the country. A nol le lias 
his village in which he resides surrounded by his people, who may be 
regarded as his retainers — over whom he exercises patriarchal authority, 
administering or directing all their afFairs — even their marriages. Trials 
or matters esteemed of serious moment are conducted by the authority 
of a council composed of the oldest and most respected of the villagers.. 
The distinctions of class or rank are shown in the character of their 
weapons and warlike costume, otherwise there is little difference, as all 
classes associate and live very much in the same manner. The chiefs 
alone have the privilege of wearing garments or decorations of a red 
color. The dress of the Circassian is much like thai of other Orientals. 
They shave the head and wear the turban. 

The principal products of their agriculture are millet, barley, and 
various vegetables. They rear bees, and use mules and asses as beasts 
of burden, while oxen are employed in tilling the ground. Like the 
Arab, they take great pride in the breed of their horses, and rarely use 
them for other than riding purposes. 

The marriage custom is singular. A young man after having runde 
choice of the lady he would marry and obtained he/ consent, makes a 
show of carrying her off by force from her parents' house. It is incum- 
bent upon him to make presents to her parents as payment for his bride, 
who is rated according to her position in society and the circumstances 
of the expectant bridegroom. During an interval of ten days or more 
between the " carrying off," which is equivalent to the betrothal, and 
the marriage ceremony, the lady is rpquired to keep her room, dressed 
in her best attire, and receive the congratulations of her lady acquaint- 
ances, who, unlike the customs among Americans, carry gifts of cake 
and bonbons to the bride. During this interval, also, the bridegroom is 
rot allowed to have any communication with his charmer, and his visits, 
if he make any, must be clandestine. After the birth of their first child, 
both parents feel privileged to visit other families, but not before. 
They who can afford the expense, place their children at an early age 
in the care of a patron or atalik for training and education. This method 
of separating children from their parents serves much to deprive them 
of filial affection ; the boy being early imbued with a warlike and inde- 
pendent spirit, and the girl taught to look forward to a good marriage 

Much has been written about the beauty of the Circassian women, 
and the harems of Turkey have frequently been referred to as containing 
the finest specimens of them. Pallas informs us that " the women are 
not uniformly beaulies, but are for the most part well formed, have a 
white skin, dark-brown or black hair, and regular features." Klaproth 
says, "They have brown hair and eyes, long faces, thin, straight noses, 


and elegant forms." The bouse and society of the married female is as 
inaccessible as in Turkey, to all males except those of her own family, 
the ataliks of her children, and the members of her husband's fraternity. 
When she goes out to visit her female friends, her head and face are 
closely vailed. The unmarried women, however, go about unvailed, and 
with the utmost freedom. The Circassian ladies are fond of admiration, 
an. I seek by the aid of careful toilettes and other means to preserve their 
good looks as long as possible. 

The reproach which is urged against the Circassians is the traffic in 
their daughters, which has been until a few years past very active, 
notwithstanding the frequent interference of the Russian government. 
A man can not sell his daughter or his son except with her or his con- 
sent, and it is said that Circassian girls are very frequently desirous o. 
being sold, and " trying their fortune" in Turkey. The country is popu- 
lous, the number of inhabitants being estimated at nearly 600,000, and 
criminals and slaves brought from distant places constitute the chief 
b apply for the slave market. With regard to the estimation which the 
Circassian girls have for the life of a slave in Turkey, Lady Sheil writes 
that some of them " who are poor and unprotected, especially orphans, 
often entreat their relatives to sell them. Their hope is that they may 
be purchased in Constantinople by some wealthy Turk, at the head of 
whose establishment they may be placed. * * * A great many of 
the female slaves (in Circassia) are glad to leave the country." 

It is quite probable that ere long the traffic carried on by Turkish mer- 
chants in Circassian slaves will be entirely suppressed. The political 
relations between Turkey and the other powers of Europe have become 
so intimate, that many social innovations of an anti-slavery character 
have been gradually introduced, and it may be confidently expected that 
at least that most revolting feature of Turkish slavery, females for the 
harem, will be soon discountenanced. 

The religion of the Circassians is of a mixed character ; the nobles are 
principally Mohammedans, while the mass of the people worship after a 
manner partly Christian and partly pagan. Nominalby, they respect the 
precepts of the Koran, but celebrate the festival of Easter, pay a super- 
stitious reverence to the sign of the cross, and have sacred trees, sacrifices, 
and processions. They also believe in a good spirit which they call 
Merem, in an evil spirit styled Tschible, who is also the god of thunder, 
and in the existence of a god of fire called Tleps. In this last religious 
feature we find a relic of the old Persian superstition, which may furnish 
some clue to their true racial type. 

Circassia is yet in a primitive state as regards literature and science. 
The language is not a Written one, and very difficult of acquisition by 
foreigners. They have among them minstrels called kikoakoa, who are 
highly esteemed, and who preserve by memorizing the traditions of the 
country, and chant in a wild heroic style of ballad the prowess of the 
Circassian warriors and the greatness of the nation. 



Contents :— Jealousy Defined— Cogan, Webster— Its Phenomena Varied according to 
the Particular Combination of Organs — Envy and its Composition — Influence of 
Temperament — Animal Jealousy — Friendship Jealousy — Jealousy of Appetite — 
Without Hatred— Artistic and Literary Jealous}' — Pecuniary Jealousy — How Evinced 
among Politicians — The Jealousy of Love — Morbid Jealousy — How Induced — Remedial 

It is jealousy's peculiar nature 
To swell small things to great; nay, out of naught 
To conjure much ; and then to lose its reason 
Amid the hideous phantoms it has formed.— Young. 

TITE poet, the dramatist, and the novelist have each contributed 
highly wrought portraitures of this one of the master passions of the 
human mind. The metaphysician has exhausted vocabularies in the 
attempt to analyze it; but though deep after deep of feeling has been 
thus explored, a lower deep seems ever to have remained, to which he 
could not penetrate and render the elucidation complete. One of the 
best definitions of Jealousy that Ave have seen is that of Cogan, who 
says : " Jealousy is a painful apprehension of rivalship in cases that arc 
peculiarly interesting to us." This definition, though tinctured with the 
cool intellectuality of the philologist, has yet within it much that is sug- 
gestive of the " green-eyed monster." The " painful apprehensions" 
which make up so much of Jealousy are productive of the intense 
emotion, the hatred and malignancy with which the jealous have ever 
been characterized. 

Of course we are now discussing that evil spirit born of envy, hatred, 
and malice, and not that lofty sentiment sometimes denominated Jealousy, 
which is mindful of one's personal rights and self-respect. But it is 
hardly necessary for us to make this exception, because the term is rarely 
used nowadays in the latter sense. Even when divested of its covert 
malice, Jealousy is generally understood as signifying that dog-in-the- 
manger disposition which is execrable in any one. 

Webster says: " Jealousy is awakened by whatever may exalt others 
or give them pleasure and advantages which we desire for ourselves." 
In this definition we find an amplification of Cogan's, while in both Ave 
trace some clue to the nature of the feeling under consideration. It is 
evidently the composite result of the activity of several organs of the 
mind, and not the simple manifestation or mode of action of one only. 
It is differential, hardly evei' presenting the same characteristics in any 
two persons, whereas special faculties are found nearly alike in develop- 
ment and action in several. 

The phenomena of Jealousy arc wonderfully varied, and probably with 
the one exception of love as a p;>.«sion-, no other human emotion is so 
complicated and transitional. One form of it may be produced by the 
activity or excitement of two or three organs, another by the excitement 
of a dozen. As a feeling of envy merely it is simple, as Avhen it showa 


itself through a mortified state of Approbativeness and disappointed 
Hope, some other having borne off the desired palm. As a feeling of 
envy coupled with malice it may, in the absence or dormancy of the 
moral sentiments, combine the influences of the passions, including Ap- 
probativeness, Secretiveness, Cautiousness, Combativeness, Destructive- 
ness, Constructiveness, and the Intellect, and work up a vicious plan for 
the overthrow of a rival with surprising skill and success. 

The most prevalent form of Jealousy is that envious feeling which 
exists between equals who are competing for something which will 
award honor and superiority to him who secures it. This enlists not 
only Approbativeness, but also Self-Esteem, Destructiveness, and that 
organ which specially appreciates the object in controversy, be it life, 
fame, position, or lucre. 

Certain temperamental conditions are favorable to jealous sentiments. 
Those who have a predominance of the Mental temperament with con- 
siderable of the Motive or bilious, most readily take to study, literature, 
music, art, dress, and whatever is esthetic ; and we find this class of 
persons more troubled with Jealousy or envy than any other. Their 
temperament gives them excitability and intensity, and they feel keenly 
any slight, failure, ridicule, loss of caste or respectability ; and the very 
qualities of talent and taste which make them seek excellence and enter 
the lists for success and celebrity, lay the foundation for the morbid 
action of those qualities which supplement this unhappy disposition. 


In the lower animals, Jealousy exists in a marked degree, and is refer- 
able chiefly to their sensual appetites. 

Its lowest form is illustrated by those birds and beasts which do not 
choose special mates in a kind of instinctive matrimonial alliance. With 
such birds and animals, righting among the males is fierce and relentless. 
Their Jealousy is simply the result of active Amativeness, and that 
awakens the organs of Combativeness and Destructiveness, and the result 
is the maiming, or death often, of the vanquished. Rising one step 
higher in the scale of being, we find animals that mate more or less per- 
manently ; some for the season, others for life. With these mere sexual 
Jealousy is not nearly so manifest. If the males and females are nearly 
equal in numbers, each will have its mate, and there will be exhibited 
little if any Jealousy, and to the honor of the males bt. it said, they ordi- 
narily give very little occasion for it. Among animals, we are not aware 
that the gentler sex ever exhibit the feeling of Jealousy based on the 
sexual instinct. At least they seem not to hate their associates in con 
sequence of their receiving extra attention from the males 


A favorite dog will exhibit marked displeasure when his master 
caresseu another, and instances are on record of canine suicides from 


mortification at the preference given a rival. A friend of ours owned two 
cats which had become strongly attached to him. They were permitted 
to roam at will about his store, and afforded him considerable amuse- 
ment by their playful antics. When toying with one if the other was 
present, it would spring upon his shoulder and gently but persistently 
scratch and rub his cheek, or a hand if it were within reach, until some 
attention were shown and the desired caresses given. Sometimes they 
would contend for the seat on his knee with such fierceness that he 
would be obliged to leave the spot or chastise them into propriety. The 
Jealousy evinced in this case originated in the feeling of Adhesiveness, 
but brought out through Approbativeness and influenced by Combative- 
ness and Destructiveness. 


Two dogs waiting at the butcher's door for the chance fragment of 
meat which may be thrown them, look at each other with evil eye ; and 
the one which is the acknowledged master generally takes the foremost 
place. If the coveted morsel happens to be thrown too far for the con- 
venience of the foremost brute, the underling by sprightliness and 
advantage of position wins the prize, often at the expense of a sharp nip 
and a fierce shake from his now envious rival. The master dog never 
has the philosophy to take the rear the second time, as the winning 
position, but is careful to keep the hated object of his jealousy farther in 
the rear. This species of Jealousy, it will be seen, originates in Ali- 
mentiveness, and evokes, as subsidiary elements, scarcely more of the 
propensities than Combativeness and Destructiveness to aid in enforcing 
its claims. 


Sometimes only Approbativeness and Friendship are wounded, without 
any subsequent action of indignation toward the rival ; as in the case of 
a petted canine mother which comes to the master with her half-grown 
pup. If the pup be caressed first, her Friendship and Approbativeness 
are too active for her maternal instinct, and she retires in disgust at the 
preference shown by her master for the pup, and is jealous of the rivalry 
of her own progeny. We have heard of blooming and youthful mothers 
being jealous of the dawning beauty and fascination of their own daugh- 
ters. This form of Jealousy, however, has one more element engaged in 
its composition than accrues in the case of the canine mother, viz., the 
faculty of Amativeness ; for it is the special attention of gentlemen that 
excites the Jealousy in this case. It is not wounded Approbati 7cness 
and Adhesiveness merely. 


This envious sentiment is proverbially easy of excitement among those 
whose tastes and talents are employed in and gratified by esthetic 


Their temperament is distinctively high-toned and susceptible ; they 
yearn for appreciation and approval, and dread failure and depreciation 
as much if not more than most men dread destruction. Their vocation 
is their offspring, their loved pet, and they are as jealous of it as any hen 
i& of her first brood of chickens. A dull nature can do nothing in art. 
and has too little sensitiveness by which Jealousy can be awakened. 
Secretiveness, doubtless, enters into the composition of nearly all forma 
of Jealousy, which entertain the suspicion that there exists a spirit Dt 
selfishness and rivalry on the part of others. To the jealous supposed, 
it seems very certain that the rival is plotting mischief; that he seeks to 
supplant him by unfair means, when in point of fact such supposed rival 
may not have dreamed of competing in any way with the jealous person. 


Acquisitiveness is the basis of Jealousy in all merely pecuniary matters. 
Among business men, the rivalries of trade are varied and incessant, and 
in this form of Jealousy the faculty of Secretiveness also seems to occupy 
a prominent place. "W e hear of the " tricks of trade," which are emi- 
nently the. offspring of Secretiveness ; and the feeling which prompts to 
the use of " tricks" and treachery in trade, also leads to suspicion and 
jealousy toward cotemporaries in business. Rivals, therefore, each using 
deception to get ahead of the other, will be mutually jealous of each 
other; and if we add to this the action of Cautiousness, there will be a 
fear that in spite of the effort to outwit and get ahead of the opponent, 
hi.' will by some shrewd expedient gain the coveted end — and this feeling 
is Jealousy. In this case we have Acquisitiveness as a motive of rivalry, 
wa have the suspicion which Secretiveness gives, and the fear which 
comes from Cautiousness. It may be doubted, perhaps, whether there 
ci.n be Jealousy without fear. Rivalry presupposes equality in some 
rtspects between the parties, otherwise they could not be rivals, but 
Jealousy involving fear presupposes some known or suspected advantage 
possessed by one or the other. 


Instances of this character are very common in our political system, 
and the chicanery, bribery, and corruption exhibited by those who would 
assume responsibilities which require integrity and sagacity in their ad- 
ministration, would disgust a Camanche brave. The great mass of men 
anxious for office — to have their lingers in the public treasury, or feed, as 
:t is called, on " public pap" — are of average ability and nearly equal 
qualifications. They are apprehensive of each other's success, and are 
keenly alert lest another by some means fair or unfair get the " inside 
track," and secure the position. 



The passion of love gives rise to the feeling most commonly recognized 
as Jealousy. In fact, it has passei into a proverb, " that true love and 
jealousy are near akin," and that no one thoroughly possessed by the 
tender passion can look calmly on when others seek the favor and 
society of the person beloved. We have known persons ..t superior 
intellect and discrimination exhibit extravagant emotion, and say and 
do improper things, when they supposed themselves superseded, or likely 
to be, in the affections of those for whom they had conceived a strong 

Shakspeare, in the play of Othello, has wrought out in all the force 
and fire of heated words this most potent sort of Jealousy. In the third 
act, Iagc is represented as saying, 

"But, oh, what damned minutes tells he o'er, 
Who dotes, yet doubts ; suspects, yet fondly loves." 

And again he says, when first whispering his treachery into Othello's 

"Oh, beware, my lord, of jealousy; 
It is the green-eyed monster which doth mock 
The meat it feeds on." 

In love affairs it is probable that every person is capable of expressing 
the feeling. Many may be unconscious of it, because the circumstances 
for calling it out do not exist in then- case. They love but once, and 
that love being kindly and cordially reciprocated, and there being no 
rivalry before the conjugal union, and no conduct on the part of the 
companion after marriage calculated to awaken Jealousy, they carry the 
jealous elements latent through life, with the self-congratulation, " I 
have no jealousy in my nature." But they only need a word or a look 
on the part of the companion calculated to show a preference for another, 
to arouse in themselves the sleeping giant — Jealousy. 

How many happy homes have been broken up by this influence ! The 
suspicions of Jealousy once entertained by one of those whom the rites 
of the Church linked into what on their memorable wedding-day they 
deemed a happy union, engender feelings whose cold impress remains in 
the heart long after they have been found altogether baseless. 

The deeply enamored maiden eyes with keen distrust and pain the 
polite attentions given by the lord of her heart to another; and the pas- 
sionate lover raves, and reproaches the star of his affections if she care- 
lessly smile on a gentleman acquaintance. 

An honest and considerate husband or wife of true religious tendencies 
will give no occasion for Jealousy. The low, lewd, and weak are not 
expected to regulate themselves; and hence the jail, the prison, and the 
asylum-. Is the reader afflicted with the infirmity of Jealousy? Let him 
pray God to be delivered. Does the young wife feel neglected, and is she 
fearing her husband's interests and attentions are being improperly shared 


by another ? Let her also seek consolation in prayer, and together let 
them pray to he delivered from temptation. 

The more intense the feeling experienced by one, the greater the 
number of faculties employed in its agitation ; so the greater the number 
of faculties employed in forming an attachment, the more painful the 
feelings when that attachment is interrupted. Hence, also, the Jealousy 
among human beings in consequence of real or imaginary unfaithfulness, 
or the fear of rivalry in love matters, is intense and powerful in propor- 
tion to the extent of the mental organization unfortunately affected b}- it. 
Au animal or a man in whom only Amativeness is offended, is. appeased 
when the rival is vanquished or so removed as not to offer further op- 
position. Moreover, he has no unkind feeling toward his mate. With 
higher natures, in whom Conjugality or Union tor Life, together with 
Friendship, the intellectual, the moral, and esthetic faculties take part in 
the make-up of the love-emotion, we find the Jealousy of any infidelity 
or disturbance of the love-relation quick, sensitive, intense, and powerful. 


While Jealousy in general is an abnormal condition of the mind, there 
is a morbid Jealousy that distorts appearances, that creates its own 
occasions, and would suspect vestal purity. This is a selfish and sus- 
picious action of the love-feelings, and is an exceedingly unfortunate 
mental condition, whether it come by inheritance in whole or in part of 
a diseased or badly constituted organization ; whether it be induced by 
ill health, or provoked by improper social culture, or social misadapta- 
tion. Novel-reading and the drama seem to excite the imaginative ele- 
ments of human nature especially in connection with the social feelings, 
thereby tending to promote in mankind the spirit of Jealousy, for it is 
among the classes most devoted to these that this passion in some of its 
varied forms seems to be most frequently and painfully manifested. 
When Amativeness, Conjugality, and Friendship have become intensely 
excited in Jealousy, and Combativeness and Destructiveness, sympathiz- 
ing as they do, also become morbid, there sometimes occurs a species of 
madness which results in the murder of the real or imaginary offender, 
followed by the suicide of the infatuated victim of Jealousy. We have 
only to read the criminal records in our daily papers to find overwhelm- 
ing confirmation of these statements. 

In all these forms of Jealousy, it will be seen that the moral and 
religious elements of our nature seem to have taken no part. We are 
quite certain that none of the moral faculties enter into the production 
of Jealousy. The conduct that awakens Jealousy may be, and is, con- 
demned by the moral nature of the victim; but that conduct is alike 
condemned by the moral feelings of all that behold it, 1 hough they are 
not made jealous or otherwise personally affected by it It would seem, 


then, that the only sure remedy for Jealousy, this origin of the first 
murder on earth, this fruitful source of untold misery among all classes 
of the race, is to be found in the strength and right action of the moral 
and religious nature. Wien the animal propensities and selfish senti- 
ments predominate, either in native strength or in cultivated activity, 
Jealousy will be frequent and virulent. Those who are inclined to give 
occasion for Jealousy are certainly under the domination of the carnal 
elements of their being; and those also who are prone to be jealous — 
they are idolaters, and " love the creature more than the Creator" — are 
not sufficiently imbued with a sense of God's presence and of the glory 
and reality of the higher life. They are too much " of the earth, earthy,'.' 
and should seek to secure the subordination of their animal and selfish 
feelings by temperate and careful living, thus mitigating the feverish 
and abnormal state of the nervous system. They should endeavor to 
strengthen the action and influence of the moral feelings by the mosc 
diligent religious culture. Few persons are aware what a powerful aid 
to the subduing of animal and malign passions is the sincere and earnest 
use of the devotional part of our nature. He who with child-like faith 
can look up to his Father in heaven, and in humble trust and confidence 
commit his interests, his all, in this life and the next, to Him, will gain 
such moral strength, and such clearness of spiritual vision as to see, in the 
light of the higher life, that all the jealousies of this world, whether well 
or ill founded, are but the fruit of selfish impulses, in most cases perverted, 
and that they are as unchristian as they are productive of unhappiness. 
To those who profess to be guided by Christian dispositions, we say sub- 
due the spirit of Jealousy by devotion, by faith, and by works of charity. 
To those who do not practically recognize these influences, we say that 
your moral and religious nature needs culture, and until it comes into 
such relations as to make it active and influential, you will be subject to 
jealous tendencies, as well as to many other unhappy mental conditions. 
Study to be forbearing, gentle, and forgiving, and you will at least dis- 
arm envy of its jealous suspicions. 

Temperament and Natural Language. — "Whether a man has one 
temperament or another, is described all over him — in his hair, in his 
eyes, in his complexion, in the style of his features, and in the firm- 
ness or sponginess of his flesh. I say, therefore, the proofs of a man'a 
temperament are written all over him. He can not help himself 
any more than a horse can help showing how old he is by his teeth, or 
an ox by his horns, or a rattlesnake by his rattles. We know, too, that 
there is such a thing as a natural language, which is more truthful and 
unambiguous than the English language or any other that was ever in- 
vented. This natural language consists in the peculiar tones of the voice, 
in the expression of the countenance, and in the gestures, the air. and 
carriage of a man — all betokening the spirit within. — Horace Mann. 


N unscientific writer, relying on the results of observation and in 
tuitive impression, makes the following generally correct remarks; 
There are light, quick, surface voices that involuntarily seem to 
utter the slang, " I won't do to tie to." The man's words may assure 
you of his strength of purpose and reliability, yet his tone contradicts his 

Then there are low, deep, strong voices, where the words seem ground 
out, as if the man owed humanity a grudge, and meant to pay it some 
day. That man's opponents may well tremble, and his friends may trust 
his strength of purpose and ability to act. 

There is the coarse, boisterous, dictatorial tone, invariably adopted by 
vulgar persons, who have not sufficient cultivation to understand their 
own insignificance. 

% There is the incredulous tone, that is full of a covert sneer 01 a secret 
' You-can't-dupe-me-sir" intonation. 

Then there is the whining, beseeching voice that says " sycophant" as 
plainly as if it uttered the word. It cajoles and flatters you ; its words 
say " I love you— I admire you; you are everything you should be." 

Then there is the tender, musical, compassionate voice, that sometimes 
s;oes with sharp features (as they indicate merely intensity of feeling) and 
sometimes with blunt features, but always with genuine benevolence. 

If you are full of affectation and pretense, your voice proclaims it. 

If you are full of honesty, strength, and purpose, your voice proclaims 

If you are cold, and calm, and firm, and consistent, or fickle, and fool 
•six, and deceptious, your voice will be ecpially truth-telling. 

Phrenology is one of a group of sciences, different from anatomy, 
and its truths are of a larger stature. It belongs to the doctrine, not of 
the human body, but of man, and is one of the lesser departments of 

Considered as a branch of observation, it has never been assailed 
successfully, because no one has paid so much attention to its facts as 
the phrenologists themselves. The word of the phrenological student 
may be taken, since oppugners have formed no contrary induction which 
in destroying Phrenology might supplant it by a better system. 

The world will give it a long trial, were it only that it deals with the 
substance of character, and seems to create a solid playground, away from 
the abstractions of the old metaphysics. Color and life, substance and 
form, are dear to mankind, as homes against the wind of cold specula- 
tion. We can not give them up for patches of sky a thousand miles from 
the earth, or for anything, in short, but still more substantial houses 

Dr. Wilkinson. 




n HAKSPEARE, in the 2d part of King Henry IV., truthfully says : 

r*-' " There is a history in all men's lives, 

Fig'ring the nature of the times deceased;" 

and in the accompanying tableaux of the Svenska Regenter we find that 
this proposition is well substantiated, the countenances of our subjects 
being, as it were, a pictorial representation in miniature of the history 
of the Swedish kingdom from the fifteenth century to the present time. 
The character of each individual portrait of the group is stamped in their 
lineaments, and is seen in the phrenological conformation ; and to any 
one versed in Swedish history and in the study of character, they present 
a very interesting group. 

It takes no philosopher to read in the face of Gustavtjs Vasa the ab- 
solute monarchist, guided by a fine intellect ; hence the comparatively 
happy condition of the country during his reign. He has a patriarchal 
appearance ; he was a natural leader, and Sweden found in him a hero 
who rescued her from foreign vassalage, established her Protestant relig- 
ion, and raised her to an honorable position among European nations. 

Eric XIY., though resembling his father in physiognomy and intellect, 
possessed more vanity and pride, which led him to acts of cruelty and 

John III., his brother, possessed the same traits of character. He was 
a splendid linguist and had a fine intellect, but was as cruel and despotic 
as his brother. The two rendered the colossal labors of Gustavus Vasa 
almost useless. 

Sigismund I. possessed a face in which we fail to find anything to 
command our respectful attention. His features would indicate some- 
thing of the ascetic in his organization. He was the dupe of 

Charles IX., his uncle, who supplanted him. His low forehead and 
crown show his lack of Benevolence, sympathy, and morality ; his 
forces were employed through Destructiveness and Secretiveness, and 

1. Gustavus Vasa, called Gustaf I. Ericsson Vasa, a descendant, of the ancient kings 
of Sweden, who rescued Sweden from the Danish rule, was born at the Castle ot 
Lindholm, in Roslagen, Sweden, May 12, 1496 ; elected king of Sweden in 1523 ; and died 
at Stockholm September 29, 1560. In Sweden his name is greatly venerated. 

2. Eric XIV., the eldest son of Gustavus Vasa, was born December 13, 1533; ascended 
the throne in 1560 ; was deposed in 1568, and died February 26, 1577. He was handsome 
and intellis^nt, but tyrannical and passionate. 

3. Johan III., brother of Eric XIV., ascended the throne of Sweden in 1577; died 
heart-broken November 17, 1592, on account of the ruin he had brought on his country 
through extravagance. 

4. Sigismund I., successor and eldest son of Johan III., was born in 1566, and died in 
1632; his reign lasting through eight stormy years, mainly spent in attempting to restore 
Roman Catholicism. 

5. Charles or Cabl IX., Sigismund's uncle, was born in 1551 ; crowned in 1604; and 
died October 30, 1611. lie was artful, shrewd, cruel, and revengeful 



he became a tyrant, self-willed, ciuel, vain, and ambitious. He capped 
his career by what is now known as the " Butcher's Bench of Carl IX." 
when he invited his nobles to dinner, and afterward beheaded thirteen 
and imprisoned many others. 

Gustavtjs Adolphus, the " Great," well earned his good name. He 
bad a high moral head, but small Cautiousness. Benevolence and Veue- 
ration, the reflective and perceptive organs, are well shown in his head. 
He was brave and fearless; a guide and a leader, and his kindness 
secured to him the love of his people. 

Christina's lineaments have much of voluptuousness stamped upon 
them. She assumed the reins of government over a prosperous country, 
but her love of pleasure plunged it into debt and trouble. Her head 
shows a lack of Conscientiousness and Firmness; she was gay and 
frivolous, and the dupe of others. 

Charles X. Gustavtjs had a great likeness to Oliver Cromwell ; and 
like him was brave, fearless, and true to his principles. His phrenology 
indicates great natural force and will-power, but not much of the reason- 
ing faculties. His moral organs were fairly developed. 

Charles XL, with more intellect than his father, Charles X., had less 
force of character. The features are relaxed and softened, while Mirth- 
fulness is prominent. The moral and spiritual faculties were all strong. 
His aim was to promote peace and industry. 

With the birth of Charles XII. it was predicted that Sweden would 
have a hero for king, and time proved the truth of the prediction. His 
great deficiency was a lack of Cautiousness, which is not well shown in 
our engraving, however. His ambition, unchecked by sufficient prudence 
during*a brilliant though almost reckless career, well-nigh reduced his 
country to ruin. 

Ulrica Eleonora, Frederic I., and Adolphus Frederic may be 
classed together, because of their weaknesses. The latter has the best 
expression. Dissension and misrule marked their reigns. 

6. Gustavtjs II. Adolphus. 6urnamed the Great, was born at Stockholm December 9 
1594 ; crowned in 1611 ; killed in battle November 6, 1632. He was the eon of Carl IX., 
and grandson of Gustavus Vasa ; he was a hero, and died deeply lamented. 

7. Christina, only daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, born December 8, 1626, at Stock 
nolm; assumed the rights of sovereignty in 1644; abdicated June 6, 1654; and died in 
"ome, 1689. She grew reckless, assumed men's attire, and died despised and deserted. 

8. Charles X. Gustavtjs, chosen successor to Christina, was brave and fearless, and 
died in 1660. 

9. Charles XL, son of Charles X., was born November 24, 1655; crowned in 1660, 
and died on Easter Sunday, 1697. 

10 Charles XII., son and successor of the above, was born in Stockholm June 27, 
1682; ascended the throne in 1697; and was killed at Predericshall, in Norway, while 
lighting Russia, November 30, 1718. Us is renowned for great military ability. 

11. Llrica Eleonora, sister of Charles XII., crowned in 1718; resigned in favor o{ 
her husband in 1720. 

12. Frederic I., her husband, ruled from 1720 to 1748, when he died after an unlOp 
Uinate reign. 


Gustavus III. was surnarned the " Illustrious." He was talented, but 
improper training and gay habits demoralized him. He inherited his 
father's face and many of his weaknesses. 

Gustavus IX. was headstrong, impetuous, and stubborn, as his physi- 
ognomy attests. Fitter subject to be governed than king to rule, he soon 
showed his incapacity to manage the affairs of Sweden. He died an 
object of compassion. 

Charles XIII., in comparison with his predecessor, has much of dig- 
nity and manliness. Benevolence and Mirthfulness were large; his 
moral and intellectual faculties were also well developed, as also were 
his social. He was of peaceful disposition, and died beloved and 

Charles XIX. John, better known as Bernadotte, won for himself 
the character of a wise and good king. Firmness, Conscientiousness, 
Destructiveness, and Cautiousness were all large in his head, and with a 
well-developed intellect he guided Sweden with unerring hand through 
the critical first years of the eighteenth century, and was a successful 

Oscar I. possessed a finely cultivated and expansive mind, and had 
large Ideality, Sublimity, and Caution, hence he was prudent ; he was 
fond of the ideal and the beautiful, music, literature, and the fine arts 
being his delight. He was somewhat fastidious, but dignified, polished, 
and commanding in appearance. 

Charles XV. has a well-balanced head, supported by an excellent 
physical constitution. Firmness and force of character are well marked, 
but much softened by large Benevolence, Human Nature, Mirthfulness, 
and Agreeableness. The base of the brain is large. He has a finely 
developed intellect, and looks as he is, a courtly and gentlemanly king. 

13. Adolphus Frederic, formerly Bishop of Lubeck, under the influence of Russia 
ascended the throne in 1748, and after a turbulent reign of twenty years died February 
12, 1771. 

14. Gustavus in., called the " Illustrious, " son of Adolphus Frederic, was born in 
Stockholm, January 24, 174G; crowned in 1772 ; and was assassinated, and died March 
29, 1792. 

15. Gustavus IV. Adolphus, son of the former, born November 1, 1778 ; succeeded 
hie father; was dethroned, and died February 17, 1837. He was headstrong and 

16. Charles XILT. was born October 7, 1748 ; crowned June 20, 1809 ; and died February 
5, 1818, beloved and regretted. 

17. Charles XIV. John, originally Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's 
trust ed generals, born at Pau, the capital of Bearne, France, January 26, 17o4 ; wa? 
crowned king of Sweden and Norway, 1818; and died March 8, 1844, after a prosperous 
and happy reign. 

18. Oscar I., son of Bernadotte, was born in Paris July 4, 1799 ; crowned March 8, 
1844; resigned the throne to his son September 25, 1857; and died at Stockholm July 8, 

19. Charles XV., the eldest son of Oscar I., and the present ruler, was born May 1, 
1820. and succeeded his father to the throne July 8, 1859. He is described as a kind anil 
gentlemanly hing, and "the idol of the people." 


The intellectual monarchist Vasa, the low-headed Charles, the gay 
Christina, the Cromwellian Carl IX., the incautious but brave Charles 
XII., the weak Ulrica, the stubborn Gustavus IV., the resolute Charles 
XIIL, his prudent and warlike adopted son, have all left their mark upon 
the pages of history, corresponding with their various degrees of phreno- 
logical development. 


Contents: — General Principles— Law of Resemblance — The Importance of Health- 
Parental Influences— Climatic and Temperamental Influences— Pertinent Facts- 
Foreign Testimony— Cattle Breeders— Evidence of the Physiologists— Theory ol 
Transmission— The Other Side of the Question— When such Marriages may be Pcr- 
misbible— Hereditary Taints— Counsel to All. 

" Variety's the very spice of life, 
That gives it all its flavor." — Cowper. 


THIS subject is by no means new ; but its grave importance, when 
considered with reference to society and posterity, and the phe- 
nomena of physical and mental degeneracy here and there crop- 
ping out, is our plea in extenuation for introducing it again to the reader. 
Besides, in attempting to present a clear and dispassionate statement of 
our views and researches on the subject, we feel that we are discharging 
a duty which our regard for the welfare of humanity instinctively sug- 
gests. "We trust also to be able, within the compass of a few pages, to 
satisfactorily answer many correspondents whose interest in the subject 
was evinced in a marked degree by the warmth of their inquiries. 

In contemplating the wide universe of matter, organic or inorganic, 
we recognize the existence of certain laws — immutable principles — which 
govern it in all its parts and relations. Nothing is fortuitous, nothing 
accidental. As in nature at large, so in man — the aggregate of mind and 
matter — fixed principles exist. The due observance of these principles 
secures harmony of organization, physical health, mental vigor, happi- 
ness. The neglect or disregard of these principles entails irregularity, 
physical infirmity, premature mental decay, misery. 

These principles, or laws, which appertain to human existence and 
well-being, are well known to most thinking men, and command their 
approval, if they do not always their obedience. 


In the married relation the principle of hereditary transmission, inher- 
itance, or "like begets like," prevails. Mankind are distributed into 
races, races into tribes or communities, and these last into families. 
Each race has its peculiarities of facial and cranial conformation, which 
distinguishes it from all other races; each tribe or community has cer- 


tain traceable marks or features differing from those of other tribes and 
communities of the same race, and each family possesses distinctive 
characteristics by which members of it are recognized. 

The law of resemblance applies to mind as well as to body. There 
may be apparent exceptions to this rule, but upon careful examination 
they will be found to be only apparent. The father may be said to have 
a physiological resurrection in the son. The son may greatly exceed 
the father in talent, but the father is in him in a mentally modified form; 
the advantages of education and association, combined with a finely 
organized temperament derived from the mother, have produced the 
superior outgrowth from the parental graft. 


The grand substantial element which enters into national progress is 
sound mental development. The indispensable complement of this is 
vigorous physical constitution — 

" Sana mens in corpore sano." 

A sound mind is the product of and requires the sustenance of a sound 
body. A weak and drooping body can not supply the vital energy de- 
manded by an active nervous system, and therefore necessitates its sym- 
pathetic decay. The page of history bears record to this truth, with its 
many names whose genius shed luster on the period in which they lived, 
but whose brief lives and unfinished work are startling commentaries on 
what we may in truth term intellectual dissipation. Alexander Pope, 
Rufus Choate, Theodore Parker, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar A. Poe, 
Thomas Starr King were martyrs to their intellects and nervous temper- 
aments, as is well known. 

Since the health of mind and body is essential to a well-balanced 
organization, and physical conditions are transmitted by generation, 
how important it is that those who would perpetuate their names, who 
would have children of their substance and character, children who would 
honorably represent them in the walks of society, should carefully consider 
themselves in all respects physiologically and psychologically beforehand ! 
" A corrupt tree can not bring forth good fruit," neither can a weak and 
diseased man or woman have children in all respects sound and well 
constituted. Careful training subsequent to birth may greatly modify 
inherited deficiencies, but all traces of them can never be obliterated. 

This physiological principle has of course universal application, but is 
most strikingly developed in the marriage of those who are related by 
the ties of blood. 

In the highest form of society as it exists among civilized nations, 
cousins, or the children of brothers or sisters, are permitted to associate 
in the married relation. The medicists and statisticians of America 
generally disapprove of such association, while in England and on the 
continent of Europe much diversity of opinion exists among the learned 



with reference to it. The general agreement in America and the diver- 
sity in Europe may be accounted for on strictly scientific grounds. 


The American type of organization is composite, possessing the ele- 
ments of the Saxon, the Teuton, the Celt, and to some extent the Gael, 
in both his physique and character. Allied with this favorable combina- 
tion is a temperament remarkable for its raciness and intensity. The 
In isk, vigorous, intense climate in which he lives stimulates him to nerv- 
ous activity, and in the occupation and tentative subjugation to his pur- 
poses of a comparatively new and vast countiy he has developed greatly 
in mental strength and activity. Precocity of intellect marks the major- 
ity of the children bom of native parents in the United States. This is 
especially seen in those families which take rank in refined and culti- 
vated society, and is due in a great degree to an erroneous system of 
mental education, which, while admirably adapted to develop the youth 
ful mind, neglects almost entirely the body. 

Besides this system of education, manual occupations, trade, and pro- 
fessional employments are all conducted in a manner characteristically 
American, i. c, with much impatient restlessness and activity. Business 
here rushes. When a New York or Chicago merchant has an order to 
fill, his warehouse is the scene of bustle and excitement quite appalling 
to a phlegmatic tradesman from the banks of the Rhine. Such mental 
activity, unless sustained by sufficient vitality, tends to derange the hu- 
man organization and exhaust it prematurely. Three fourths of our 
educated American youth are distinguished for their gaunt frames, thin 
or sunken features, and large encephalons. They have great acuteness 
of observation, and usually an intense nervous susceptibility, while their 
constitutional vigor is deficient and their muscular power comparatively 
slight. These young men, when they entertain marriage, usuaify select 
their life's companion from among those young women who move on 
their own plane, in their own social circle, and who therefore partake of 
the same organic and temperamental conditions. The children of such 
unions are precocious intellectually, feeble and backward physically, and 
must be very tenderly nurtured through childhood and early youth, and 
throughout their entire lives they rarely exhibit a vigorous and enduring 

If, then, such are the fruits of marriages between individuals of the 
temperament and organization described, who may be entirely discon- 
nected by ties of blood or relationship, on strictly scientific grounds it 
must be expected that the children of an alliance between persons simi- 
larly constituted who may be related by tics of blood would exhibit a 
still greater want of balance in their organization, a more unhappy con- 
stitution. And this is the fact, attested to by the statistics of the asylums 
and hospitals of the United States. The number of idiots, cretins, dwarfs, 
deformed, ami blind persons resulting from the intermarriage of blood- 


relations in this country is far greater than is generally supposed, ana 
greatly on the increase 


Tl.e Report of the Commissioners of the Kentucky Institution for the 
Education and Training of Imbeciles or Feeble-minded Children, in a 
passage urging the prohibition of first-cousin marriages by legal statute, 
uses the following language : " We deem it our duty to the interests of 
humanity as well as to the pecuniary interest of the State, to bear our 
testimony in addition to the abundant statistics heretofore collected and 
published by physicians and philanthropists, and to the observation of 
every close observer, as well as to general considerations of propriety, 
that a large percentage of deaf mutes and of the blind, a limited per- 
centage of lunatics, and, no doubt, a much larger one than either of 
feeble-minded or idiotic children, are the offspring of the marriage of 
first cousins. Our charitable institutions are filled with children whose 
parents are so related — sometimes as many as four from one family ; and 
we have known, in the case of idiots, of a still larger number in a family. 
It is a fearful penalty to which persons so related render themselves 
liable by forming the matrimonial relation, and which they, in nearly 
every instance, incur, not indeed in all, but in one or more of their oft' 
spring. Instances, we do not deny, may be shown where a portion oJ 
the children — one or more — may inherit from both parents, where pos 
sessed of high mental and bodily endowments of a common origin, 
enhanced and remarkable qualities of body and mind ; but it is generally 
at the expense of unfortunate and deeply afflicted brothers and sisters 
We believe few instances can be given where such enhanced endowments' 
are common to all the offspring; while instances are not unfrequent 
where nearly all, and, in a few, perhaps, every child, is afflicted either 
in body or mind, and sometimes in both." 

A report read before the National Medical Association at Washington 
by Dr. S. M. Bemiss, in 1858, shows that over ten per cent, of the blind, 
and nearly fifteen per cent, of the idiotic in the different State institutions 
were the offspring of kindred parents. 

This is an appalling statement in itself, but does not disclose all the 
truth, for in many homes the unhappy fruits of a marriage between blood- 
relations are secluded from observation and their existence is not sus- 
pected by even intimate acquaintances. Motives of delicacy or shame 
prevent such parents from making known their distressing responsibilities. 


In Europe, the diversity of opinion among scientists on this subject 
seems to be due mainly to the facts adduced by growers of improved 
breeds of cattle. The Durham ox and Ditchley sheep of England are 
the product of breeding in-and-in. The Arabs can trace the pedigree of 
their most valuable horses to the time of Mohammed, while they avoid 
"vll crossing as detrimental. These facts, while they admit of but excep- 


tional denial, can hardly be received as analogous to the results of mar- 
riages of kin among men, owing to the differences of structure and 
nervous constitution between man and the lower animals. 

Improvements in the English cattle are altogether physical, and pro- 
duced by the association of selected individuals of the stock most 

Speaking of breeding in-and-in generally, Sir John Sebright, a noted 
English authority says: "I have no doubt that by this practice being 
continued, animals would, in course of time, degenerate to such a degree 
as to become incapable of breeding at all. I have tried many experi- 
ments by breeding in-and-in upon dogs, fowls, and pigeons; the dogs 
become from strong spaniels, weak and diminutive lapdogs ; the fowls 
become long in the legs, small in the body, and poor breeders. Barren- 
ness is the result." 

Mr. Berry, another eminent authority, says : " Although close breed- 
ing may confirm valuable properties, it will also increase and confirm 
defects. * * * It impairs the constitution and affects the procreative 

Alexander Walker, the author of " Intermarriage ; or, Beauty, Health, 
and Intellect," devotes a large portion of his work to the consideration 
of stock-raising in England, citing the best authorities on cross-breeding 
and in-and-in breeding. He does not indoise in all respects the views 
generally entertained concerning the superior quality of Durham cattle, 
Ditchley sheep, and Arabian horses, but adduces evidence showing that 
the gain resulting from such interbreeding is offset by a loss in other 

In an article treating of the Horse, in the " Encyclopedia Britanntca," 
we find, " Accurate observers must have noticed that the greater part of 
the horses brought to this country as Barbs and Arabians, have exhibited 
a palpable deficiency in the points contributing to strength and the want 
of general substance." 

The fleetness of the Arabian horses seems to remain substantially 
unquestioned — that being the feature of their development. 


But whatever may be the results of experiments with the lower 
animals in the way specially considered, they can not essentially affect 
the known facts with reference to consanguineous marriages among 
men. Dr. Carpenter, of the University of London, in his " Principles of 
Human Physiology," uses the following strong language: " The intensi 
fication which almost any kind of perversion of nutrition derives from 
being common to both parents, is most remarkably evinced by the 
lamentable results which too frequently accrue from the marriage of 
individuals nearly related to each other and partaking of the same 
' taint.' Out of 359 idiots the condition of whose progenitors could be 
ascertained, 17 were known to have been the children of parents nearly 


related by blood, and this relationship was suspected to have existed in 
several other cases in which positive information could not be obtained. 
On examining into the history of the 17 families to which these indi- 
viduals belonged, it was found that they had consisted in all of 95 chil 
dreu; that of these, no fewer than 44 were idiotic, 12 others were 
scrofulous and puny, 1 was deaf, and 1 was a dwarf. In some of these 
families all the children w r ere either idiotic or very scrofulous and puny ; 
in one family of 8 children, 5 were idiotic." 

According to " Chambers' Encyclopedia," the result of an examination 
into the congenital influences affecting deaf and dumb children in Scot- 
land, was that of 235 whose parentage could be traced, 70, or nearly 30 
per cent., were the offspring of the intermarriage of blood-relations. The 
physical deformity and mental debasement of the Cagots of the P3 r renees, 
of the Marrons of Auvergne, of the Sarrasins of Dauphine, of the Cretins 
of the Alps, and the gradual deterioration of the slave population of 
America, have been attributed to the consanguineous alliances which are 
unavoidable among these unfortunate people."* 

In all families the likeness which marks them is the ground on which 
we found our chief objection to the marriage of near relations. It is the 
likeness which in its development throws the organization more and 
more out of balance. Nature finds compensating influences in mixed 
marriages, and thus modifies and improves the progeny. Persons too 
much alike, even if not related, should not marry, for the reason that 
their children are likely to inherit the similar characteristics of their 
parents in an intensified degree, and be all the more inhannoniously 
constituted. The children born of such alliances usually inherit all the 
physical weaknesses or " taints" of their parents. 


In healthy, w T ell-organized, and happily-mated human beings the 
father, according to the physiologists, gives the more solid portions of 
his offspring's constitution, viz., the back-head which presides over the 
locomotive organs and the base of the brain laterally; while the face and 
nutritive organs are usually inherited from the mother. This is always 
the case where the father and mother are strangers, or of dissimilar 
blood. But precisely the reverse of this takes place in marriages of con- 
sanguinity or of " blood" relations. Then the locomotive force is im- 
parted by the mother and the filling up by the father. The father no 
longer gives character to his progeny; he becomes enfeebled, and even 

* For more extended statistical evidence, we would refer the roader to the " Animal 
Reports of the New York State Asylums for Idiots ;" " The American Journal of Medical 
Science for 1849;" " Steinairs Essay on Hereditary Diseases and Intermarriage;" 
■'Devay on the Danger of Consanguineous Marriages ;" "Boudin, Dangers des Union* 
Consanguins," and to medical works In general. See also our "Special List," fur valu- 
able private medical works, treating on the right relation of the sexes — sent to nwj 
address on receipt of stamp with which to pay the postage. 


loses reproductive power. Nearly perfect beings would thus inevitably 
degenerate. Experience, taken from the lessons imparted by nature, has 
taught us the value of blood and of the importance of change in regard 
to marriage, and we can not understand why these principles are not in 
practice applied tc the human race. In agricultural operations, every 
experienced farmer knows that corn or wheat, if grown for successive 
seasons on the same ground, will deteriorate in quality ; and therefore 
he not only changes the ground occasionally, but also the seed, so as to 
determine and keep up the standard quality of his grain. 

George Combe, the author of" Constitution of Man," has given his de- 
cided opposition to such marriages. He says : " Marriages between blood- 
relations tend most decidedly to the deterioration of the physical and 
mental qualities of the offspring. In Spain, kings marry their nieces; and 
in England, first and second cousins marry without scruple, although 
every philosophical physiologist will declare that it is in direct opposi- 
tion to the institutions of nature.* 

" If the first individuals connected in near relationship, who unite in 
marriage, are uncommonly robust, and possess very favorably developed 
brains, their offspring may not be so much deteriorated below the com- 
mon standard of the country as to attract particular attention, and the 
law of nature is, in this instance, supposed not to hold; but it does hold, 
for to a law of nature there never is an exception. The offspring are 
uniformly inferior to what they tcould have been if the parents had united 
with strangers in blood of equal vigor and cerebral development. 
Wherever there is any remarkable deficiency in parents who are related in 
blood, these appear in the most marked and aggravated forms in the offspring. 
The fact is so well known that I forbear to enlarge upon it." 


We would not be dealing justly with our subject and the reader if we 
did not notice the particular cases frequently cited in opposition to the 
position we have taken. The Jews are said to intermarry, and yet retail) 
their physical condition unimpaired. The small Mohammedan com- 
munities in India, and some isolated tribes in our own country, inter- 
marry from necessity to maintain their existence and identity. With 
respect to these cases our data at present are not sufficient to intelligent- 
ly consider them. Assuming them, however, to be authentic and valid, 
we would attempt on phrenological grounds to account for them. That 
happy mean of temperamental and physical constitution may exist 
among those peoples and tribes which renders close marriages less ob- 
jectionable. They may possess such a harmonious combination of the 
different organs and faculties of the body and mind, that in the married 
relation no marked infirmity or defect crops out in their children. With 
reference to the Jews of America, we are not aware that marriages of 

* Is not this the reason why there is so much imbecility amoiif the nobility? Is 
a royal family always distinguished "or power of body or mind? 


relatives are so frequent as to render them a marked feature in their 
social life. If we believe them to be governed in matters matrimonial 
by Old Testament law, and that they follow the prescriptions given in 
the eighteenth chapter of Leviticus, especially at the sixth verse, winch 
enjoins, " None of you shall approach [in marriage] to any that is near 
of kin to him," we can not sanction the statement of their intermarriages 
as creditable. With the Mohammedan tribes mentioned we would com- 
pare the exclusive tribes of Africa which are known to intermarry, and 
are also known to be among the very lowest types of human nature on 
the face of the earth. 


We candidly believe that there are circumstances under which cousins 
might marry without apparent injurious results, but such circumstances 
are exceedingly rare. We might suppose those circumstances to exist in 
the following hypothesis : Two brothers, in whose veins is the blood of 
half a dozen nations, and who can not recall a single instance of inter- 
marriage in the family in generations past, settle for life in this country 
a thousand miles apart, and many wives who are total strangers and as 
dissimilar as two white women can be ; their habits are excellent, their 
morals pure, and their health vigorous. Were the son of one brother to 
marry the daughter of the other, we could hardly apprehend a serious 
marring of their offspring, especially if such son and daughter respective- 
ly resembled their mothers, thus being withdrawn as it were from the 
temperamental constitution of their fathers, or the consanguineous side. 
This may be considered an extreme and improbable case, but it is only 
sucli a one that we would venture to permit as conferring no injury on 
the offspring. 

Again : If the suitors — cousins — be past forty years of age, and seek 
to marry simply and only for personal companionship, that is another 
thing, and may be admissible. The danger of inflicting imbeciles on 
society would be materially lessened. If. therefore, cousins will many, 
let them put it off till past forty years of age. 


It is well known that a person often carries in himself or herself in- 
herited physiological peculiarities which are latent, but crop out after a 
generation or two. A man whose father had blue eyes and flaxen hair 
often derives from his mother black or dark hair and eyes and a dark 
complexion; he marries a woman similar, temperamentally, to himself, 
and lo ! his daughter has a light complexion, flaxen hair, and blue eye3. 
Her voice, her walk, and general habitude are like her light-complexioned 
grandfather, and acquaintances of the family who meet her as a stranger 
know her by the resemblance to that grandfather. So cousins who 
appeal to resemble the unrelated parents may carry enough of 
their related parents' blood idiosyncrasies to render their marriage im 



So serious an undertaking as marriage should never be entered upon 
hastLy by any, whether related or unrelated. The tremendous interests 
involved should be most carefully considered. "Marry in haste, repent 
al leisure," is a maxim of world-wide application, and confirmed in the 
thousand unhappy homes around us. 

No caprice, freak, or fancy should precipitate that most sacred and 
important of earthly relations. True, earnest love between 

" Two souls with but a single thought, 
Two hearts that heat as one," 

is not inconsistent with a calm consideration of the responsibilities of 
wedded life ; on the contrary, its mutual thoughtfulness, sympathy, and 
solicitude conduce to such careful consideration, and pave the way to an 
unclouded and joyous union. 

No reasonable man, even when entertaining a strong attachment for a 
jlood-relation, could indifferently glance at the array of testimony we 
have here presented. The terrible looking for of a judgment, as it were, 
iu the form of abnormal, dwarfed, mal-orgauizcd children as the product 
of his marriage with that relative, would deter him from such a consum- 
matiou. For her sake, on whom would devolve the agonizing charge of 
such offspring, he would pause. The spirit which should actuate eveiy 
person, man or woman, contemplating marriage, should be that of posi- 
tive good to themselves and the improvement of their race. They 
should seek to more than duplicate themselves in their children ; and a 
well-ordered marriage, wherein the husband and wife complement each 
other temperamentally and physically, and who conduct their household 
on the sure principles of religion, temperance, and mutual concession, 
will be confirmed in its happiness by the olive branches which may 
spring up in their midst. In conclusion, we would urge no excuse for 
the plainness of our statements. It is a false delicacy which carps at the 
discussion of facts like these. Silence, too long, has permitted the 
growth of evils which now are apparent in the deterioration of families 
and the greatly increased taxation of communities — a silence criminal in 

" Wisdom is justified of all her children." 

If scientific aid is available for disposing of any uncertainty which 
may deter those who are desirous of entering into the married state from 
selecting their companions, it is certainly the part of wisdom to employ 
it. Phrenology proffers that aid, and by it one may learn as much of 
another's disposition in an hour as he would be likely to learn in a year 
without it. Long courtships are approved by many on the ground that 
the extended acquaintance will enable the gentleman and lady who pre- 
fer each other's society, to thoroughly understand each other, and intelli- 
gently decide as to the propriety of their marriage. Though Phrenol- 
ogy renders any interval unnecessary, it is always better for those con- 


templating marriage to be deliberate in its consummation. Ordinarily, 
six, eight, or twelve mouths is little time enough for such to comprehend 
each other. We have in course of preparation a new work on " Mar- 
riage," which will, as far as possible, include all that is of practical value 
on the subject. 

Indian Tktbes in America. — The present numerical strength uf 11 c 
Indians is estimated at 350,000; out of this number 70,000 are semi-civil- 
ized. According to statistics furnished us by an officer qualified b} r long 
experience and intercourse with Indians, they may be classed according 
to their tribal organizations as follows : Cheyennes and Blnckfeet Sioux, 
9,100; Arrapahoes, 1,200; Brule Sioux, "under Red Cloud," 3,000; Ogal- 
"alla Sioux, 3,600; Minneconjos, 2,400; Uncapas, 2,400; Yanctonnais, 
4,200 ; Arickaries, Assiniboines, Gros Ventres, Mundans, 9,000. In the 
northern part of Montana are the Flatheads, 600; Kootennais, 300; Rend 
il'Oreilles, 900. In the Indian country lying north of Texas and west of 
Kansas may be found the following peaceful tribes, who are semi-civil- 
ized : Choctaw Nation, 15,000 ; Chickasaws, 5,000 ; Quapavvs, Senecas, 
and Sawnees, 670; Osages and Neoshos, 3,200; and the Wiehitas, 2,800. 
In Kansas and Nebraska are the Pawnees, 2,800; Winnebagoes, 1,900; 
Oniahas, 1,000; Iowas, 300; Otioes and Missourias, 700; Sacs and Foxes, 
800. These Indians are all friendly. There are also Chippewas, Otta- 
vvas, and Pottawatomies, numbering some 7,921. 

In Oregon, Washington, Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico and Texas 
are the Tualips, Skokamish, Lumnis, 1,900; Makahs, 1,400 ; Puyallups, 
Nisquallys, Squaksins, and Chehalis, 2,000 ; Quinailts, Quillehutes, 600 ; 
Yakamas, 3,000; Spokanes, 1,200; Colvilles, 500; Cayuses, Wallah-Wal- 
lahs, 1,200; Wascoes, Klamatos, and Modoes, 3,500; Snakes, or Sho- 
shomes, 1,000 ; small bands scattered, 1,250 ; Pimos and Marricopas, 7,500; 
Papagos, 5,000; Cocopas, Yumas, Majaves, Yavapais, and Chemihuevis, 
9,500 ; and lastly, the most warlike tribes on the American continent, the 
Kiowas, Camanches, Apaches, and Navajoes, 15,100. 

In Nevada, Utah, and the Indian country east of the Rocky Moun 
tains, are found the following: The Pah-Utes and other tribes , 8,500; 
Bannacks and Shoshones, 4,000; Gosha-Utes, 800; Webcr-Ules, 800 ; Tim- 
panoag, 200; Unitah-Utes, 3,000; Pah-vauts, 1,500; San Pitches, 500; 
Utahs, 3,000 ; Pueblos or Village Indians, 7,000 ; Tahequache-Utes, 4,500 ; 
and the Creeks, civilized, 14,500. 

Besides of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Slate of 
Maine, and other portions of the American continent, where considerable 
numbers of broken tribes still linger, the above approximates to the 
truth as to names of tribes and numbers of the North American Indiana 
at the present time. 





whose name has become 
so "well known in America 
and England through his ex- 
tended munificexce, was bom at 
Danvers, Mass., February IS, 
1795. His parents were poor, 
and his only education was ob- 
tained at the district school of 
his native place. At the age of 
eleven he was placed at work 
with a grocer of Danvers; at fif- 
teen he became clerk in the dry 
goods store of his brother in New- 
buryport, and two years after- 
ward had the entire manage- 
ment of the business of his uncle 
in the same place. 

In 1817 he became a partner 
with Mr. Elisha Riggs, of Balti- 
more, engaged in the dry goods trade, visiting England several times 
with important commissions. In 1837 he removed to London, and seven 
years afterward became a banker there, where he accumulated his im- 
mense fortune. His extended charities, which have since rendered him 
so popular, are believed to be presented in the following list: 

Danvers Peabody Institute $-20,000 

Inclosed in a letter on the occasion 
of the anniversary of the hun- 
dredth year of the corporate exist- 
ence of Danvers, with the senti- 
"Education— a debt due from 
the present to future gene- 

Since increased to 160,000 

To the Grinnell Arctic Expedition 10,000 
Baltimore Institute of Science, 

Literature, and Fine Arts 1,000,000 

The London Poor 1,800,000 

Baltimore Historical Society 20,000 

Boston Historical Society 20,000 

Danvers $5,000 

Georgetown (Mass.), for church and 

library 50,000 

Georgetown, D. C . 15,0i'0 

Library in Vermont 5,000 

YaleCollege 150,000 

Harvard College 150,000 

Kenyon College, Ohio 25.000 

Phillips' Academy 35,000 

Salem East India Company, Lec- 
ture Room and Museum 140,000 

Recent donations to the South, 
which may be increased by the 

Mississippi bonds 1,000,000 

His family connections, in trust ..1,500,000 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 2o,0<!0 

Mr. Peabody has provided, it is said, for every relation of his now 
living; the most distant receiving $50,000, and those nearer, $150,000 
each. His fortune is estimated at $30,000,000; he is one of the richest 
private individuals — save Baron Rothschild — known to us. 

A Avell-regulated life has produced its results in the healthy and vigor- 
ous constitution of Mr. Peabody, though he is now over seventy years of 


age. The features bear a pleasing expression and indicate a hearty good- 
nature. His organization is of that happy type which can undertake 
large measures and sustain grave responsibilities without suffering from 
the solicitude and mental effort which most men experience under such 
circumstances. He has a large development of the brain laterally ; his 
head is wiclt between the ears and the perceptive organs; Order and Cal- 
culation are very large. Hence he should be a shrewd estimatoi, a ck>so 
financier, and an energetic and methodical worker. He is essentially a 
practical man in thought and action. Application, constant application 
without worry or friction, perfectly temperate habits, a high estimate of 
honor and integrity, a prophetic forecast as to the future, rigid economy, 
great prudence and perseverance, and a well-poised body and brain are 
among the essentials of his great success. Now let us suppose for a moment 
that ne had been " a fast young man ;" that he had smoked, chewed, 
or snuffed tobacco; that he had drunk liquor, indulged in games ot 
chance, patronized the race-course; in short, suppose he had lived as 
half the young men cf to-day are living, who would have ever heard 
of George Peabody ? He would have lived and died in the town that 
gave him birth, as thousands of others equally gifted have done. We 
grant, the boy George Peabody had an aptitude for trade. This was duly 
encouraged, and all things made to bend in one direction. Is it probable 
that he, to-day, enjoys his dinner, or his newspaper, or his work, any 
better than you or IV Indeed, we doubt if being absorbed, as he must 
have been for so many years, in money-making, has not dried up or 
eradicated those capacities for the enjoyment of poetry, art, literature, 
mechanism, travel, scenery, and nature, which beget ecstatic pleasure in 
others. Among the wisest things he ever did, is giving away his hut- 
plus money, which otherwise must have made him mean and soi.lkl. 


A truthful soul, a loving mind, 
Full of affection for its kind ; 
A spirit firm, erect, and free, 
That never basely bends the knee; 
That will not bear a feather's weight 
Of slavery's chain for small or great; 
That truly speaks from God within ; 
That never makes a league witli sin ; 
That snaps the fetters despots make, 
And loves the truth for its own sake ; 
That worships God, and him alone, 
And bows no more than at h's throne; 
And trembles at no tyrant's nod ; 
A soul that fears no one but God, 
And thus can smile at curse or ban: 
This is the soul that in ikes a man. 





was bora at Farranigton, 
New Hampshire, Febru 
ary 16, 1812. He was early em- 
ployed on a farm in his native 
place, where he worked ten years, 
going to school only at rare in- 
tervals. On attaining his major- 
ity he hired himself out to a 
shoemaker at Natick, Mass, 
where he accumulated enough 
money to enable him to study 
awhile. His plan of education 
was cut short, however, by the 
insolvency of the person to whom 
he had intrusted his savings; 
and he returned to his former 
occupation in Natick. In 1840 he took an active part in the Presidential 
canvass in favor of Gen. Harrison. In the next five years be was thrice 
ejected a representative to the Massachusetts Legislature from Natick, 
anil twice as a State Senator from Middlesex County. Here he was 
known as a zealous opponent of slavery, and introduced in the Legisla- 
ture a resolution declaring the hostility of Massachusetts against the ex- 
tension of slavery in America. He took a prominent part in the organi- 
zation of the Free Soil party, and in 1819 was chosen chairman of the 
Free Soil State Committee of Massachusetts. In 1850-51 he was chosen 
State Senator, and during both terms was president of the Senate. He 
was elected to the Constitutional Convention of 1853 by Natick and 
Berlin, and in 1855 succeeded Edward Everett in the United States 
Senate, where he has been conspicuous as an earnest advocate of all 
anti-slavery measures. He has taken prominent part in ail important 
debates — on Kansas, the Treasury Note bill, Expenses of the Govern- 
ment, the Tariff, the Pacific Railroad, and many other topics. In 1859 
be was re-elected by Massachusetts to the Senate by nearly a unanimous 
vote. In 1861 he was made chairman of the Committee on Military 
Affairs, and so efficient were his services to the country that Mr. Came- 
ron, the Secretary of War, said of him, " No man, in my opinion, in the 
whole country, has done more to aid the War Department in preparing 
the mighty army now under arms." In the regular session of 1861-62 
Mr. Wilson introduced a bill abolishing slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and also the measure for abolishing the " Black Code." 

This countenance expresses power and settled conviction. The head 
is very large, and is united with a strongly-made and healthy body. 


The broad shoulders and massive chest appear to have been constituted 
to meet great emergencies and to sustain heavy responsibilities. The 
face, though strongly marked with lines of determination and even stern- 
ness, is yet so softened with, as it were, an expression of gentleness and 
geniality, that we are constrained to pronounce it winning. There is an 
expression of honesty beaming from the clear, steady eyes, which adds a 
pleasing tone to the countenance. Senator Wilson is marked by eminent 
intellectual vigor and high moral worth. The elements which go Ic 
make up that essential feature of an admirable character, sound judg- 
ment, are certainly his.^ Whatever may be the subject of his advocacy 
as a private man or as a statesman, his efforts should be pervaded with 
a charitable and even a religious tendency. 

He may always be found an earnest worker in the interest of educa- 
tion, temperance, industry, and of individual and public improvement. 
Were he to be elected President of the United States, we would guaran- 
tee that the best interests of the nation, in all its departments, would be 
zealously promoted. 

Bad Heads and Good Characters.— Can a person with what is 
called a low, bad head, where the animal propensities predominate over 
the intellectual and moral sentiments, manifest a good character? 

Arts, Yes. And this is the most encouraging feature of phrenological 
science, viz., that although we may be ever so strongly inclined to vice, 
that the tendency pulls or pushes strongly in the wrong direction, still 
there is something within most men — indeed, we may say in all men 
who are not imbeciles or idiots — which will enable them to master them- 
selves and steer a course contrary to their strong, natural inclinations. 
In other words, by the aid of grace, and that still, small voice which 
whispers to every one, we may overcome our evil tendencies and inclina- 
tions, and live in accordance with our highest attributes. We have met 
splendid heads with decidedly bad characters, and indifferent heads with 
decidedly good characters. Nor will any phrenologist undertake to say, 
from any man's head, what he has done, nor what he will do. He can 
simply state what are his inclinations, tendencies, and capabilities; 
one is mechanical, another musical or artistic, another more inclined to 
count coppers than to seek the good of others. In our professional in- 
terviews, we frequently meet men who acknowledge how strong are 
their temptations in this or that direction, but by the grace of God they 
are enabled to overcome them; still others, who boast of their wicked 
ness, and think it an honor to be able to eat or drink more than other 
men, and who brag of the prowess of a plucky dog or the achievement 
of a barn-door cock. No, let not those less favorably organized despair, 
but rather let them be thankful that they are no worse. Let them make 
the most of the talent they have, and strive to add to what they have 
rather than complain of what they have not. Every honest effort in the 
right direction will be rewarded, and God's blessing will attend all who 
lo their best 





Chancellor of the English 

Exchequer, and the leader of the 
Tory party in the House of Com- 
mons, was born in London, in 
1805, of Jewish parents. He re- 
ceived a private education, and 
was destined by his father Tor a 
position in a government office, 
and entered a lawyer's office in 
order to qualify himself for the 
position. The study of law was 
distasteful to him. In 1827 he 
published his novel " Vivian 
Grey," succeeded at intervals by 
1 other brilliant works of fiction — 
" The Young Duke," " Contarini Fleming," " The "Wondrous Tale of Al- 
roy," " Henrietta Temple," and others. Tired of literary fame alone, his 
ambition became excited to represent the people in Parliament. He was 
elected from Maidstone, and at the age of thirty-two took his seat in the 
House of Commons. His first speech was a failure ; he made himself ridic- 
ulous by his extravagant gestures, his lack of ideas, and extravagant met- 
aphor. He sat down discomfited, but uttered at. the time the remarkable 
prophecy, " I have begun many things several times, and have often suc- 
ceeded at last. I shall sit down now, but the time will come when yon 
will hear me." For four years he listened silently in the House, observing 
everything, and making himself master of the situation. When he next 
spoke, England heard him with surprise at the new power that had 
sprung up. To-day he stands at the head of the House of Commons 
and is Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was elected for Shrewsbury in 
1841 ; for Buckinghamshire in 1847. He was Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer from March to December, 1852, and again from February, 1858, 
to June, 1859, and is now a third time. Since he has been in Parlia- 
ment he has written " Couigsby," " Sybil," and " Tancred" — novels in 
which politics and fiction are curiously but not unsuccessfully mingled. 
The great English statesman has a singular organization It is ten) 
perament in his case which exercises the influence paramount, and ha; 
developed and made the man. In him we find a fine union of the men- 
tal, motive, and vital temperaments ; the one imparting activity and in- 
tensity, the other power, solidity, and recuperation. He is close, politic 
and shrewd, yet ambitious as Caesar, and vigorous in the promotion of 
measures. His high forehead exhibits in its fullness of detail great intel- 


lectual abilit}% and a singular capacity to read the motives and compre- 
hend the character of others. Ho is a sharp analyzer of mind, and a 
caustic critic of what he deems unsound. He possesses decision of char- 
acter, coupled with great self-esteem. The affections appear to be by no 
means deficient, but are subordinated to his intellect. Secretiveness, 
Cautiousness, and Combativeness are also large and influential. He is 
not restrained by fear of displeasing others, nor by penitence or com- 
punction. With him success is the measure of right. Great in strategy 
and in invention, critical and sharp in debate, brilliant in imagination, 
he is cunning and unscrupulous. 

Young Men. — Many great men performed their greatest achievements 
before forty ! Alexander the Great died at thirty-three. Napoleon had 
achieved all his victories at thirty-five. Washington was twenty-seven 
when he covered the retreat of the British army under Braddock, and 
not forty-five in 1776. At thirty-three, Jefferson wrote the Declaration 
of Independence. At thirty, Hamilton helped to frame the Constitution 
of the United States. At twenty-three, Melancthon wrote the Loci Com- 
munes, which passed through fifty editions in his lifetime. At thirty- 
three, he wrote the Augsburg Confession. At twenty-nine, Ursinus 
wrote the Heidelberg Catechism. Zwiugle wrote his chief works before 
forty, and died at forty-six. At the Disputation of Leipsic, Luther was 
thirty-five ; at the Diet of Worms, thirty-seven. At twenty-seven, Calvic 
wrote the Institutes. Moses sent young men to spy out the land of 
Canaan, and Joshua sent young men as spies to Jericho. Saul, David 
and Solomon achieved their greatest work before they had reached mid- 
dle life. 

John the Baptist and the Apostles did their life-work as young men, 
and Jesus Christ finished his labors and endured his sufferings as a 
young man. Not a decrepit, worn-out life, but the warm blood of man- 
hood's morning, did he shed upon the cross for the world's redemption. 

Facts Concerning Human Life. — The total number of human beings 
on the earth is computed at 1,000,000,000 (one thousand millions), and 
they speak 3,064 known tongues. The average duration of human life 
is 33$ years. One fourth of those born die before they are seven years 
old, and one half before the age of 17. Out of 100 persons, only six 
reach the age of 60 years. Out of 500 persons, only one attains the age 
of 80 years. Sixty persons die every minute. Tall men live; longer than 
short ones. Married men arc longer lived than the single Rich men 
live, on the average, 43 years, but the poor only 30 years. There is a 
drunkard to every 74 persons. 




\ the " Pioneer Preacher," was 
born in Amherst County, on 
the James River, Va., September 1 
1785. He entered the ministry of the 
Methodist Church as an exhorter 
when seventeen years of age, and 
from that period to the present he 
has been one of the most efficient 
workers in the West, where his name 
is a " household word." He is famous 
^ for his camp-meetings, his religious 
zeal, his native eloquence, his quaint 
anecdotes, and a thousand other 
pleasant eccentricities. He is now 
eighty-two years old, having been actively engaged in spreading the 
Gospel for sixty-six years ; and his life has become indissolubly connected 
with the rise of the M. E. Church in the West. His life has been one of 
startling adventure, and those incidents which are the necessary con- 
comitants of the life of an itinerant preacher on the frontier. His only 
published work is an autobiography, entitled the " Life of Peter Cart- 
wright," which is very popular, not so much from the piety of its tune 
as for its humor, its account of adventures, and its amusing anecdotes. 

Peter Cartwright possesses a temperament remarkable for recuperative 
and enduring qualities. The large head is well set on a compact body. 
The base of the brain spreading wide between the ears indicate vital 
energy, toughness, force, and tenacity of life. The many dangers and 
exposures which he has braved during his long pioneer ministrj 7 have 
proved him, though one of the Lord's servants, " hard to kill." The 
physiognomy, in general, evinces steadiness of will, earnestness of pur- 
pose, industrial and mechanical ability, fondness for the humorous, the 
cheerful, and witty, and a sterling coimnon sense founded on practical 
observation and experience. He is not brilliant; he can not claim great 
intellectual ability nor polish, but he can command our respect for untir- 
ing diligence and earnest unabatable zeal in whatever his hand has found 
to do. 

Expression and Character. — By continually assuming a particular 
character, we may in the end make it our own; and the expression at 
first put on at will, can not be so easily put off. The very effort to smile 
and look pleasant is one step toward overcoming our sadness or ill-nature, 
and finally the smile and the sunny look come naturally. The face is 
molded by the thought; and no personation or acting — no dissimulation 
of any kiu I — can permanently or completely efface the records which the 
ind welling spirit has impressed upon the external form. — New Physiognomy 


one of the most distin- 
guished French romancists 
and political writers, was born 
February 26th, 1802, atBesan§on, 
where his lather was then com- 
mandant of the garrison. His 
youth was spent in Paris, in Italy, 
and in Spain. He early acquired 
distinction by his poetic effusions, 
and before lie was thirty, his 
published works were numerous 
and his name famous. In 1837 
Louis Philippe made him an 
officer of the Legion of Honor, 
and in 1845 a peer of France. 
After the revolution of 1848 he 
was elected to represent the city 

of Paris both in the Constituent and in the Legislative assembly, in 
which he manifested democratic principles, and was one of the members 
banished from France by Louis Napoleon. He took up his residence in 
the island of Jersey — English — but he has since been pardoned, and has 
returned to France. His novels and dramas are very numerous. " Los 
Miserables" and "The Toilers of the Sea" are his latest and most popular 
works. Victor Hugo's writings are often extravagant in form and sub- 
stance, yet his command of language is wonderful. As a lyric poet, lie 
has, perhaps, never been surpassed in France. 

This face impresses us at once with the fact that its owner is unflinch- 
ing in whatever course he has once decided to pursue. The ewes indi- 
cate unusual critical penetration, while the great brow marks profound 
intellectual discernment. He should exhibit power as a satirist, while 
his great organ of Language supplies in an ever-flowing stream the words 
and phrases required to represent his multitudinous ideas and emotions. 
That is a nose of no mean pretension, evincing ample development and 
emphasis of character. The careless off-hand pose of the head is in itself 
a study, and at once classes him with the " irrepressible." The military 
spirit, perhaps acquired of his father, is well exhibited in Victor Hugo, 
(hough the latter has not devoted himself to the profession of arms. 

Tirrc fact of the close and mutual influence of body and mind is beyond 
dispute, although their connection is a subject of deep mystery. VVhen 
we see how much the faculties of reason and imagination — nay, even of 
hope, love, and faith — are affected by bodily conditions, we can joly ex- 
claim with the Psalmist, " I am fearfully and wonderfully made." — Extract 
from a, m'w work on Oratory, by Rev. Wm, Pittenger. Price, $1 50, post 
aire paid. 







a popular and pro 
line sensational novelist 
was born in London in the 
year 1837. Since she was 
sixteen years old she has 
written for the press, be- 
sides having produced sev- 
eral plays and a volume of 
poetry. Her early prose 
fictions are " Lady Lisle,' 
" The Captain of the Vul- 
ture," "The Trail of the 
Serpent," " Ralph, the Bail- 
iff." They did not attract 
much attention. "Lady 
Audley's Secret," in which 
considerable skill as a sensational novelist was displayed, made her sud- 
denly popular, and her subsequent productions have maintained her rep- 
utation in this respect. Some of her other works are " Aurora Floyd," 
" Eleanor's Victory," " John Marchmout's Legacy," " Henry Dunbar," 
"Birds of Prey," etc., etc., and "Rupert Godwin," her last. "Birds of 
Prey" is said to resemble the style of Wilkie Collins — differing greatly 
from her former works. She has at various times contributed to London 
penny journals under the nom de plume of " Lady Caroline Lascelles," 
two of which — "Nobody's Daughter" and "What is this Mystery?" — 
have been republished in America as her " latest and best." The 
morale of her works is not remarkable for its purity and refinement, her 
plots generally being laid in bigamy, adultery, and divorce. 

It is manifest to the reader that Miss Braddon has an abundance of 
vitality, and approximates temperamentally to the standard of Miss 
Menken, Miss Western, and other like celebrities. Her brain is fully de- 
veloped in the base, ani is large for a woman ; and being amply nour- 
ished by the rich juice of a superior circulatory system, it is active, 
buoyant, and executive. Her memory should be excellent, her percep- 
tion keen, and her language fertile. The social nature, as evidenced by 
her chin and its immediate surroundings, is very strong; her sympathies 
flow in domestic channels. She has also strong Approbativeness and a 
large development of the organs, which feed the imagination and impart 
vivacity to sentiment and feeling. She must be Classed with such writers 
as Dumas, Eugene Sue, and other voluptuaries. Her organization and 
her writings are in perfect keeping. She is more material than spiritual 




st©f^ ill & q©w 3r©ss'. 


MERE lived in London, in 
the days of yore, 

A Frenchman, exiled from 
his native shore ; 

Poor, friendless, forced by 
fortune long to roam, 

At last he found within its 
walls a home. 

Nor wife nor children cheer- 
ed his lonely hours, 

For him nosunsh ine brough t 
the birds and flowers 

But, hermit-like, he loved 
the world to shun, 

In quiet solitude, till life 
was done. 

He read, or smoked, or doz 
ed the livelong day, 
Or with his spaniel whiled the time awav. 
Yet he was kind ; the beggar knew his door, 
And starving children blessed him o'er and o'er. 


The neighbors proudly claimed him for their own, 
Till " Bon jour ; Monsieur /" seemed no foreign tone. 

Thus peacefully the worthy man grew old, 
Unvexed by care or cankering thirst for gold ; 
In close retirement, each succeeding year 
Rolled on unmarked by doubt, or hope, or feur. 

It chanced, howe'er, a wicked wag, who knew 
How much our friend withdrew from public view 
Resolved to tease him, merely out of fun, 
And thus the plot mischievously begun. 


One night when Monsieur had retired to rest, 

A rousing knock his slumber deep distressed. 

He rubbed his eyes — " Mon Dieu ! vat 'ave we here ? 

Who-o-o's dat?" he stammered, in suspense and fenr. 

No answer came ; but soon another blow 

Kung at the door to summon him to go. 

With cautious step he slow descends the stairs, 

In his unsteady hand the candle flares. 

Through the long hall he drags unwilling feet, 

And doubting opes the door into the street. 

"I beg your pardon, sir, for much I fear 
I have disturbed your nap by coming here ; 
Is Mister Thompson's lodging somewhere near V" 


2k MOM 

" No, sare ! no Monsieur Tonson in dis place, 
I tell you so — I nevare see his face. 
My friend, pardonnez-moi — I shut dc door ; 
You break my sleep — I go to get some more." 

A week had not passed by — again a knock 
At midnight roused him like an earthquake shock ; 
Again the poor old Frenchman gropes his way 
By the dim beams that round his lantern play. 
Trembling and pale, he whispers as he goes, 
" Ma foi ! who comes here?— de debil only knows I' 5 
With faltering hand he draws the bolt aside, 
When a sharp voice in ringing accents cried, 
" Pray, sir, will you inform me, if you can, 
Where I may find a certain little man 



Whose name is Thompson, if I guess aright, 
For I must know his whereabouts to-night." 

" Ah ! sare. me 
know your 
voice — de ocler 
Tou knock so loud, 
you fright my 
vits away. 
Indeed, sare, dere 
no Monsieur 
Tonson dat I 
know — 
Begar! I tell you 
dat tree nights 
ago !" 
The door was 
shut, and Mon- 
sieur sought 
his bed, 

But tossed, till break of day, his aching head. 
Visions of ghosts came flitting round the room, 
And filled his soul with ever-deepening gloom. 

■1-,f:| ft «| V ! '' : H 

11 if 111 

ix't ; 

Day went, and night again her curtains drew 
In solemn silence, till the clock struck two. 
A thundering knock aroused him from his dreams, 
And at the front a torch-light faintly gleams. 

"Hallo! old fellow!" echoed at the door, 
" Old Mister Thompson I must see once more. 



Do tell me, does he live within this street ? 
Come, let me know -the number, I entreat." 

" Sacre !— diable ! — vat you ask me for ? 
I tell you once — I can not tell no more ; 
Sure, please, oh ! nevare come to call me down— 
No Monsieur Tonson live in London town !" 
Still unabashed, 
on each suc- 
ceeding night, 
The same rude ras- 
cal met the 
Worn out at last — 
his sleep quite 
driven away — 
In that lone house 
an invalid he 
But now the 
rogue his wont- 
ed calls for- 
■~^" bore, 

By fortune urged to India's distant shore ; 
And his poor victim raised his drooping head, 
Glad to believe his vile tormentor fled. 

Years passed, and yet his strength knew no decay 
Though sober thought had tinged his hair with gray ; 



His voice, still strong, in patriot numbers rung 
As when of old the Marseillaise he sung ; 
No fearful sounds disturbed his nightly rest, 
No dan, no vagabond by hunger pressed : 
In peace he lived — in peace he hoped to die 
In nameless slumber 'neath an alien sky. 

'Twas winter — fitful gusts were howling loud. 
Covering all nature with a snowy shroud ; 
No footfalls echoed on the pavement stone — 
" Past one o'clock !" the watchman cried alone. 
Scarce had he cried, two figures slowly passed, 
Hooded and cloaked against the driving blast ; 
By turns they eyed the snow-heaped doors around, 
And numbered houses till the spot they found. 
" Why ! Tom !" said one, " that is the place, I swear ; 
I'll bet that Thompson still is living (here !" 
'' Done!" cried the other; " I'll bet he's gone below; 
He must have died of fright, you plagued him so." 

Meantime our foreign friend secureby slept, 
While o'er his mind bright sunny pictures crept ; 
Once more he roves upon the banks of Seine, 
Or views the splendors of Versailles again ; 
Sings the bold songs that echo " Vive la France P 
And trips with damsels in the evening dance. 
Bright eyes watch o'er him — social hearth-fires burn, 
As kindly voices greet his safe return. 

Hark ! a low rumbling sound the vision breaks ; 
Amazed and trembling, the fond dreamer wakca. 


Is it the tread of fast approaching day, 
Or speeds the storm along its furious way? 
A louder sound his very soul appalls, 
As if a crash of thunder burst the walls. 
His hair on end, and shivering with the cold, 
The night-robe slipping from his nerveless hold, 
The unwieldly door, with pain unlocked at last, 
He steps aside to shun the piercing blast. 
A spectral form, in deep sepulchral tone, 

Solemn and slow, began to speak a groan, 

One wild despairing cry escaped him then, 
" Begar ! here's Monsieur Tousou come again !" 
Down fell his lamp — he rushed outside the door, 
With terror frenzied, and was seen no more ! 


The objections which assailed the early writers and lecturers oe 
Phrenology arose from an idea that it was of a predictive nature, and 
involved a fatal necessity; but these unjust prejudices fade away al- 
ways when the science L candidly investigated and its beauty and 
utility become apparent, since it not only supports the absolute domin- 
ion of the Creator over all his works, but naturally and strikingly 
points out the existence of such principles in the mind of man as co- 
incide with the doctrines of revelation, and with thc6e laws which are 
generally recognized as controlling the universe. Man, in his threefold 
nature, is declared by Phrenology to be the consummation of the nat- 
ural forces and aptitudes of created nature. 



THE Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, in the course of an excel- 
lent article with this heading, says : The brain is the organ of the 
mind. It is the great water-wheel in virtue of which the thoughts 
revolve. It is easy to conceive that through the brain the mind may in- 
terfere with the ordinary functions of the body, and the body react upon 
the mind. "We propose to speak of some of the limitations to which 
blind is subject in its union or marriage with the material world. 

We need not look far for instances. To most of us an illustration 
comes every twenty-four hours. In the sleep of the body, shared by man 
with the brute creation, we see for a time abrogated — in abeyance — (ho 
will, the thoughts, and, happily for many, the sentiments. 

Perversion or impairment of the will is very frequently witnessed in 
hysteria, a disease which is erroneously regarded by the uninformed as 
a pretense or an affectation, when in fact the will is put forth onl}' in 
that semi-mechanical way which we call emotional, as when the eye- 
lid is closed upon the sudden approach of a solid body, or when screams 
are uttered at the bidding of pain. By applying a stronger emotion, as 
fear, we replace the hysterical convulsion or trance by more normal ac- 
tion ; or, by acting upon the imagination, we may relieve the will from 
the pressure of the morbid emotion. The nervous system gets out of 
gear, and matter sways the mind. 

We have instances of our leading fact, when the mind, through the 
brain and sympathetic system, feels the disorder of the stomach in dys- 
pepsia, and the " disposition" becomes unamiable ; when the mental 
vision is distorted in delirium ; when insanity inflicts upon us its living 
bereavement of our friends. In many cases of insanity the scalpel shows 
structural lesion of the brain itself. The manifestations of the so-called 
" mind diseased" are awry, because the central organ by which it is 
brought into relation with the material world has been deranged. 

An incontrovertible instance of the action in question is afforded in 
the production of mental perversions by the introduction into the body 
of certain drugs, such as opium, haschisch, etc. Here, it would seem, 
there is no escape from the conclusion that the mind is materially affected. 
" Everybody knows," says an author, " that there are families where 
the children are born straight-grained, and families where they are bom 
rross-grained." If it be objected here that, for aught we know, these 
fcavorable or unfavorable characteristics may reside primarily in, and be 
transmitted from, the "subtle essence" itself, instead of in the "grosser 
part," the case is different when we ascend to the origin of differences of 
national character as embodied in races and transmitted through succes- 
sive generations. 

" It is easy to c :>nceive," it is remarked by Dr. Foissac, " how moment- 
ary and individual impressions may become constant and general. Sup 


pose, what exists in fact, that there reigns in a given country an atmo- 
spheric constitution capable of impressing upon the moral nature a certain 
tendency, the inhabitants will' be more or less affected by it; every habit 
of the moral nature, criminal or virtuous, fortifying itself by practice 
and example, will thenceforth take on an abnormal development. This 
disposition transmitted hereditarily, and receiving from the constantly 
acting influence of the air continual nourishment, may become the moral 
type uf a nation, and give a distinct physiognomy to the national charac- 
ter. ' 

We see this exemplified in the short history of this country. The 
Northern and Southern States were peopled originally by the same race, 
Uiough from different classes of society. The Puritans, a select band 
purified by persecution and self-sacrifice, though narrow in their ideas, 
transmitted indeed to their descendants in New England, and consecu- 
tively in the Western States, traditions, habits, manners, and morals dif- 
ferent from those of the first settlors of the Southern States. The Amer- 
ican colonists — North and South — were, however, of the same Anglo- 
Saxon stock. Apart, then, from the influence of differing institutions, 
traditionary or adopted, how d stinct is the physiognomy of the two 
sections! The one cool, calculating, persistent even to obstinacy, slow 
to take up. equally slow to put c^wn, and impressed with a restless en- 
ergy that never allows inaction w ,,; le there is anything that can be done; 
the other open, impassioned, impvAswe, enthusiastic, yet averse to exer- 
tion, save when necessity compels H. Here we have the effect of oppo- 
site climates. The Northern is brao'AK and stimulating to a degree that 
is scarce wholesome, and which is i 1 once manifest to new-comers. The 
Southern is enervating in the extreme ft few years' residence in it being 
sufficient to tone down the energy of thn most active Northerner. In what 
particular way it is brought about that \jke the inhabitants of other 
southern climes, its people are also pj>ee\"»nate and impulsive, we will 
not stop to inquire, but will note here tlvi general fact as bearing on the 
subject we are discussing. 

The British Channel separates nations differing greatly in climate, and 
quite antagonistic in character. Yet the Em - \ ; sh people were,, in times 
past, made up largely by migrations from Germany, subsequently inter- 
mingled with their conquerors from Normaudv. And to show how 
rapidly climatic transformations take place, the Fveuch etymology of 
their names is, so far as we are aware, the only mark by which the de- 
scendants of French refugees (Huguenots and oth/y*) ran be distin 
guished, mentally or physically, f v om the veriest cockney. 


Now, from these and similar facts, some French ma tor: i.' is ts argue 
that since the mind is shown not to be completely independent of" mat- 
ter, therefore there is no such thing as " spirit" to be distinguished from 
material existence. Tins, as it seems to us, is entirely illogical. And. 


per contra, we hold that if independence of the will, even partial, can be 
shown, then materialism falls ignominiously to the ground. Thus, given 
an individual with low, materialistic propensities, implanted deeply in, 
and having strong hold of, his being, if, by his self-determining power, 
he overcome this lower nature, then in that case the independence of 
the will is fairly set up. It needs no extended knowledge of biography 
to produce such an instance. "We are told of one who, though uncul- 
tured by Christian or even Jewish Revelation, had attained a purity, a 
gentleness, an integrity, a wisdom which would put to shame many a 
sincere Christian disciple. And yet it is related that " he was naturally 
of a licentious disposition; and a physiognomist observed, in looking in 
the face of the philosopher, that his heart was the most depraved, immod- 
est, and corrupted that ever was in the human breast." We have but 
to pronounce the name of Socrates, and materialism, by token of self- 
mastery, fades out of sight. 

One more instance, nearer to us in time and space. Our admiring and 
grateful recollection brings to mind one who, with the hot blood of the 
South coursing in his veins, impulsive and impassioned, curbed his 
fiery temperament, till by a steady, persev-ering resistance, at which 
many of his Northern associates grew restive, he wore out the protracted 
efforts of a powerful empire to subdue a band of feeble colonies. At the 
same time he resisted the pressure of public opinion among his country- 
men, urging him to risk the fortunes of battle, and through much oblo- 
quy calmly held to that temporizing policy which won us ultimate vic- 
tory and madc*us a nation. We look at the portrait of his later years 
and see self-mastery written out from within on every line of his coun 

All history is filled with such illustrations of the triumph of the hu- 
man will over animal propensities, physical weakness, and climatic tern 
perament. Greatness in statesmanship and generalship, eminence in 
science or art, have, we take it, never been attained without similar 
victories— temporary or permanent — of the self-determining power over 
the lower or animal nature. Nay, ordinary success is obtained only in 
the same way. And, not to overstate the point, these phenomena are so 
contrasted with those of the ordinary functions of matter that we are 
forced to seek their origin in a different source from the " corporeal 

Our positi n, however, has a still firmer foundation. We believe upon 
evidence; we are convinced by reasoning; but we know only through 
consciousness. Now, we are conscious that, with certain limitations, we 
exert free-will. And it, is too great a strain upon common sense to sup- 
pose that free-will has anything in common with the p ,- opeities or func- 
tions of matter. 

We are well aware that we have but touched the tnreshold jf this 
subject, but to go further would be to invade the province of the theo'o- 


PHYSIOLOGICALLY and temperamentally, woman is moro deli- 
cate and sensitive to impressions than man. The importance of 
correct training and of proper social surroundings in early life, 
therefore, is more manifest in her case than in that of her more robii3t 
L rutin r. The male possesses a greater proportion of the motive tempera- 
ment — of the forceful elements— is constituted to meet and contend with 
the difficulties of life. He is essentially a worker. Woman is constituted 
with more of the emotional, the feelingfuL She is not so well adapted to 
contend with the rigors and asperities of business and exterior worldly 
iissociation ; her life is more interior and domestic. 

We present in this article contrasted faces, representing the diverse 
career of two females. Figures 1 and 2 represent them as girls just in 
the dawn of life, free from care, fresh, joyous, and pure in their childish 
simplicity. That there is a difference in the lineaments of these coun- 
tenances it must be admitted ; even so early in life do the influences of 
parentage, organization, association, and training become apparent. 

The parents of the first we can conceive to lie plain, retired people, 
possessed of strong religious principles and considerable intellectual cul- 
ture. Their child is the object of tender care and solicitude. Her play- 
mates are carefully selected, and the utmost regard is paid to her moral 
and mental culture. In fact, she is surrounded by the best influences 
which discreet parents are able to bring about her, and she is in conse- 
quence a quiet, unobtrusive, sweet-tempered child. 

The parents of the second live, perhaps, on the same social plane with 
those of the first, but are more worldly. They are free and easy in their 
mode of life. They are fond of company, think and act with the major- 
ity of those with wlum they mingle, and lacking in knowledge of things 
pertaining to elevation of soul and the higher life, they take no pains to 
instruct their child therein. They think their duty chiefly consists in 
furnishing her a sufficiency of clothing, food, and the ordinary facilities 
for an every-day education. So the girl runs the streets, and is allowed 
to pick up any one she fancies as a playmate. She becomes pert, saucy, 
dashing; pleases her parents with her " smartness," and affords much 
amusement to visitors at her father's house by her little "speeches," for- 
wardness, and " cunning" ways. From such beginnings w can already 
predict the general future of these two little girls. 

Time flies fast. Years have passed away, and No. 1 has grown up 
into the modest, unaffected maiden of eighteen years. Her mind, though 
not overtaxed with study, under judicious culture is well stored with such 
information as is necessary to the proper performance of the duties in- 
cident to woman's life. She is quiet, unostentatious, simple in dignity, 
yet possessing pride enough to repel insolent familiarity. To be sun', sh»< 
Knowa uersonally little about vice, as it exists in the world; but she iid*< 




been taught its nature, and her high moral tone inclines her to abhor sin 
and to consider it only as something to be feared and avoided. The 
Kpiritual instruction of her parents and teachers, and the precepts of the 
sacred Word of God, are kept as the most valuable of her treasuies. At 
home among her Mends, at school among her associates, she is loved 

Fis. 1. 

Fig 2. 

and respected. Her health having been well cared for ; the knickknacks 
and confections and the whole host of poisonous sweets, which, unfor- 
tunately, so many children are allowed to riot in, having been but spar- 
ingly allowed in, if not altogether excluded from her dietary, she is well 
fortified by a substantial constitution against the common ailments of 
life. Happy are her prospects. 

Fig. 3. Fio. 4. 

Turning now to No. 2, we find she, too, has grown up, but in her out. 
way, and according to her own devices. She is now a wild fly-away 
young lady. The associations which her parents allowed her to choose, 
or, rather, to pick up, have brought her in contact and made her familiar 
with sin ; it does not possess for her the repulsive features which No 1 
discerns. Look on her countenance (fig 4) and see those voluptuous 



indications which are distinctive maiks of the woman of pleasure ; there 
is no mistaking that face. She chases the gaudy bauble of pleasure as 
the chief joy of life. She is self-willed and capricious, and without ele- 
vation of character, because she is indifferent to those high and holy in- 
fluences which even now, if entertained, would tend to draw her up and 

Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

beyond temptation and sin. Her propensities are in the ascendant, and 
she finds gratification only in what she terms the joys of life. Gay com- 
panions, exciting conversation, seductive music, and the mazy whirl of 
(lie dance are among her chief delights. As she passes us in the crowded 
thoroughfare, we can not but gaze pityingly upon her face, for there are 
unmistakable indications of the tendency of her career. 

Fid 7. Fig. f. 

Several more years pass by, and we find her whom we last considered 
a3 the amiable and intelligent girl of eighteen now b^ome the fill y 
matured woman (fig. 5). She is married, and that discreetly, for, con- 
sidering the careful culture of her youth, and the suggestions she has 
doubtless received on so important a subject as marriage from solicitous 
':iends, and the earnest thought she herself must have bestowed upon it, 



ehe would not be likely to make choice hastily of her life's .artner ; but 
deliberately considering the consequences, she has given her hand with 
her heart to him whom she could honor as well as love. It is probable 
that she has not been without her share of life's trials and' disappoint- 
ments. Perhaps bereavement has visited her bright home ; but being 
sustained by a strong faith in that Saviour whom she was early taught 
to love and confide in, she can be resigned yet cheerful under the severest 
tdrliction. Her house is a place of quiet domestic enjoyment; her chil- 
dren, trained up carefully, do not annoy visitors by their rudeness buS 
all who visit her desire to go again. Her husband while with her tiudn 
the cares of his business grow lighter, and his spirits rise under the in- 
fluence of his wife's cheerful voice and sweet inspiring smile. She does 
not seem to grow old ; the girl is, in fact, impressed upon that fresh 
countenance, and imparts buoyancy and dignity to the woman. In fig. (3 
we see the reckless, cold-hearted, miserable woman ; surviving the excit- 
ing and pernicious course of her early years, she has become a gloomy, 
indifferent, and apparently heartless woman, caring nothing for others, 
and thinking that others care nothing for her. She has had her fill of 
worldly pleasure. But how unsatisfactory it has all been ! How painful 
its consequence ! She regards the world as mean, sordid, and corrupt. 
Her days of youth and happiness are past, for her manner of life has 
rendered her prematurely old. The fiery draught is now her only friend, 
for in its intoxicating depths she can temporarily forget the maddening 
recollection of her shame. Perhaps she, too, has been married. Bui 
Whatman, except he be as abandoned as herself, could live with her? 
In the street she is regarded with loathing and contempt by the passers- 
by. "Friends she has none!" There is no kind w r ord of sympathy 
expressed for her ! She has lost all friends, and misery, oidy misery, 
seems to be her inevitable portion, for she lives obstinately and willfully, 
without repentance and without grace ! We see no encouragement in 
that half-frenzied face, and we turn from it with a sigh of relief and of 

In the midst of her home, among the many friends whom her kindness 
and ready sympathy have closely attached to her, No. 1 grows old indeed 
"gracefully." The silver threads, 'vhich passing 3'ears have impercep- 
tibly interwoven one by one with her shining tresses, announce her 
advanced age (fig. 7). How beautifid she appears, the aged Christian, the 
admired, the revered center of an extensive circle ! Her presence is ever 
welcome, and her counsel gratefully received ; and when the sun of her 
earthly existence shall set, in what a halo of glory it will take place! 
What sweet memories will linger on earth to console those in whose 
hearts she was held so dear ! Her life, while she lives, is the life of faith, 
and her death, when she dies, will be a joyful transition to a blissful 

But how different is the picture presented by No. 2, in the closing 
scene of her ( areer, supposing that she has been suffered to live and 


grow old ! Slie is probably tbe inmate of some poor-house, prison, hos- 
pital, or asylum, a tax upon the State, an object of care to those who will 
not regret her decease. She will go down to the grave uncared-for and un- 
mourned (fig. 8). If not under the care of the civil authoi ities, she worries 
through the remnant of her daj^s in some lonely, squalid, out-of-the-way 
garret, among wretches as miserable as herself. She is an object of 
aversion to her neighbors, and of dread to their dirty children ; for now 
and then alcohol and her unbridled passions drive her to the extremi- 
ties of delirium. In one of those paroxysms of madness death comes, 
either by her own hand, or her diseased and broken-down body finally 
succumbs to its natural destiny, and her staring eyes are fixed until the 
last trump shall awaken her to judgment. Sad, fearful end ! the inevi- 
table result of a life of sin ! As we see it here, so it is with all. Bad 
habits make ugly faces, and bad spirits with bad temper spoil a naturally 
good physiognomy. Reader, ponder well these two sketches, and gather 
therefrom the instruction we have sought to impart. Choose Wisdom's 
ways, for " her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace." 

Cause of III Health. — It is quite certain that man is the most dar- 
ing violator of natural law to be found in the animal kingdom. He is 
not only absolutely reckless, but persistent and obstinate in his course 
of transgressing; indeed, he is original and ingenious in his methods of 
attack upon himself. God has made man upright, but he has sought out 
many inventions to make himself crooked, so that an army of men find 
constant and lucrative employment in patching and mending the bodies 
of their fellow-creatures. Here is a regiment of men with forceps to pull 
out teetli that should last a lifetime — for they were not designed to ache, 
but were given to man to eat with. There a host of men are using pills, 
powders, plasters, and every variety of panacea to cure the ills of the 
unfortunate. Do Ave have any reason to believe that the brute creation, 
when allowed to control itself and follow instinct, suffers as we do? Do 
they bleat and bellow with the toothache? Do they suffer from colds? 
Are they afflicted with chronic diseases? Can powders and plasters be 
of service to them? Why do we yield so easily to fatigue, and fall a prey 
to disease so readily? Can it be true that weakness of body indicates 
strength of soul — that a narrow chest insures a broad heart — that a sickly 
constitution is favorable to a saintly life — that physical infirmity is a 
proof of spiritual power? It is ridiculous nonsense to suppose such 
things. We are to love God with all our heart, soul, and strength : and 
the more heart, soul, and strength we have, the more we can love God. 
The fact is, we have allowed the animal to get the better of the angel of 
our nature. We eat too much, and too fast. We drink loo much of (hat 
which is not aqua pura. We chew, and smoke, and snuff" tobacco. We 
go to bed late, and get up late. We do not get sufficien' sleep, and we 
allow the anxieties of life to drive us to disease. 




("^OLTNT BISMARCK, the Prussian premier, and reputed the foremost 
. man in Europe, was born at Brandenburgh in 1813. Like other 
young men, he served his time in the army, and subsequently studied 
law. After completing his legal studies he retired to his estate, not seek- 
ing, it is said, any official position. He was, however, elected a repre- 
sentative to the provincial assembly of Prussian Saxony, and afterward 
in 1810 to the United Diet. From that time his political career is dated, 
lie became the leader in all measures of an ultra aristocratic nature, the 
champion of the nobility. 

His royalist zeal recommended him to the court, the present king of 
Prussia taking an interest in him because of his fervid advocacy of royal 
privilege and prerogative, and for his bluntness and rudeness toward the 
oppositicn in the Diet. After having served the government in various 
capacities, he was called to the head of ministerial affairs, the object o* 
his early hopes. As premier of Prussia, Bismarck has managed the 


affairs of government with singular boldness and success. To him 
Prussia owes much of her present aggrandizement, especially the triumph 
secured in her recent war with Austria. Bismarck is said to be a mar 
of a strongly passional disposition, easily irritated, and persistent in fol- 
lowing the bent of his inclinations. His portrait exhibits a marked 
degree of force. He possesses a clear perception, a strong will, unusual 
self-reliance, a good deal of policy, and a great amount of boldness and 
executiveness. la the prosecution of his plans he may appear at times 
unscrupulous ; he believes in accomplishing whatever he may attempt. 
He is not credulous enough to attempt the impracticable, but has anativf. 
insight which, supplemented by his shrewd observation, enables him to 
draw accurate inferences with surprising quickness. 



,^*>AN the term " Science" be appropriately applied to the phrenological 
*d/' methods of delineating character? and is it applicable as a guide 
to a correct system of education ? These questions arc important, 
and deserve careful and earnest consideration. 

The first point to be considered in the application of Phrenology to 
the living subject is, How much is there of him? "What is his bodily 
size as compared with normal development V The universal doctrine 
that size is a measure of power, where the quality is the same, applies to 
man as well as to timber and iron. 

Lt the size be ample, the next question that arises is, What is the 
quality? Is it coarse, or is it fine ? Is it weak, or is it strong ? Is it dull, 
or is it active ? Is it obtuse, or is it sensitive ? If it be strong and active, 
then we conclude that the subject is powerful, because the two great 
conditions of size and quality are present in large measure, and these 
combined indicate power. The quality, of course, depends upon the 
temperament, or those constitutional conditions which mark physical 
development. Good quality and healthy condition in the human subject 
are essential to a high degree of mental activity and strength. 

There is, at the present tune, much more known of temperament, by 
those who practice either Phrenology or the healing art, than has It'on 
[ublished on the subject. 

That winch we denominate the 


generally culled Nervous, stands first in order of influence. This tem- 
perament includes the brain and nervous system, and through this, mind 
t-.nd feeling are manifested, and constitute the crowning excellence of 
human nature. A predominance of this temperament is indicated by a 
relatively large brain, brilliant, expression, pointed features, fine hair, fine 



texture of skin, with comparatively light frame, and not very .arge 
muscles. This is pre-eminently the studious, thinking temperament It 


is found in those whose chief power lies in intellect and sentiment, not hi 
muscular force and endurance. 


or nutritive apparatus, lies at the foundation of health and physical vigoi. 
aud furnishes the support for the whole organization, converting food, 

drink, and atmospheric air 
into human vitality. Upon 
this vitality the brain is de- 
pendent for the regular main- 
tenance of its functions, and 
so is muscular action for its 
efficiency. This temperament 
embraces what are denomi- 
nated the Sanguine and the 
Lymphatic, or those temper- 
aments sometimes called the 
Thoracic and the Abdomi- 
nal. When the lungs, hear*, 
stomach, liver, pancreas, ai .1 
the glands and assimilatiLg 
organs generally are in har- 
monious development ; in 
other words, when the Tlio 
racic and Abdominal tem- 
peraments are equal, we say the V ct vl Temperament is si rongly marked 

oatkarint: alexieona — vital temperament. 





In estimating the elements which make up the Vital Temperament, we 
consider the relative development of the lungs, stomach, heart, etc., anc* 
designate them by Breathing Power, Circulatory Power, and Digestive 
Power. These sometimes exist in different degrees of strength, and 
enable us thus to accoimt for and indicate the special conditions which 
are embodied in or combine to constitute the Sanguine and LymphaUe 

The departures which this analysis of temperament presents froir 
others are, that in a harmonious development of the vital system v> e do 
not find that condition which can justly be de- 
nominated Lymphatic Temperament, and that the 
heart, lungs, stomach, and the abdominal organs 
should belong to one temperament, since they 
are intended to work in harmony in the pro- 
duction of vitality. The indications of the 
Vital Temperament are plumpness of person, 
a good degree of flesh, fair or ruddy complexion, 
light or blue eyes, frequently sandy hair, and a 
general glow of healthfulness and animal vigor. 
When this temperament exists in predominance, 
the subject is fond of animal pleasures, of eating, 
drinking, and exercise, and his nature inclines to 
a voluptuous life, while a person with the Mental Temperament in pre- 
dominance is strongly inclined to a mental or studious life. 

The third temper iment, 
commonly denominated 
the Bilious, we have nam- 
ed the 


because motion, physical 
power, love of action, 
with energetic earnest- 
ness and determinateness 
of purpose originate in 
mis. It is indicated by 
an abundance of bony 
framework, by strong, 
hard muscles, and gener- 
ally by dark coarse hair, 
dark complexion, promi- 
nent features, constitu- J 
tioiial toughness and en- 
durance. Persons of this 
temperament are more 
liable to bilious disease than those of the Vital or Mental Temperament, 




and it has been claimed that in this temperament the venous blood bears a 
larger proportion to the arterial than in the Sanguine or Vital Tempera- 
ment ; consequently the cir- 
culation is comparatively 
slow, and there is generally 
a strong, steady pulse. 

When these several temper- 
aments are harmonious, that 
is to say, exist in equilibrium, 
we judge the person to have 
all the conditions requisite 
to health, power of endur- 
ance, and long life. Such a 
person can work and think 
with equal facility, and is 
adapted to one vocation as 
well as another. But since 
people are generally not har- 
monious in their tempera- 
mental development — some 
possessing a highly-wrough* 
Mental or Nervous Ten. 
perament, others the Vital or Sanguine Temperament, others the Motivt 
or Bilious Temperament most strongly— it is evident that their habits of 
life, their pursuits, and the process of their education should be varied 

accordingly. Herein we regard 
the teachings, with reference to 




education, of all the leading phrenologists who have written on that 
subject from Ga 1 ! and Spurzheim to the present dav invaluable; foi 




until teachers, parents, and ministers of the Gospel comprehend the law 
of temperament, as affecting character, talent, and aptitude for educa 
tion, teaching will be empir- 
ical, and a large proportion 
of the efforts on the part of 
pupils and instructors mis- 
directed, if not wasted. 

Having studied and com- 
prehended the temperament, 
the next question is as to the 
phrenological developments. 
Those who have a predom- 
inance of the Mental or Ner- 
vous Temperament are gen- 
erally observed to have rela- 
tively large heads, with a sen- 
sitive, excitable, mental life ; 
they have a predominance j 
of the intellectual, the moral, 
and the esthetical faculties; 
the base of the bram, ordina- 
rily, is comparatively weak, 
and the organs of the propensities are not so large as those of the intel- 
lectual and moral powers — in other words, Causality, Comparison, Ide- 
ality, Sublimity; and Cautiousness, 
^jggfif ~^v Benevolence, Veneration, Spiritual- 

ity, Hope, and Conscientiousness in 
the superior groups are larger than 
Amativeness, Combativeness, De- 
struetiveness, Acquisitiveness, and 
Alimentiveness in the selfish or 
animal group. 

In the Vital Temperament, ae 
seen in Lord Elgin, we usually find 
i the perceptive organs of the intel- 
jjj| lectual group predominant ; the fore- 
head is large across the brow, and 
retreating. A person so organized 
is fond of observation, and inclini,* 
to look and learn by seeing things, 
by coming in practical cor.tact with 
the tangible world. He has usually 
full or large Alimentiveness, a good 
degree of Destructiven&ss, Combat- 
iveness, and generally large Amativeness, Adhesiveness, ami the other 
social organs. Such a person ie fond of active business, likes to drive 




about, is very fond of society, strong in bis passions, earnest in bis feel- 
ings, and dislikes confinement or study; and as a pupil, be needs to have 
his study bours diversified witb music, march- 
ing, gymnastic exercises, and recitations, and 
■earns most readily by " object teaching." Sucb 
men are the practical men of the world ; often 
leaders in business, but seldom leaders in the 
i calm of tbougbt or of morals. 

Those in whom the Motive or Bilious Tem- 
perament predominates are found to bave a great 
deal of Firmness, steadfastness of feeling and 
purpose ; having large Self-Esteem, tbey are gen- 
erally dignified ; they are practical in intellect, > 
and are generally well endowed with Combative- dignity, see ceownop head. 
ness and Destructiveness, which impart general force of character. In 
temper, tbey are irascible when aroused, but otherwise dignified, strong, 
determined, executive, and well adapted to control physical affairs, and 
to be masters of men and of business. Tbey are found at the bead 01 
railroads and mines; are masters of ships, and superintendents of ma- 
chine shops. They are 
builders, pioneers, and 
often at tbe bead of 

Having thus studied 
tbe temperaments, and 
ascertained wbich pre- 
dominates, and there- 
upon estimated the gen- 
eral spirit and drift of 
tbe life of tbe man, we 
then study tbe peculiar 
mental developments. 
We first estimate the 
brain pb renologically, 
according to the groups 
; of organs. Tbe relative 
size of the mtellectual 
organs, located in the 
anterior lobe of tbe cere 
brum, we ascertain by 
reference to certain ana- 
tomical points on tbe 
i/mid wcDEHotrsE— aspiration AND love of poweb. head and face, which 
always mark tbe dividing line between the anterior and middle lobes of 
the brain. In some heads, the intellectual region is the leading devel- 
opment, the middle lobe of brain ia short and narrow, the posterior lobe 




is short, and the superior or upper portion of the brain may be either largo 
or medium. In such a head, intellect, thought-power, and desire for 



knowledge constitute the leading characteristics. In the case of the 
" intellectual and moral boy," the whole upper portion of the head is am- 
ply expanded; the forehead shows a clear, strong intellect; the top- 
head, great moral development; the temples, a fine taste and imagina- 
tion ; ami the crown, aspiration and ambition ; while the base of the 
head is relatively small, indicating comparatively weak, selfish feelings. 

Sometimes, by the same method of investigation, we find that the 
middle lobe of the brain is not only long and deep but broad. Then wc- 
infer that the character is chiefly manifested through the force-elements. 
Such a man is energetic, if not quarrelsome ; has policy, economy, 
appetite, looks out for himself, and seeks physical comfort and secular 
prosperity. In the head of the 
" bad boy," the base of the brain is 
large, showing predominant ani- 
mal propensity, while the top-head 
is contracted, short, narrow, and 
sloping, showing weak moral de- 
velopment, little reasoning power, 
and neither taste, refinement, nor 

We sometimes find the social or 
posterior lobes predominant ; then 
the head extends tar back from the 
jpening of the ear. Such a person 
is very fraternal and affectionate ; 
society to him is everything; his 
family is his all. In the accom- 
panying illustration, see how heavy 
the back-head as compared with 
the forehead! She is all mother and friend; has good, practical sense, 
(nit no intellectual aspiration. Another has the aspirii g and prudential 





group strongly marked ; his head rises high and broad at the crown 
This is well illustrated by " Dignity" and " Lord Wodehouse," page 10. 
To such, life is centered in himself; he takes care of his respectability; 
seeks a position of authority and power; is willing to take public respon- 
sibilities, and likes to govern. 

Jn another we find the moral or top-head group predominating, with 

large Veneration, Benevolence, Hope, 
Conscientiousness, and Spirituality 
Sucb a life has a strong tendency 
toward ethics, worship, godliness, 
charity, and spirituality; it has a 
special aptitude for the reception of 
moral teaching; is likely to begin 
early to think of religious subjects. 
Such an organization we regard veiy 
fortunate for one's own life, and also 
fortunate for the community in which 
his lot is cast. 

Having ascertained which of the 
groups of organs, as a whole, pre- 
dominates, we seek to Know which 
organ in that group is the control- 
ling one ; this we regard as the chief 
of the group, which leads in giving character. If it be Conscientiousness 
in the moral group, and that is the controlling group of the brain, then 
everything must be squared according to the rule of rectitude. If Benev- 
olence is the controlling organ in that group, then everything must be 
governed according to the spirit of kindness and sympathy. If Venera- 
tion be the strongest, then there is a tendency to think of God and to 
reverence his authority; if Conscientiousness lead the person to be hon- 
est, it is for God's sake; if through Benevolence he become a benefactor, 
it is for God's sake ; his Spirituality begets a yearning for the life to 
come, because God is the light thereof; Hope fixes its aspiration upon 
the Father of all, and thus he inclines to walk with God and have his 
conversation in heaven. This, at least, will be the form of his piety and 
the tendency of his moral life. 

In the selfish group, with Acquisitiveness predominating, energy, skill 
and executive force will back up that element, and money-making, 
though it may be honestly done, will seem to be the great drift of the 
person's life. 

The largest group of organs gives direction to the character, and the 
strongest organ in that directing group seems to be the cutting edge of 
the character, and other faculties in that group and other groups second 
and fortify the special characteristic. In this way, if the faculty which 
inspires ambition be strong, the talent, skill, energy, enterprise, pri .dence, 
policy, friendship, affection, all incline toward and sista'n ambition- 


Just as all the liquid in a vessel inclines to flow toward the outlet where 
it shall have been opened. 

When a brain exists in equilibrium, the different groups being in an 
equal degree of strength, circumstances are likely to give direction to 
the actions. Suppose a brain to be perfectly balanced, with each group 
equally developed, and eveiy organ in each group equal, then the indi- 
vidual stands in the midst of the world of duty equally ready for any- 
thing which may be proposed. If education and intellectual culture 
happen to be paramount in influence where such a person resides, 
scholarship would be the object of his ambition. If, on the contrary, 
social life is the great thought of his compeers, his whole character would 
drift toward the social. If business, commerce, manufactures, or naviga- 
tion appeal to such a development, he will adopt that which is most in- 
fluential. If such a person chanced to live in a community in which 
religious culture and the sacred profession were the prevailing senti- 
ments, he would naturally seek the sacerdotal office ; as, elsewhere, he 
would seek agriculture, commerce, manufactures, or literature. 

Our method of ascertaining the size of organs and the strength of their 
development is not, as many suppose, an estimation of the shape of the 
mere surface of the skull. We do not look for hills, hollows, and 
"bumps," but judge the length of brain fibers from the medulla oblongata 
to the surface, where the organs are located in a manner analogous to 
the estimation of the size of a w T agon wheel by the length of the spokes 

Up to this point the special influence of God's spirit on the individual 
has not been considered. He has been regarded as living under general 
Providence, or natural laws, surrounded by social, secular, and moral in- 
fluences. The provision for the moral and religious illumination of man, 
ordained by the Creator and applied by His wisdom and goodness, is 
brought to bear upon man through his moral and religious faculties, 
whereby his nature is illuminated in such a manner that the mural 
faculties become the guide and leader of the whole. There can be no 
doubt that the moral powers, if properly addressed by a fellow-being, 
can be made, in a good degree, to rule the lower propensities, that an 
upright life can be maintained by those who are well organized and 
surrounded by favorable influences, and that such persons are much 
more susceptible to the special influences of God's spirit than those who 
are less fortunately organized; and such men are those who become the 
eminent saints of the world. We believe that this spirit beccmi -a a 
guide, a regulator <ff the life, but that the life itself is molded primarily 
and continuously upon the original constitution of the individu d. Tint 
principle is illustrated in the characters of St. Paul, St. John, and St. 
Peter. St. Peter was the same brave, impetuous, impulsive man after 
he became illuminated and was called to his apostleship that he was 
before; bul he had a better purpose and a higher range of effort. St. 
Paul had the same wise, philosophical, and intellectual force after as 



before bis conversion, tbougb be bad a new purpose, a bigber errand of 
life on wbicb to use tbose natural gifts. When it is recognized tbat God 
is tbe Fatber of tbe human race, tbat He has created us " a little lower 
than tbe angels," it should not seem mysterious or a thing unexpected 01 
unaccountable that he should, by His Spirit, commune with us and there- 
by raise tbe soul to fellowship with Himself. 

We do not fbrget in this exposition tbat the religious world have cried 
out materialism and fatalism in view of Phrenology, but we kuow that 
man, created by God, is endowed with forces, physical, intellectual, 
animal, and spiritual, and that the law adapted to his government is 
suited to his conditions and wants; and whatever influence, special or 
general, He brings to bear upon His creature, man, it is eminently wise, 
just, and beneficent. And we are consoled with the thought, that He 
Who gave us being gave us also the law to govern that being. He who 
guides by His providence and illuminates by His spirit is to be the final 
judge of all men, tbat He knows just what our responsibility is, bow 
much to require from us, and also whether we have responded to Hit 
requirements according to our condition and ability. 


l^j^HIS is tbe face of a scholar, if 
hk^S> not a philosopher ; and tbougb 
there may seem to be " a screw 
loose" in the gentleman's theories, 
there are no indications here of any- 
thing out of gear in his organization. 

Dr. Gumming is well known as the 
champion of a doctrine which was 
formerly known in America as Miller- 
ism, and wbich is now accepted by a 
few as that of " tbe Second Advent." 
It is with him personally, however, 
and not with his doctrines, tbat we 
have to do at present. 

When in London, we made it a poini 
to see the clerical lions — Spurgeon, 
Binney, Puncheon, Baptist Noel, 
Newman Hall, and others much talked about, and Dr. Cv.mming among 
the rest. He is a tall man, standing not far from six feet i 1 height, and is 
well proportioned, has a good figure and a commanding presence. No 
one would question his sanity ; on common topics none woul .1 question 



his judgment. His discourse was strictly scriptural, and liis interpreta- 
tions seemed to be iu accordance with his text. 

He is, unquestionably, a very learned man, but this does not imply 
either extraordinary greatness or goodness. He is an intellectual investi- 
gator, discoverer, if not a hair-splitter. There are indications of great 
method, order, system. Individuality, Eventuality, and Comparison are 
well developed; Causality is less conspicuous, but Ideality and Sub- 
limity are decidedly large. The social nature is well represented, and 
when not absorbed in his books, he would be likely to give due attention 
to his babies. He is poetical, artistic, and emotional. He is combative, 
resolute, and fond of discussion. He is critical, sharp, pointed, and 
definite, and would have made a capital lawyer. His nose is inclined 
to the Roman type, and harmonizes with his aggressive spirit. His 
mouth inclines downward at the outer corners, indicating small Mirth- 
fulness and moderate Hope, while his large Cautiousness gives the face 
an expression of anxiety. More real faith, trust, meekness, and devotion, 
with less intellectual sharpness and less critical acumen, would improve 
aim as a medium of communication between man and his Maker. 

We do not regard him as a " seer," nor even as a good interpreter 
i*r believer. On the contrary, he is more of a practical fatalist, 
more of a doubting Thomas, than a credulous believer. That coun- 
tenance says, " my ' will be done, not " Thy will ;" and he is wanting in 
that meek and humble spirit which accepts the inevitable as the will of 

He is by organization adapted to literature, to analyzing, discussing, 
and criticising the thoughts of others, rather than originating or promul- 
gating his own ideas; and as an author or a journalist would evidently 
have achieved a high degree of success. 


Dr. Gumming, the "prophetic man," well known to the public as hav- 
ing made several prophecies respecting the end of the world, and fixing 
a stated time for its occurrence, is a popular preacher in London, of 
Highland descent, and was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, November 
10, 1810. He received his early education at the grammar school of 
Aberdeen, and subsecmently commenced his preparation for the Scottish 
Church at King's College in the same place, where he distinguished him- 
self for his literary proficiency, and took his degree of A.M. in 1827. 
The public career of Dr. dimming may be said to have commenced with 
his entry upon the ministry of the Scotch National Church, Covent 
Garden, London, in 1838, having been previously li ensed by the Scotch 
l'rcsbytery of that city. The church was only a miall edifice, but ho 
Boon gained a great popularity, especially in fashionable and aristocratic 

Dr. Gumming made his first prominent appearance in public in 1837. 
The separation of the C'varch and State was then the topic of the day, 


and he distinguished himself for his advocacy of the National Church 
establishments. He has since figured prominently on the platform as a 
lecturer against the attempted encroachments of Romanism, and in 1850 
startled the English public by pointing out a clause in the archiepiscopal 
oath of Cardinal Wiseman's edict of October 7th, 1850, where it said, " I 
will persecute and attack all heretics, and dissenters, and all resistors of 
Pio Nino, with all my might." For his exertions in the Protectant cause, 
hn was presented with a purse of five thousand dollars, together with a 
service of plate of the value of about fifteen hundred dollars. 

Dr. Gumming is a prolific author, and most of his works have been 
republished in America, the chief of which are "Voices of the Night;" 
" Voices of the Day ;" " Voices of the Dead ;" " Apocalyptic Sketches ;" 
" Expository Readings in the Old and New Testament;" " Lectures on 
the Parables," and " Church Before the Flood." 

Dr. Gumming is distinguished for eloquence, both in the pulpit and on 
the platform, and for his devotion to the interests of his church. His 
chief source of popularity, however, is his gift of apocalyptic interpreta- 
tion. " His exposition of the Book of Revelation is not very convincing 
to men who are moderatelv impressed with the grandeur, complexity, 
and mystery of the Divine Providence; but it is greatly relished and 
greedily swallowed by that large portion of the community who love to 
see all things, even the ' oracles of God.' presented under melodramatic 

A London journal thus speaks of Mr. Cumming's prophecies, under the 
head of " Apocalyptic Hedging :" 

" Dr. Cumming's reputation for twenty years has depended upon the 
coming of a great cataclysm in 186G. The great year has nearly gone, so 
now he says that when he said '66 he meant '68 ; and there is no reason 
whatever why, when '68 comes and goes, he should not say that he meant 
'78. ' Why, sir,' as Mr. Osbaldiston said to his poetic son, ' you do not 
understand the beggarly trade you have chosen.' A shrewd prophet 
never thinks of prophesying anything too soon or too precisely. He 
always leaves an elastic margin of time, or else he /akes care to clothe 
his oracle in conveniently ambiguous phrase. There is an Oxford story, 
that some candidate for the degree of bachelor of divinity, when he had 
*o compose his Latin disputation, went the night before to the college 
library and fished out an old treatise on the millennium. This he vtry 
accurately and very diligently copied out. The writer pioved that the 
great event must occur almost immediately. The next morning the can- 
didate, running his eye over the book, suddenly perceived that it had 
been printed about 1660. Nothing daunted, he appended a concluding 
sentence, ' Si his calculationibus duceutos annos addamus' — then it will 
appear indisputably that the millennium is close at hand. Dr. Cumming 
is evidently going to imitate the style of this admirable disputant, only 
he begins modestly by adding two, instead of two hundred, to his original 



HIS musical prodigy was born on a Georgia plantation, anil is now 
eVf*?.? about twenty years of age. He is only partially blind, and is a 
compactly built, vigorous, and healthy persou, standing nearly 
six feet in height, and weighing 150 pounds. 

Tom learned to play without instruction, from iieaiing tne ladies play 
in the house where he was raised. One night nc went to tne piano, after 
the family had retired, and was heard picking out the music which he 
had heard performed during the evening. Of course he was driven away 
from the instrument, but after that he would improve every chance to try 
his hand; and when the family found that he really had musical talent. 
Ihcj- encouraged him. The result was, he could soon play almost as well 
as his mistress. 

He is now able to repeat instantly an elaborate and rapid piece of 
music which may be played for him; or if a song be sung to him with a 
difficult accompaniment, he will repeat it — not the words, but the sounds 
The words being once carefully recited to him, he will put them to tho 
music. These performances are given before audiences, an 1 lie generally 



reproduces the pieces of music in a manner similar to that of the master 
who plays them. 

This head measures 21J inches, and is remarkably developed in the 
region of the perceptive faculties. All the organs of these faculties are 
large, except Color. 

He has a surprising memory of facts, places, magnitudes, configurations, 
and order, sound, and language. There is a prominent ridge running 
from the root of the nose to the top of the forehead, indicating large 
Individuality, very large Eventuality or memory of facts, large Com- 
parison, and excellent power to appreciate character. His Causality is 
not large, which gives the forehead something of a receding appearance 
when viewed in front. 

The organ of Tune is large, but Causality has not been duly exercised ; 
and by the non-development of the organs above and in the region of 
Tune, that organ has ample room without making so prominent a lateral 
development as might otherwise have been the case. If his Causality 
had been cultivated as much as the perceptives have been, it would have 
tended to compel a greater lateral expansion of the head downward in 
the region of Time md Time. 

The attendants of Tom remarked, that when he was a child, if by 
accident his head were pressed on the temples in the vicinity of the organ 
of Tune, he would cringe and cry out as if his head were sore, indicating 
that the skull was very thin at that point, as that part of the head was 
very sensitive. 

Tom has also large Constructiveness, which aids him in making his 
musical combinations and manipulating the instrument. His Ideal ity 
and Imitation are fully developed, which enable him to appreciate melody 
and harmony, and to imitate whatever he hears. The pretension tha'. ho 
is in any respect idiotic is simply preposterous. He is as sensible al? his 



Timid and shy as a frightened hare, 

Who knoweth her heart or her secret thought ? 
Is it love ? or a fancy lingering there ? — 

Dearest of jewels are the slowest bought! 
" Coy as a maiden" — the adage is old — 

Far better be coy than a maiden too bold ! 

Finally won ! Is the wife like the maid ? 

Read here the answer, plain as a book : 
Trusting, in thine, a soft hand is laid ; 

Boldly, in thine, the loving eyes look ! 
Ah ! it is well ; and we need not be told, 

"»The love of my wife is more precious than gold P 


gSft LL y^iing men — and many young women — who are dependent on 

g»|** their own exertions, ask themselves many times this important 

question, " What can I do best ?" Here is the copy of a letter 

from Ohio, just received by the editor of the Phrenological Journal. 

Dkar Sir : Twenty years of my life have rolled away. My college course is almost 
finished Yesterday I thought of doing one thing, to-day I think of another, and U>- 
morrow i know I shall think of still another; and thus from day to day does my mind 
fluctuate as to what is my proper calling in life. Can you, from your more intunalo 
knowledge of human nauua, suggest to me a pursuit in which I may be sure of success? 
How shall I proceed ? iiop jg for such advice as may benefit me, 

I remain truly yours, * * * 

It is clearly a question In this case, as to exactly what this applicant 
cari really do best. With a liberal education, good habits, and good 
health, we infer— with nothing but his letter before us — that he can do 
well in almost any ordinary pursuit to which he may incline. Of the 
learned professions open alike to ail, law, medicine, and divinity, he may 
choose for himself. So also of literature or of art. He may become a 
merchant, a manufacturer, or a mechanic ; or he may choose from among 
the hundreds of other employments, and uo fairly in any one. The most 
important requisite — in the absence of pos.uve scientific knowledge, of 
one's special aptitude for any one thing — is a /air intellect, a good degree 
of application, courage, push, and pluck; 'with ambition to excel, 
economy of time and means, and a settled purpose. Indeed, almost any 
one with these qualities will succeed. 

But if one really wishes to rise, he must start right, and hold every point 
gained. If he wishes to make the matter quite sure beyond all peradven- 
1 ure, he must carefully " take his own measure." He must know how much 
he can cany; how heavy responsibilities he can stand under; whether 
or not he can withstand temptations, save money or other property; 
estimate the true value of things ; judge character, so as to know whom 
to trust; whether he can secure the confidence of creditois; become 
popular with the public; make and keep friends; regulate his appetite 
and other propensities by the necessary self-denial. In short, he must 
know all about himself— usually the last lesson one ever learns — before 
settling on any particular calling in life. 

In the absence of Phrenology, a good school teacher or a coLege pro- 
fessor ought to be able to assist one in forming a judgment as to the best 
calling for a young man. Still, as babies are only rudimentary men and 
women, so young men and young women are undeveloped; and without 
the rules of Phrenology, choosing a pursuit is only "guess-work" as to 
what is best. By the aid of our science we can pronounce, for instance, 
on the actual sizes of the different organs or faculties. There is large or 
small Constructiveness, which has to do with mechanism. There is 
•Vcquisitiveness, or the want of it. Order, Calculation, Form, Color 



Cone entrati veil ess, and so on through the entire list of organs. If one is 
without veneration or the feeling of devotion, he would be " out of place 
if in the pulpit If all caution and no courage, he would make a poor 
soldier or surgoon. If small in Self-Esteem, Firmness, Locality, etc., a poor 
navigator or sea captain. With small Acquisitiveness, a poor hanker ; and 
with small Alimentiveness, a poor hotel-keeper or cook. The fact is, one 
is constitutionally adapted to one thing, another to something else, and 
it is our study to find out where each belongs, and to place one and all 
in the spheres, positions, or callings in which they can succeed best. If 
Phrenology is good for nothing more, it is good for this. Every man is a 
bock ; those who know how, can read him. A personal interview is of 
course desirable ; but with certain measurements and a correct photo- 
graph, we can get at the real character with an accuracy often surprising. 
A good portrait, life-like and true, ought to reveal the real presence.* 
The same is true of a cast molded from the head. In this, we get the 
exact size and shape of all the parts, even to the pores of the skin, the 
wrinkles, fineness of the hair, etc. It is a fact, that any one part of the 
organization corresponds with every other part, both as to shape and 

Recapitulation.-— Consult your teacher, preacher, physician, as to 
what you can do best. After getting the best judgment from all these 
sources, look into Phrenology, Physiology, and Physiognomy. Examine 
yourself. Find out how strong or how enduring you are. If physically 
weak, you may not be able to endure close confinement or hard study ; 
but if robust, you can venture on anything requiring more vitality. Find 
out what are your tendencies ; your apt itude for art, mechanism, litera- 
ture, authorship, law, medicine, or divinity, and then go about its study 
with a determination to succeed. The Lord helps those who help 

Law of Growth. — As the tree requires certain periods to grow, flower 
and fruit, so does man. You can not hurry an infant into bulky man- 
hood, do what you may. Time alone can do it. Successive months 
and years are required to harden soft masses into bones, develop teeth, 
strengthen and stiffen limbs for locomotion, increase the mass of the 
brain, expand the chest and abdomen, and so bring on the period of 
puberty, gradually sliding into manhood and womanhood, and then again 
softly descending the declivity of waning life till it stops at the grave. 
All this is the work of God by immutable laws and relations established 
between our bodies and the revolution of sun, moon, and stars. Then 
do not artificially push forward the natural development of your bodies. 
You will surely tail and hurt yourselves in the attempt. " Which of you 
by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature ?" Why, then, force ' 
unnatural precocity? 

* See oar circular entitled a "Mirror of the Mind; Or, Your Character from Youl 
Likeness." For particulars how to have picture? taken, inclose a prepaid envelope, 
addressed to voiirself for answer to this office 


KMPEKE it not for 

the great con- 
flicts that con- 
tinually agitate the 
social life of a great por- 
lion of the working 
communities, many a 
sad condition of human- 
ity would remain un- 
known. The great 
strikes among the work- 
ing classes at the present 
time in England, though 
temporarily so ruinous 
to all concerned, are, let 
us hope, only the foot- 
steps to a bettered con- 
dition. We are apt to 
forget, among the pleas- 
ant surroundings of our 
own life, the troubles an enolish minek. 

of those whose wants are not brought daily before our eyes. As we sit 
in our cosy parlors before the bright, cheerful stove, on the lon«r winter 
evenings, our thoughts oftener revert to the self-consciousness of our owia 
present comfort than we are led to consider the fate of those six hund- 
red thousand human beings whose life is an almost " eternal darkness" 
in the mines, or the social condition of the two millions more who are 
dependent upon them for a meager subsistence. We are led to discuss 
them now from the fact of the recent parliamentary investigations into 
their condition in England and Wales, where alone we find over one 
half of the miners of the world. We are enabled thus to present sone 
very startling details, which must at once cause sadness and astonishmei t 
in the breast of every lover of humanity. 


The miner's work-life commences very early. Previous to the year 
1800, when the employment of all children under ten years of age was 
prohibited by an act of Parliament, the boys were sent down to w: rk in 
the mines as early as at six or seven years of age. Most of the older 
miners began at this age, but ten or eleven is now about the period of 
commencement. «Even this is far too early for education to make up any 
important part of their life. Many of them have not had a s ngle day's 
Bchooling in their whole life. The main thought of their parents, who 
are generally miners themselves, is to send them " darn t' pi 1 , ' " bet ause 



the pay is much, better there than they can procure elsewhere." In the 
single district of Wigan, in Lancashire, alone, covering an extent of about 
thirteen square miles, there are three thousand boys of from ten to twelve 
years of age constantly employed in the mines, the proportion being 
about fifty or sixty boys or young men to eveiy one hundred adults. 
Whatever germs of health may have originally existed is thus destroyed 
by early hard labor; and we need not be surprised at the following 
description of the appearance of the collier-boys: " A collier lad," says 
the English parliamentary report, " may be recognized by his pale, sleepy, 
and stunted appearance. He resembles a plant growing in a place from 
whence the light has been carefully excluded. * * * Numbers of the 
lads, on returning from work, find themselves so terribly fatigued, that 
they have not strength to wash themselves so as to get to bed!" No 
wonder, when we read the following account of the 


" The boys, as a rule, are in the mine from eleven to fourteen hours at 
a time, and their labor generally consists in assisting the pitmen— gener- 
ally their parents — to fill coal-tubs, afterward dragging them, when full, 
into the more open portion of the workings, or to the bottom of the 
shaft." These " tubs" weigh, when filled, about eight hundred douiuLs 
and sometimes have to be dragged on uamways 3 d.ctcjxc c* foul ul 
five hundred yards. The passages are often so narrow that they are 
obliged to crawl on "all-fours" in order to diag their load, the " tub" 
being fastened to them by means of a band passea around the snoulders, 
just as one would harness a dog. The miners say that "unless the boys 
begin early they seldom make good miners," which, duly interpreted, 
means : " Unless the boys go down into the mines at an early age, they 
can not be made deformed enough for then work." A perfectly straight, 
well-made miner is an anomaly. His legs, his arms, his back, indeed his 
whole body, are permanently deformed long before he becomes a man. 
A few years ago, even girls were sent to this work also. The wages of 
the younger boys range from one shilling to one shilling and fourpence 
per day ; the older lads receive from one shilling and sixpence to two 
shillings and sixpence. " The greater part of his earnings, however, 
goes into the hands of the parents, too often to be recklessly squandered 
m beer and gin." 


On the basis of our last paragraph, we can hardly expect the English 
miner to develop into anything much higher than a " human animal." 

It was thought, some years ago, that the establishment of night-schools 
would prove beneficial in the education of both the young and aged 
miners ; but, wearied from a hard day's work of from^welve to fourteen 
hours, study is, of course, out of the question. The miner-boys begin to 
be regarded as men on the attainment of their twentieth year, and then 
receive a higher rate of wages accordingly ; as men, they get from five to 


se\en shillings per day, depending to a great extent upon their own skill 
life they are paid by the amount of labor actually performed. The mode 
of measuring the work, however, is said to be very unsatisfactory, and 
hence there arise a great number of disagreements between employers 
and employed. This is very often the root of the strikes. At these times 
the miners are seen to their disadvantage, and are then indeed often 
dangerous. The behavior of the younger miners is especially rough. 
The intellectual status of the men is very low ; with numerous exceptions 
the public house consumes the bulk of their earnings. This is one great 
source of their present degradation. But we find a paragraph which 
throws a strange light on English colliery life : " Most of the discomforts 
of home," says our report, " among the colliers, is occasioned by the cir- 
cumstance of most of the colliers' wives and grown-up daughters bfing 
employed in the factories or at the pit-mouth !" 


This truly sad feature, we are glad to learn, is decreasing. Yet even 
now there is said to be over five hundred females regularly employed in 
the colliery district of Wigan alone, which would give over 1,500 female 
miners in England and Wales. Most of these are unmarried ; a lev 
are the widows of colliers ; many are their wives ; but in most cases 
however, they are the grown-up daughters of the miners, their ages vary 
mg from fifteen to twenty. The custom of employing females fell into 
disrepute a few years ago, when the attention of the Government wat 
called to their condition. Not many years since — we are not sure wnethtt 
totally abolished now — boys and girls worked together in the mines. The 
sense of shame was totally lost with both sexes, and the morals of the 
vhole district were necessarily affected. Their work was exactly like 
uat of the boys, namely, to drag the " tubs" from the workings to the 
haft ; but even now, while they are not allowed to work in the mines, 
fheir work is equally degrading above ground. The labor is hard and 
very dirty, rendering their persons as black as soot. They have to assist 
in removing the " tubs" of coal from the cages at the mouth of the pit, 
sometimes assisting to tip the " tubs" into the coal-wagons. Their hours 
of labor are from six a.m. to five or six p.m., including the necessary inter- 
val- for breakfast and dinner. 


The dress of these female miners is very peculiar and degrading, cju- 
bisting of " coarse trowsers,fastened by a belt around the waist, a soft 
bonnet, and a shawl. The petticoats are generally tucked into the 
trowsers." And this description is not rendered more attractive by the 
following: " Sometimes they may be seen wearing jackets like the men 
bmoking, drinking, and behaving as if completely unsexed. They may 
be sren carrying their pick, spade, and sieve, just as if they were men.'' 
The colliers themselves appear to be aware of the improprieties of this 


custunie, and even acknowledge that "the habitual wearing of men's 
costume tends to destroy all sense of decency" — a very potent fact. It is 
said that in some cases " they make good wives and mothers, and many 
of 1he younger ones regularly attend, in appropriate female costume, the 
neighboring Sunday-schools ;" still, there is no good defense of the system, 
Lnd " the colliers themselves are ashamed of it !" 

Well may they be ! They are themselves the great, cause of it. " One 
great consideration of female labor is its regularity." Their husbands 
are notorious for their unsteady habits, and often spend their own, wife's, 
and children's wages; especially is this the case on Saint Monday holi- 
days, which is every Monday after the regular fortnightly pay-day. The 
pay given to these poor creatures is one shilling and ninepence per day 1 
while the men they assist get about twice as much. Very often women may 
be seen working even with their small children nearby, but a few months 
old, too young to be left at home. In such cases she attends to her work, 
and at frequent intervals through the day attends to the want of her little 
infant ! 


An air of lifelessness, agreeing perfectly with the enervated character 
of the inhabitants, pervades the whole extent of these districts. Regions 
more dull and uninteresting can hardly be found. Whatever beauty may 
have once existed, has been supplanted by the tall chimneys that mark 
the pit-shafts everywhere ; and the air itself is constantly blackened with 
smoke an .1 dust. The houses of the miners, in most cases, are neither 
built for beauty nor comfort, but — in the newer districts especially — in 
long, monotonous, parallel rows, in many instances but " little better 
than mere hovels, scarcely fit for human use." Of course, many entire 
districts are exceptions, depending entirely upon the humanity of the 
colliery proprietors. Of late years there has been a pronounced improve- 
ment in this respect, arising partty from legislative enactments, from the 
noble feelings influencing the proprietors, and the spread of knowledge 
among the workmen. A striking feature in a mining village, especially 
on pay-day Saturday night, is the noise of shouting, bawling, and fight- 
ing which issues from every gin-shop in the place ; while often the poor 
wives may be seen trying to lead their husbands home before all the 
money is gone — which is very often the case. Another peculiarity is the 
great absence of young life, all, except the very smallest, being employe ! iv 
the mines or factories. In times of strikes, the general appearance of a dis- 
trict is changed. But in comparison with the mining population or Bel- 
gium, thi! English may compare veiy favorably. These men get only from 
fi fly to sixty cen Is per day. In the late riots in Charleroi, in Belgium, many 
miners were killed. In Wales, where the colliers were lately on strike, a 
number of men were imported from Staffordshire, but were driven back 
by force. They call such men as are brought to fill up the place of the 
men on strike "foreigners" or "black sheep," and these are obliged to bo 
-trongly protected by the police or military from personal clanger. 



German statisticians place the number of miners in the wot Id at 
600,000. In England alone, 320,663 were employed in L805, the number 
of mines being 3,192. In condemning the social condition of the miner 
we must not forget the great dangers to which they are always subjected, 
both from natural and artificial causes. In England, one life is sacrificed 
to every 67,877 tons of coal procured. In 1865 the number killed was 
J ,484 ; 651 from the explosion of fire-damp, 361 from falls in mines, 203 
from accidents underground, 162 from accidents in shafts, and 107 from 
accidents overground at the mouth of the pits. The yield of the coal 
mines of England and Wales in 1854 was 64,661,401 tons; in 1866, 
101 ,630.543 tons ; of which latter not quite one tenth, or 9.367,749 tons, were 
exported. This coal takes up one half of the entire carrying power on 
the British railroads. Prussia has 409 pits, and gives employment to 
90,000 miners, producing nearly 20,000,000 tons of coal yearly. Hanover 
has 33 pits ; in Saxony and Brandeburg, in 1865, there were 54. The 
production of coal in Belgium, in 1866, from 286 mines, was 12,000,000 
of tons. America is placed by the Germans as producing 18,000,000 of 
tons yearly, the greater part of which is placed to the credit of 

The exhaustion of coal has been greatly feared, especially in England, 
but the English mines will never be literally exhausted. The coal mines 
of Belgium, it is calculated, will last, at the present rate, yet a century 
and a half. Prussia says she has enough for herself for many thousands 
of years. America can, when the West is explored, supply coal eternally 
Coal appears to be distributed over the whole surface of the world 
There are mines in Brazil, China, Japan, Tasmania, Trinidad, India, and 
places too numerous to mention. 

A recent German writer supposes that the extension of the coal-beds 
of the world can not be less than a third of the whole surface of the con- 
tinents, including islands. This is calculated to be enough for all prac- 
tical purposes for eighty thousand years to come. The amount of wood 
required also to produce this coal would require, the whole surface of the 
earth, including the sea, to be co* eied with forests for 134 years. 


[The true spirit of enlightened Americar Democratic Republicanism i« express! la 
ii.v fo. lowing eloquent words. They formerly appeared in our Life Illustrated. •' 

Who are Nature's noblemen ? They are noble — they iv/io labor — 

In the field and in the mine, Whether with the hand or pen. 

And in dark and grimy workshops K their hearts beat true and kmui' 

Like Golconda's gems they shine ; Fov tbeir suffei ing lei'ow-ritii. 

Lo ! they smite the ringing anvil, And the day is surclj coming, 

And they dress t lie yielding soil ; Loveliest sinca the world btgut. 

They are on the pathless ocean, Wien good deeds ehcll be ths pater-' 

Where the raging surges boil I Of nobility to ifi ml 




^S^H^E have grouped together on the opposite page the heads of a 
fpwlB$ number of prominent divines of different denominations. They 
represent doctrines and modes of worship widely at variance 
with each other; but each is presumed to be equally honest and sincere 
in Jirs belief, and should command our respect accordingly, howcvei 
erroneous we may deem his opinions. As neither of the gentlemen por- 
trayed will be held responsible for the company in which we have here 
tukcn the liberty f o place him, no offense will, we presume, be taken. 
We append a brief sketch of each. 

E. S. JANES, D.D. 

Rev. Edmund Stoner Janes, D.D., a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
3hurch. was born in Sheffield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, April 27, 
1807. At seventeen years of age he commenced to teach, and employed 
his leisure time in the study of law. He subsequently formed an engage- 
ment to practice that profession, but the sudden death of his intended 
partner interrupted his plan and changed his purpose. From this time 
he resolved to preach the Gospel, and in April, 1830, he started for his- 
appointment in the Philadelphia Conference. After studying of theology 
six years, and while engaged in the active duties of his pastoral work, he 
took up the study of medicine, though with no intention of becoming a 
practicing physician. In 1832 he was ordained a- deacon, and in 1834 an 
elder. In May, 1840, he was elected financial secretary of the American 
Bible Society, and continued in that office until he was elected Bishop, in 
1844. Bishop Janes has visited the California churches and the Method- 
ist missions in Europe, and is one of the most efficient and laborious 
ministers in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Unless Physiognomy be sadly at fault, we discern in the features of 
Bishop Janes those qualities which would most likely secure for then- 
possessor precedence in whatever calling he might adopt. The charac- 
teristic of command is crystallized upon his countenance ; yet there is a 
softness and delicacy permeating through the whole faci il composition 
which renders it attractive. The intellectual faculties are of superior 
size and quality ; and these co-operating with other large organs, impart 
foiee, acuteness, and efficient activity to his operations. He has that 
menial organization which would have rendered him prominent in com 
tnercial life as a financier or general business man. His large Benevo- 
lence indicates no inconsiderable supply of the milk of human kindnena 
Suavity of manner, ease and aptness of expression, cordiality, and fervor 
without affectation are tmong the more striking of his qualities. 


John Dowling, D.D., pastor of the Berean Baptist Church, Bedford 
Street, New York, was first settled as a pastor in New York city in the 



year 1836, and is one of the oldest and most popular or the Baptist 
clergy. He was born and educated in England, although ho has spent 
by far the larger poition of his life in America. 

The date of Dr. Bowling's birth was May 12th, 1807, and he has there- 
fore just completed his sixtieth year. Removing at an early age to the 
city of London, although his parents and his ancestors, for several gene- 
rations, had been zealous adherents of the Established (Episcopal) 
Cluircb, he became a member of the Eagle Street Baptist Church at the 
ago of seventeen , under the care of the Rev. Joseph Ivimey, the historian 
of the English Baptists. His youth was devoted chiefly to study and 
iiUrary pursuits. At the early age of nineteen he accepted an appoint- 
ment as instructor in the Latin language and literature, at the Clapharn 
Rise Classical Institute, in the suburbs of London ; and two years late T 
he became instructor in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French languages 
in a similar institution in Buckinghamshire, under the care of Rev. 
Ebenezer West. 

In 1832 he resolved to make America his future home. He was induced 
to this course in part on account of the fearful commotions and riots 
which then prevailed in his native land relative to the Reform agitation, 
and in part on account of the taxation and oppression inseparable from 
a monarchical government, and from the union of Church and State. 
He preferred a republican government, and was much influenced by the 
fact that America was a promising field of usefulness, and presented 
greater facilities to a father in bringing up a family of children and 
settling them comfortably in the world. Upon arriving in America, he 
received a unanimous call to the pastorate of the Baptist Church at 
Catskill, and was ordained over that church November 14, 1832, where 
he preached the Gospel with great success for two years, and afterward 
for two years at Newport, R. I. In 1836, he commenced his ministry in 
New York city, where he has, from that time, continued to labor, with 
the exception of a few years in Providence and in Philadelphia. In 
August, 1836, he was installed as pastor of a Baptist church then 
worshiping in the old Gothic Masonic Hall in Broadway, at that time 
standing opposite the New York Hospital. 


Rev. Samuel M. Isaacs was born in Leewarden, Holland, January 
1804, His father was a banker in that city, but losing all his property 
during the French war, he emigrated to England. 

The subject of this sketch was for a few years principal of an educa- 
tional and charitable institution in London, known as the Nevy Tsedek. 
In 1839 he received a call from the old Elm Street S3 T nagogue of New 
York, and arrived in this city in the autumn of that year. In 1815, a 
now congregation having formed out of that, he was elected its minister. 
This was the Wooster Street Synagogue, which was erected in 1845 ; but 
giving way to the up-town movement, was sold in 1864. The congrega- 


lion, known as Shaaray Tefila, or " Gates of Prayer," then removed to 
Mie building, corner of 36th Street and Brcadway, which they are occu- 
pying temporarily until their new synagogue is ready, an edifice now ir 
process of erection in West 44th Street, near 6th Avenue. 

Rev. S. M. Isaacs might be styled the " father of the Jewish clergy" in 
this city, as he has been residing here longer than any other minister. 
His discourses in the old Elm Street Synagogue used to attract crowds 
of visitors — Christians in large numbers, as he lectured, of course, in the 
English tongue; and so little was known of the Jews and Judaism at 
that time that people were delighted to be informed on those topics. 
Formerly reader as well as lecturer, his discourses were given at intervals 
of lour weeks, but since the removal of the congregation he has devoted 
his energies to his duties as minister exclusively, and be discourses 
regularly every other Saturday. He is universally respected by people 
of his persuasion in this country, with whom no rabbi is more widely 
Known. His long residence here, his connection with the press, and his 
own unblemished character, combine to give him an extensive reputa- 
tion. He is now sixty-four years of age, and in excellent health, owing 
to his regular habits and indefatigable industry. He rises early and 
attends synagogue every morning before seven o'clock. He has a wife 
and eight children, two of whom are associated with him in the editorial 
management of The Jewish Messenger — a weekly journal of marked 
literary ability, which he has been editing for the past eleven years. He 
is connected with all the Jewish charities of this city, some of which he 
was active in establishing. 

Rev. Mr. Isaacs is about medium height, of a very active temperament, 
lias a clear hazel eye, hair sprinkled with gray, and white whiskers. His 
character denotes amiability, benevolence, piety, firmness, and a keen 
sense of humor. 


Samuel Osgood, D.D., pastor of the Church of the Messiah (Second 
Unitarian Society), New York, was born at Charlestown, Mass., August 
80, 1812. He graduated at Harvard College in 1832, and completed his 
theological studies at the Divinity School in Cambridge in 1835. After 
two years spent in traveling and preaching, he was, in 1837, ordained as 
pastor of the Unitarian Church in Nashua, N. H., where he remained 
until 1841, when he was called to the congregation in Providence, P. I. 
In 1849 he accepted the pastorship of the Second Unitarian Society of 
New York, over which the Rev. Dr. Dewey ministered for many years. 
This Society is a large and important one, and has recently built a spacious 
chinch on Park Avenue and 84th Street. In 1857, the degree of D.D. 
was conferred upon Mr. Osgood by Harvard College. 

Dr. Osgood's literary record is one of great activity and honor. His 
works have not been simply dry discussions upon sectarian theology. 
They belong to the active, " living present." His first publications were 
translations from Olshausen and De Wette, followed by " The History 


of the Passion," and " Human Life." Bis original writings aie " StudntSi 
in Christian Biography," " The Hearthstone," " God with Mi in," " Mile- 
stones on our Life Journey," " Student Life." The chief cf Lis later 
works are "Memorial of Edward Everett," "New York in the Nine- 
teenth Century," " American Leaves," a work recently issued. This last 
work is a collection of fifteen essays upon subjects of daily interest. The 
11 ticks therein entitled "American Boys," "American Girls," have been 
called for in separate form for general distribution. 

This portrait evinces emotion, sympathy, and refinement in its every 
lineament. There is nothing cold or repulsive about the features ; there 
Is much of dignity, but no Jiauteur. A serene self-respect and a refine- 
ment of courtesy which imperceptibly command our esteem must accom- 
pany this gentleman in his various relations. Few countenances are 
more classic in expression. There is the unmistakable impress of the 
scholar, the man of close reading and of earnest thought. The forehead, 
beautiful in profile, exhibits harmony of balance between perception and 
reflection. The former feeds the latter amply; the latter suggests the 
proper fields for the exercise of the former; hence the whole intellect is 
employed upon those matters which have relation to utility, either 
personal or social. His language is fluent, graceful, and polished. The 
organs which supply sentiments of beauty, grandeur, and sublimity are 
large in this head, and conspiring with the strong moral qualities* of his 
brain induce breadth and fervor of philanthropic sentiment and earnest 
sympathy with social progress. 


Morgan Dix, D.D., was born in the city of New York in the year 1827 
and is a son of Gen. John A. Dix. He was graduated from Columbia 
College in 1848, and from the General Theological Seminary in 1852. 
His first position was that of assistant to Dr. Wilmer, rector of St. Mark's 
Church, Philadelphia. Subsequently he was elected assistant rector of 
Trinity parish, New York, and on the death of the Rev. Dr. Berrian, in 
November, 18G2, Dr. Dix was elected to fill the vacant rectorship. He 
had been recommended by Dr. Berrian as the best man to succeed him. 
Although c< mparatively a young man for so responsible and prominent 
a position, yet his ability and fidelity render him capable of discharging 
its duties as well, perhaps, as any other clergyman of his denomination. 

The Rector of Trinity Church should be known for unswerving loyalty 
to the denomination or principles of faith espoused by him. It is with 
rreat difficulty that he can be made to modify, even but slightly, his 
•».;ntiuients. What he believes, he believes firmly and trusts staunchly. 
In the well-defined and closely-shut mouth and deep upper lip is seen 
the man of reliance and power. His perception is well evinced as keen 
and clear. Distinctly marked among his observing faculties is Order. 
Precision and regularity should characterize his arrangements, whether 
literary or secular. His full chin indicates ardor of attachment and emotion, 


and Hid strong basilar development shows force, energy, and executiveness. 
He would be zealous in the promotion of any enterprise which he heartily 


James Park Stuarl, Missionary Bishop in the New Church, was born 
near Ripley, Ohio, Jxnuary 29, 1810. His parents were Scotch, and were 
of the Presbyterian Church. In this church he received his early educa- 
tion, and was admitted to its communion in the eighteenth year of his 
age;. The same year he commenced his preparation for college. In 1836 
he graduated at Illinois College ; and the same year commenced his 
theological studies preparatory to entering the ministry. 

Returning to the West, Mr. Stuart was installed in the Presbyterian 
ministry in 1839, and commenced his labors in this profession in Rock 
Island, 111. But in the pursuit of his theological studies, he began soon 
seriously to doubt the truthfulness of the Presbyterian doctrines ; and at 
the close of the second year of his ministry he resigned his charge at 
Rock Island and returned to Ohio, his native place, for the purpose of 
making a full examination of the doctrines to which he had committed 
himself as a public teacher. This investigation was continued through 
a period of about three years, and led him finally to the full rejection of 
the whole system of Calvinism, new and old school, and at the same 
time the correlated system of Arminianism, as well also as the systems of 
Arius and Pelagius. 

While thus in the general disbelief of the prevailing dogmas of the old 
church, Mr. Stuart was led to examine the works of Swedenborg and the 
doctrines of the New Church, and the examination resulted in his full 
and hearty acceptance of the New Doctrines. 

After a preliminary study of more than a year, Mr. Stuart entered the 
ministry of the New Church, into which he was ordained in 1847. He 
at once entered the missionary field in Ohio, in which work he continued 
until 1850, when he was called to the pastorate of the church in Cincin- 
nati. After three years he resigned this charge, and again entered the 
held as a missionary, and as a laborer with others in the work of estab- 
lishing a school of the Church in Urbana, Ohio. 

In 1861 Mr. Stuart was called to New York to take charge of the Book 
Concern of the New Church and to edit the New Jerusalem Messewjer. 
This office he continued to discharge until 18(55, wheu he resigned it to 
enter once more upon his favorite work of propagandism by popular W.o» 
tures and sermons. 

In the organization of Mr. Stuart we perceive fineness of quality ami 
an elevated and refined nature. It will be observed that the head 
inci eases in magnitude as it rises from the eyes and ears upward ; across 
the brow there is not a great development. He gathers knowledge more 
through meditation than through observation and experience. lie has a 
theoretical intellect, and is obliged to devote himself to the subject-mattci 
In hand in such a way that he can r n ason it all out 



Most Rev. John Baptist Purcell, D.D., Archbishop of Cincinnati, was 
born in Mallow, County of Cork, Ireland, about the year 1798, and came 
to the United States while yet a boy. After receiving a preliminary 
education here, he was sent to finish his studies at the famous Seminary 
of St. Sulpice, in Paris, where he graduated with high honors ; he was 
ordained priest, and returned to the United States about the year 1822. 
He was soon after appointed president of the well-known Catholic College 
and Seminary of Mount St. Mary's, Emmettsburg, Md. In accordance 
with a special bull from the Pope, he was appointed Archbishop of the 
see of Cincinnati, and consecrated Bishop, October 13th, 1838. About 
the year 1840 lie became well known by his controversial letters (which 
were published in two volumes) with the famous Dr. Campbell, founder 
of the Campbellites, on " Catholicity vs. Protestantism." During the laUi 
war he took a prominent part in sustaining the Government, both by 
voice and pen ; he was also among the first to urge through his official 
organ (the Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati) the abolition of slavery in 
the Southern States. 

Power of Example. — It would be well if fathers would pause and 
ponder over the nature and extent of their influence with then sons. 
The boy reveres his father as he reveres no other man, and deems him 
the true model. He sets up at his father's trade while yet he is a mere 
lad. When three or four years old, he is merchant, mechanic, railroad 
conductor, peddler, butcher, farmer, grocer, horse-jockey, bar-keeper, or 
whatever else his father chances to be ; and he has already made up his 
mind that when he conies to be a man, he will be just such a one as his 
father is. This is the goal of his juvenile dreams ; and the purpose in 
multitudes of cases ripens into reality. How careful, then, should fathers 
be not to set before their sons the bad example of chewing, smoking, or 
drinking, to excite, as it surely will, then emulations ! It is they who 
plant the seeds of ruin in their sons in too many cases, and hi old agt 
they reap in tears what they sowed with unconcern ! 

[The better example and influence of a saintly mother may correct 
the evil tendencies of the son, and save him from the bad habits into 
which he would otherwise have fallen. If fathers would be as self-deny- 
ing and exemplary as good mothers usually are, and as all are expected 
to be, right living and right example will, in time, produce their benefi- 
cent " signs" on the human face divine.] 

The Heart and tile Bi.ood. — The amount of blood in an adull is 
nearly thirty pounds, or full one fifth of the entire weight. The heart ia 
six inches in length and four inches in diameter, and beats seventy times 
per minute, 4,200 times per hour, 100,800 times per day, 37,772,000 times 
v>er year, 2,5(35,440,000 in threescore and ten, and at each beat two and 
a half ounces of blood are thrown out of it, one hundred and seventy-five 
ounces per minut<\ six hundred and fifty-six pounds per hour, seven and 
three-fourths tons per day. All the blood in the body passes ihrough the 
heart every three minutes, or should do so. 



ffjgfiS that education which unfits a man for the business of life ? that 
>£*i which breaks down Ills health and obliges him to become a teacher 
or a professor, that he may propagate error, and perpetuate the 
very system whereby he has become emasculated ? 

Is that education, which, under the name of accomplishment, enfeebles 
the understanding, dissipates the time, and interferes continually with 
more s3rious occupation? Let us have embellishment, if you will — we 
need it, every hour and at every turn ; let us have accomplishment, by all 
means, taking care that we do not misunderstand it for the business of 
life, unless we mean to be musicians or drawing-masters, linguists or 
riding-masters, professionally, which is making it a business, and a 
business worth following. In other words, as we can not hope to learn 
everything, or to be accomplished in everything, let us choose that for 
which we have most inclination, the inclination being almost always the 
evidence of inherent natural aptitude. 

" Are you not ashamed to play so well?" said Philip to Alexander, on 
hearing him blow the flute like a master. And the same question, sub- 
stantially, might be propounded to many of the accomplished around us, 
who, with something better to do, have wasted their time upon trifles, 
not for exercise, not for the wholesome purpose of recreation — as Dr. 
Beecher split wood or fiddled, or Jeremy Bentham played the organ, or 
John Pierpont turned little ivory boxes — not with a due regard to the 
proportions that should always be taken into view, between one study 
and another, or one amusement and another, when we consider that we 
have only so much time allowed us here ; that every breath, every pulsa- 
tion, is counted and predetermined for us, and that inasmuch as we can not 
hope to be omniscient, whatever may be our inclinations or advantages, 
we should be satisfied with reasonable acquisitions. 

It often happens that we ourselves do not know what we are good for 
Uow, then, are others to know ? Ask Phrenology ? 

Most men have to go through a long course of blundering experiment, 
only to. be disappointed, baffled, and humiliated at every change, while 
the few, the very few, with a strong decided proclivity, launch into the 
vxy career a phrenologist would have recommended. 


We are to choose for ourselves among all the arts and sciences, aud all 
the accomplishments of life ; and choose at our peril, or life is a failure, 
if not altogether, at least so far as we have misapplied our faculties ami 
>ur time. 

How important, therefore, that we should understand ourselves ; that 
ah! should kne w j ist what we are capable of, and what we are good for 
and the soonc the better. 

2* 215 


Tint how are we to know this? By interrogating Phrenology and 
Physiognomy, through the priesthood of these two sciences, and by 
studying ourselves, in the light of their experience. I know of no other 


There is a story in the old " American Preceptor," or in " Webster's 
Third Part," I forget which, not having seen either for sixty years, which 
may serve the purpose of illustration. A vessel was wrecked upon some 
island inhabited by savages, with a terrible reputation. A boat's crew 
and a few passengers reached the shore — I give the substance of the 
story, and only from recollection, without remembering the words. The 
savages gathered about them with fierce countenances and lifted spears ; 
and having made prisoners of the whole party, among whom were 
scholars, and naturalists, and learned men, were holding a consultation 
together in a low voice, with gestures and looks not to be misunderstood. 
At tins moment, a poor basket-maker, who happened to be among them, 
and who saw that they had no time to lose, if they hoped to conciliate 
the savages, began to make signs, which arrested their attention. First 
touching his head, then pointing to theirs, and then at a growth of tall 
sedge not far off — he signified his desire to gather some of it. Curious to 
see what he wanted to do, they signified their assent, and he soon 
gathered an armful of the flags, out of which he wove a tall showy cap, 
like a helmet, and placed it upon the head of the chief personage. He 
was delighted, and his followers were half crazy to see their leader 
crowned so adroitly, and so suddenly. The consequence was, that ah 
the others, little and big, male and female, insisted on being capped and 
plumed in the same way. The basket-maker had his hands full. But 
what became of the others ? of the scholars, and learned men, the sailors, 
and the naturalists? They were all spared for the sake of the poor 
basket-maker, who persuaded their captors that only a particular kind 
of sedge would answer his purpose, and that it would take all their time 
to hunt it up, if the manufacture was to be encouraged, and all the tribe 
furnished with caps. I dare say the story as I tell it now may be some- 
what embellished, but as I have said before, it is the substance I am after, 
when I ask which of all this large party was the educated man ? Of 
what use to all the others was all their learning and all their experience? 
By happening to understand the business of basket-making, the unedu 
cated basket-maker, who it may well be supposed could neither read noi 
wiite, was able to save not only his own life, but the lives of all tie rest 
So far, then, was he not the only educated man of the whole ? — ed cated 
that is, for the emergency that had occurred ? 

Do not understand me to recommend the business of basket-making to 
everybody, without regard to his inclinations or aptitude ; or the amuse- 
ment Df basket-making, to the overtasked theologian or professional man. 
No, indeed — not I — I should as soon think of recommending Latin and 
Greek or the mathematics to everybody, either as a business, or by way 


of recreation. Of course, too, it will be seen at once that, under different 
circumstances, any of the < thers, even the sailors, might turn out to be 
the educated, and the only educated persons among those castaways. 


Another Utile anecdote, and we shall be prepared for a definition, and 
then, perhaps, the question propounded as the outset will have answered 

A vessel was captured by the Algerines and carried into port. On the 
prisoners being paraded before the Dey, they were severally questioned 
about their past lives and their occupations. 

One was a sailmaker. The Dey ordered him off to the dockyard. 
Another was a cook. " Away with him to the bakery !" said his High- 
ness ; another was a carpenter, another a shoemaker, each of whom was 
instantly provided for. At last they came to a pale, cadaverous-looking 
body, who, when questioned as to what he was good for, answered that 
his pursuits were sedentary. "What kind of business is that?" said the 
Dey. On being answered through the interpreter or dragoman, that he 
made books, and wrote magazine stories for a living, the Dey ordered 
him a pair of feather breeches and set him to hatching chickens. 

Of course, 1 shall not be understood to mean that everybody should 
learn everything, or that our unhappy author's education was neglected 
because he did not understand sail-making, nor the business of a pastry 
cook, nor that of a carpenter, or a shoemaker ; I only mean to ask if, on 
the whole, a definition may not be supposed, and honestly accepted, 
whereby all the rest of the party might be shown to be educated men, 
while the bookwrigkt was, for the time being at least, the uneducated? 


To the question, therefore, which has been reiterated two or three 
times already, " What is education ?" I answer, that only is education 
which best fits a man for the discharge of all his duties in life, his duty 
to God, to his fellow-men, and to himself. 

Tried by this standard, how little is there of education among those 
who are called the educated ! How little they know of themselves, how 
little of others, how much less of what may be regarded as the business 
of life, whereby children are to be trained, families provided for, and a 
worth}' inheritance bequeathed to coming ages ! What dreadful mistakes 
are made by having our business, our studies, and our opinions chosen for 
us, so that the professions are overcrowded, and ambitious young men are 
satisfied with being lawyers, or politicians, or doctors, or preachers, not 
because they have now, or ever had, a predilection for either pursuit, but 
because they are fitted for nothing else, want to be genteel and fashionable, 
and are, on the whole, rather proud of their helplessness, and small feet 
lind ib inty hands, and are not ashamed of being paupers — family paupers, 
at the best. 



These considerations have now brought us to another stage of our 
inquiry. As we can not learn everything, and are not always able to 
choose for ourselves — to choose wisely, I mean — what are we to do, that 
our faculties may not run to waste? that our talents, whether many or 
few, may not be buried in a napkin, only to be reproduced at the Great 
Day, when to have been " too late" will bring down upon our heads a 
retribution too terrible to be thought of? 

I answer. We are to study ourselves ; and as I have said before, by 
the acknowledged lights of Phrenology and Physiognomy Let us 
beware of undertaking too much. Oue step at a time is always enough ; 
and one thing at a time, if by tiling we may understand serious occupa- 
tion, such as may be long continued, and is fitted by the elective affinities 
to liuk itself with other cognate pursuits, like parts of a dislocated map, 
till the student becomes a cyclopedia for himself, by a sort of spontaneous 
growth — supposing always that he does no violence to his own predilec- 
tions, and is faithful to the suggestions of his understanding and conscience. 

True Heroes. — Men are found in eveiy generation, who never lifted 
a hand against one of all their fellows, quite as brave, and enduriug, and 
self-devoted as those who have had their home in camps, and chose the 
battle-field for their grave. They are emphatically men of peace. Their 
weapons are arguments, entreaty, persuasion, remonstrance. The world's 
praise they do not covet, and often do not win ; for their business is to 
stem the current, to proclaim some forgotten truth, to stand up for the 
victims of oppression when tyranny is strongest, to wake up to some new 
enterprise in the cause of humanity the crowd who prefer slumber and 
self-indulgence to generous and manly effort. They do not look for 
present reward, but sow for a distant harvest, often laying the foundation 
on which others are to build, often braving the storm, that their successors 
may sail over tranquil seas, often falling on " evil days and evil tongues," 
while a later generation of feebler champions win an ovation at small 
cost. They walk by faith, and are content to wait God's time while they 
do God's work. Struggle they must, because their vocation is to contend 
with ignorance, and prejudice, and selfishness, to confront power when 
allied to injustice, and to arrest the multitude when they are rushing 
madly forward in some dangerous path. But contention is not the ele- 
ment they love. Many a time they are forced on to some public stage, 
from which they would retreat if they dared, but on which it is God's will 
that they should testify for the truth, or do battle for humanity, with men 
and angels for hearers and spectators. One thing is specially character- 
istic of the nobler class — they are in advance of their age, and have to do 
the rough work of pioneers. At then own risk they clear a way for more 
timid or less discerning men, through tangled forests or pathless deserts. 
The man who wants mankind for his tools and drudges must fall in with 
their humors, and either share their blindness, or will make them yet 
blinder for his own purposes. But the grander man is he who sees further 
than the crowd, and then confronts them for their own good ; who takes 
uis stand on some Undying principle, as on a rock, and struggles on, in 
full assumuce that the time will come in his day or after it, when it shall 
l>e owned that he was right, and his revilers all wrong. 


^r^-UERE are phrenologists in the Old Country and in the New who 
r /^«fcp prefer tc contemplate man in his material aspect only. They 
magnify the " cranium," make the skull the chief index to the 
character, and never gtt beyond the single fact that the "head" is the 
" chief end of man." Such persons are short-sighted and narrow-minded, 
and seem likely to always remain in then - A B C's. If others get on as 
far as words and .sentences, these rudimentary materialists cry out like 
little children to then- elders, who are away on their journey, almost out 
of sight, " wait," " wait," " come back," " where are you?" Now ice can 
not remain always in the "nursery." We must explore nature, following 
her lead even into the realms of the " beyond," and record our observa- 
tions for the benefit of generations who are to succeed us. 

Man is something more than bone and muscle — something more than 
a mere animal. He combines in himself all there is in animal existence, 
and as much more as reason is above instinct, or as spirit is above matter. 
We prefer to look at man, in his Godlike structure and comprehension, 
as a being with faculties and capacities to which no other created thing 
can claim to approach. It is easy enough to chemically analyze bone, 
to dissect and discover the nature and wses of mujcle and nerve ; but it 
is not so easy to show what is life, or what is mind, soul, or spirit. Om 
starting-point in the investigation of these questions is Anatomy, Physi- 
ology, Physiognomy, and Ps^ychology. As all physical science leads 
'oward its author* God, so all knowledge and all science culminates in 
Theology, which is the highest of all, and comprehends the fragments 
of every ism, every ology, and every idea. As the perceptive faculties, 
among the senses, are the first to be acted on, so reason, one degree 
higher up, is next in the order of development, and the moral sentiments, 
the religious, next. So theology is the topmost round in the human 
'.adder. When we arrive at this point, we may commune, as it were, 
with angels and with God. From this source we become spiritually 
impressible, and may be guided by the higher lights, not seen by material 
or worldly eyes. The gifts of prophecy, and of that "peace of mind 
which passeth understanding," are bestowed on those who come into right 
relations with the spiritual and with God. 

The " dry bones" of Phrenology may satisfy beginners, and those still 
hi the rudimentary condition; but we desire to go on, and up higher and 
higher, till we reach the throne of life, light, faith, hope, righteousness 
mercy, and perfect peace. This is our aim, this our end. " Will yon 
go ?" Let our motto ever be, " Nearer, my God, to Thee." 

Kisses. — There is truth as well as poetry in what Tennyson makes the 
tover say in " Locksley Hall :" 

Many an evening by the waters did we watch the stately ships, 
And our spirits rushed together -j,t the touching of the lips. 




;I1ERE is no subject which is better appreciated than that of Wit 
or Mirthfulness. Every one seems to know wbat it means, 
except, perhaps, a few unfortunate individuals who are not at aL, 

or but slightly, endowed with it; but notwithstanding everybody seems 

to know its meaning, writers find the greatest difficulty in defining it. 

That there is in the minu of 
man a primitive individual faculty 
which enjoys sporl and gayety, 
which appreciates the witty, the 
ludicrous, the droll, the comical, 
the incongruous, and the eccen- 
tric, there can be no doubt; and 
we take pleasure in saying that it 
is one of the distinguishing char- 
acteristics of man. It is not per- 
mitted to the lower animals to 
laugh or comprehend the causes 
of laughter. 

The organ of Mirthfulness ia 
located on the upward and out- 
ward part of the forehead — a 
little outward of what may be 
called the corner of a square 

lorehead. It will be seen to be large on fig. 1. On fig. 2 the organ ie 

sbown small. Observe the difference between those foreheads; how 

square the corner of one ! the 

other, how it is rounded off, and 

deficient ! Fig. 1 is a likeness of 

the late well-known humorist, 

Charles F. Browne — " A. Ward, 

Showman." The reader need not 

be told how well his character 

corresponded with the indications 

of his head and face. 

Fig. 2 shows a small develop- 
ment of Mirthfulness. The reader 

will observe how narrow and 

flattened the corners of the fore- 
head are at the location of the 

organ of Mirthfulness. Observe 

also the difference between the 

expression of countenance of fig. 

I and fig. 2. Where Mirthfulness 

is well developed, it tends to give a lighting up to the countenance 

Fig. 1.— Abtejius Ward. 

Fis. 2.— Kanosh, a Pan Van Indian Curatf. 



and to raise the corners of the mouth, especially when the persor 

The reason wty writers differ so much in their definition or explana- 
tion of wit is, that the organ of Mirthfulness acts through or in conjunc- 
tion with so many combinations of other faculties that the wit of no two 
persons seems to be alike. It acts with Ideality, Imitation, Causality, 
Comparison, and all the perceptive organs; with Hope, Constructivenesa, 
Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secre- 
ti ven ess, Friendship, Parental Love, and 
Amativeness. It will act with anyone, 
two, or with all these, and the several 
modes of its manifestation are a puzzle to 
the metaphysician. At one time we find 
it sparkling through the pages of a pleas- 
ant author, or beaming in the good- 
humored sallies of a fascinating friend ; at 
another, delighting us in the skillful cari- 
cature ; and again, charged with virulent 
ill-nature, infusing its bitterness in biting 
sarcasm, barbing the arrows of ridicule or 
furnishing the sting to the pungent satire. 
One of Hie most wiuy definitions of wit 
was that by Dr. Henniker, who, on being 
asked by the Earl of Chatham to define 
wit, answered : " Wit, my lord, is like 
what a pension would be, given by your lordship to your humble servant, 
' a good thing well applied.' " 

Phrenology throws light on the subject, and explains the various 
phases of wit. One who has large Ideality and Imitation with but little 
Self-Esteem, will show his wit by caricaturing, and by making distorted 
or exaggerated imitations of other people's queer conduct. Ludicrous- 
ucss, in word, action, or dress, on the part of others, causes laughter in 
the observer. Discrepancy excites laughter; and Comparison appreciat- 
ing the unfitness, excites the spirit of ridicule in the observer and he 
laughs. This is illustrated by the man at a public educational dinner, 
who thought he was giving a witty sentiment when he offered " the threo 
it's — Heading, Riting, and Rithmetic." As other men had sometimes 
given the three M's or the three D's in a similar manner, he thought he 
had found an appropriate association of alliterative initial letters; but ignorance of the method of spelling those words was recognized by 
those who were good spellers as a grotesque blunder, and being so inno- 
cently made on his part it excited laughter; of course there was no wit 
in his three R's as applied to the three words referred to. tnough laughter 

Fig. 3. — -Judge Halibukton.'' 

* Judge Haliburton was the author of "Sam Slick, the Yankee Cloi kmaker." Those 
^ho have read the work will remember the richness of the humor, thj k«enr.<?sa of the 
nr.t, as well as the sound sense and intellectual force embodied in that *ork. 


was excited in those who appreciated the ridiculous blunder and igno- 
rance. We think nothing is more laughable than an effort of smartness 
thai fails. Innocent ignorance is ludicrous, and that which is incongru- 
ous, raw, unwitty, or disadjusted is an occasion of laughter. 

A bull or blunder must be genuine, or at the moment supposed to be, 
in order to amuse us by its incongruity; one or two examples may be 
mentioned. The first printed article of a new Burial Society in Man 
ches I er, England, ran thus: "Whereas many persons find it difficult to 
buij Ihemselves," etc. When Lord Eldon brought in a bill for abridging 
llio liberty of the press, an Irish member moved as an amendment, 
'That every anonymous work should have the author's name printed at 
lull length on the title-page." This is akin to what an Irish boy, once 
employed in our office, wrote, viz. : " Fac-simile of the handwriting of 
jj****** l****^ wr itt, e n b} r himself." Again ; an Irishman being asked 
what he meant by the word coffin, said. "A coffin is the house a dead 
man lives in." Again; a merchant having suddenly died left on his desk 
a letter to one of his correspondents unsealed. His sagacious clerk 
seeing it necessary to send the letter, wrote at the bottom: "Since 
writing the above, I have died." In each of these cases the ludicrous- 
ness consists in the incongruity of the expressions when the end desired 
by the speaker is considered. The same principle may be applied to the 
following epitaph in Chichester (England) churchyard : " Here lies the 
bod} r of John, the only surviving son of John and Mary Thompson." 

When one is caught in a blunder or mistake, and with dextrous mental 
skill avoids the inference being made to his disadvantage, he manifests 
wit. A quick, clear perception of the ridiculousness of his position an" 
the sharp turning to get out of it, shows wit on his part. 

It is related of a raw son of Erin, that at his first effort to saddle a 
horse he put the saddle on wrong end forward, and when about to 
mount, some one present told him the saddle was on the wrong way, 
and the instant he became aware of it, he replied: " Arrah, but how do 
you know which way I am going to ride?" There was wit on his part, 
but it is not that which excites our mirth ; it is the ludicrous idea that he 
should suppose the horse would accommodate himself to the saddlo 
instead of the saddle to the motion of the horse. 

There is a story of a Nottinghamshire publican, Littlejohn by name, 
who put up for a sign the figure of Robin Hood, with the following lines 
below it : 

" All you who relish ale that's good, 
Come in and drink with Robin Hood ' 
If Robin Hood is not at home, 
Come in and drink with Littlejohn." 

Mr. Littlejohn having died after making his place and business a great 
success, the man who succeeded him thought it a pity to lost; so capital 
4 sign and so much excellent poetry, and determined accordingly to 
retain both. This he co>id do by erasing his predecessor's name, 



Littlejohr., and supplying his own in its place. The lines then ran 

thus : 

'' All you who relish ale that's good, 
Came in and drink with Robin Hood ; 
If Robin Hood is not at home, 
Come in and drink with Samuel Johnson." 

Tho wit! in the fact that Mr. Littlejohn, bearing the name of 
Robin Hood's squire appropriated Robin Hood for the name of his house 
so that he could work his own name in as the friend of Robin Hood. 
But that did not excite laughter, yet the wit was appreciated; but when 
Samuel Johnson thrust his excellent name in, it was incongruous, and 
therefore laughable; but the wit 
was in the laughter, and not in the 
man who was the occasion of it. 

Sometimes Benevolence is exer- 
cised in conjunction with Mirth- 
fulness ; sometimes Benevolence 
and Ideality join with Mirthful- 
ness; sometimes Approbativeness ; 
sometimes Secretiveness and Ama- 
tiveness; sometimes all together, as 
when the Irish hod-carrier rescued 
the lady's parasol which was being 
blown away, and handing it to her 
said, " Och, if you were half as 
strong as you are handsome it never 
would have got away from you." 
She replied, " I do not know which 
most to thank you for, your kind- 
ness or your compliment." He responded, " Niver mind ; a single glanc€ 
at your beautiful bright eyes pays me for both," and he again bent him- 
self to his work. The wit of this consists in embracing an opportunity 
to say a brilliant, pleasant thing without being rude, and we admire it 
more than we laugh at it. 

Another class of witticisms takes the form of satire or sarcasm. This 
originates from a co-operation of Destructiveness, Combativeness, Self- 
Esteem, and Mirthfulness. Thus when persons are provoked they are apt 
to give sharp cuts and use wit for the cutting edge. An example or two 
of this kind of wit will illustrate it. A so-called poet had, with laborious 
and useless ingenuity, written a poem in which he had avoided tne uee 
ff the letter A. He read it to the king, who, tired of lislening, returned 
the poet thanks, and expressed his approbation of the omission of the 

Fig. 4.— Little Ckow.* 

* The American Indian indicates a great deficiency in the element of wit. His charac- 
ter is sedate. He is taciturn, silent, and grave. The organ of Mirthfulness in his liead 
ta small. This faculty is a special endowment of the human being; and the more the 
Quiu is civilized, the more abundant and the nr re polished is his wit. 


letter A, but added that the poem would, in his estimation, have beeii 
still better if, at the same time, all the letters of the alphabet had been 
omitted. Here we have Wit, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, and Self- 

Sheridan was one day much annoyed by a fellow-member of the House 
of Commons who kept crying out every few minutes, " Hear, hear." 
During the debate he took occasion to describe a political cotemporaiy 
that wished to play rogue, but who only had sense enough to act fool. 
" Where," exclaimed he, with great emphasis, " where shall we find 
a more knavish fool or foolish knave than he?" "Hear, hear," was 
ohouted from the troublesome member. Sheridan turned round, and 
thanking him for the prompt information, sat down amid a general roai 
of laughter. 

A poor traveler was passing along the road and respectfully inquired 
of a couple of young fellows where the road he was traveling led to. 
Thinking to be facetious at his expense, and of making sport for them- 
selves, one of them answered, " To Hell !" The traveler instantly 
replied, casting a furtive glance at them and a1 the scene around, " By 
the lay of the land and the look of the people I must be near to it" 
Thus he threw the joke upon them and released himself from the 
advantage which they sought to obtain over him. 

Another still more conspicuous instance of toning the tables upon 
another in the way of cutting sarcasm is the following, which we regard 
as unsurpassed in the whole realm of wit : Two sons of the Green Isle, 
traveling, came in sight of a gibbet or gallows ; and as it seems to be a 
standing joke among the Irish to rally each other on the subject of hemp 
and gallows and hanging, one of them said to the other, " Pat, where 
would you be if that gallows had its due ?" " Och," he replied, " I 
would be walking alone." This is breaking one's weapon over his owm 
head ; this is hanging Haman on his own gallows. 

But there is a class of jokes embodying Mirthfulness, Comparison, 
Approbativeness, and Secretiveness, with a slight touch of Combative- 
ness and an abundance of Friendship, Destructiveness being left out of 
the question. These arise when one person good-naturedly aims to 
practice an innocent joke or witticism at the expense of his friend, 
knowing it will be kindly taken. In our office there w r as a leakj r gas- 
pip* 3 , and one of our people got a long pole and fastened a taper to the 
end of it, and wr h this torch was trying to find w r here the gas wag 
escaping, when Dr W., a very talkative and mirthful man, who happened 
to be present, said, " I'll tell you w T here to put it," when the. torch-bearer 
catching the spirit of the joke and throwing dowm 1 is torch, said, " Had 
I known you were here I should not have hunted for the leak." The 
Dr. was so full of the joke he could not speak quickly enough to say as 
be was going to, " Put the torch to your mouth and you will find where 
the gas leaks." We suppose the Dr. has told the story a hundred 
times ; and It gratifies his Mirthfulness as much to tell the joke 


at his own expense as if he had thrown the load on his friend, as he 

One of our young men was nailing up a box, when another of oui 
assistants, the torch-bearer above referred to, happening to pass, inquired, 
" Can't you, by striking heavier blows, save time ?" The reply was this, 
" Yes, if the hammer was as hard as your head," " Or," said the other, 
" if the boards were as soft as yours." It will be perceived that the wit 
of these statements was in the quickness of the turn— the retorting each 
one's jyke upon himself and making it applicable on the instant. And 
it was all the more significant and piquant for having occurred in a 
phrenological office. 

The richness of the wit will, we doubt not, be a sufficient excuse for 
the sharpness of the following: 

Sir William Congreve, the inventor of what is known as the Congreve 
rocket, and other fireworks, was one day walking with a lady in a 
church-yard when they came across an epitaph of a great musician, con- 
taining this pretty statement, which they greatly admired: 

" He has gone where, alone, his music can be excelled." 

The lady remarked, " Sir William, that epitaph needs but the change of 
a single word to be applicable to you." " Ah," said he, " do you think so? 
Which word is it, pray?" " The word ' fire works 1 in the room of music," 
was her quiet but mischievous reply. The brilliancy of her wit hardly 
redeems the statement from the charge of irreverence. Rev. Sidney 
Smiti< ' -— ; , _; w flip nuke, of tJie wit often strained a point of propriety. 

This faculty takes specia. cognizance of whatever is odd, droll, comical, 
eccentric, or differing from that which is usual If one comes into a 
place with unfashionable garments, with a short-waisted, swallow-tail 
coat, , when everybody wears long-waisted, broad-skirted coats; or if one 
comes with a narrow-brimmed, bell-crowned hat, when the style is to 
have a broad brim and straight crown, or whatever is a caricature upon 
custom, excites the tendency to ridicule. On the stage, nothing makes 
more fun or more excites the spirit of ridicule than a man tints oddly 
dressed. Whatever is grotesque excites mirth, not because it is witty, 
hut because the faculties of Imitation, Comparison, and Perception 
recognize the eccentricity and employ Mirthfulness and perhaps other 
faculties in appreciating and ridiculing the eccentricity. This is the basis 
of all caricatures. Funny papers draw their life from this mental basis. 
Incongruities of every kind are seized upon by this class of faculties, and 
Jlirthfulness acts as a merry maker for the rest. If a man has his vest 
\ uttoned askew, his cravat turned round under his ear like a liangman'b 
knot if he wear one boot and one shoe; if a lady were to be seen with 
her bonnet wrong side before (if, with some fashions, the difference 
between the front and rear could be detected), it would excite the spirit 
of ridicule in ad beholders, not because there is anything in the bonnet 
that is ridiculous or anything ludicrous in the lady, but because of the 
niisadjustnient of the two. 


There is much humor and fun in some of the Artemus Ward style of 
writers, even in their bad spelling, in the blunders made on purpose; and 
there is wit also in a mock solemnity. Some >f the sharpest wit and 
funniest sayings are couched under the guise of the soberest phraseology. 
Those who have read the chronicles of" Uncelpsalm," entitled the " New 
CJospel of Peace," will appreciate what we mean. It is possible for a 
man to appreciate the wit which is perpetrated at his own expense quite 
«3 highly as by him who inflicts it, or the listeners who are entirely 

N -j w, what is the use of wit ? Why is man endowed with Mirthfulness ? 
In the first place, it is the basis of gayety ; it gives the mind joy, and 
serves to smooth over many of the rough 
passages of life. Our better hall' has the organ 
of Mirthfulness large, and we have many a 
time seen " the maid of all work'' thrust into a 
troubled state of fear and anxiety by some 
grave accident like the tipping a wash-tub half 
full of suds and clothes on the kitchen floor ; 
upsetting a cook-stove with a wash-boiler on it 
by carelessly knocking out a loose leg and 
spilling everything on the floor ; the turning 
over a dinner-table with all the dishes on it 
into one grand heap, half the things being 
'° Woman * oi ' land broken ; under such circumstances the mistress 
regards it in the most ludicrous light, and has 
naif an hour's hearty laugh at the grotesque accident and at the alarm 
and anxiety of the poor girl. We need not say that this looking at 
accidents in a ludicrous light serves to take off nine tenths of their cutting 
edge; the loss is frrgotten; the inconvenience is bridged over; and the 
memory of it is a perpetual feast of amusement and pleasure, though it 
might have cost many dollars to repair the damage. 

Many persons can never see another meet with an accident, even 
though it be a friend, without looking at it in a ludicrous light, If a 
man stumble or fall without hurting himself,,we think nine out of ten 
would laugh inwardly if not outright to see the elegant hat soiled and 
his immaculate gloves smouched, more especially if the man were one 
of the dilettante, elegant stamp, whose pride is in his clothes and in hia 
Btately walk. Some of the funniest of picture books are a compilation 
of accidents, blunders, and mishaps. Who has not .'aughed at John 
Gilpin's hasty ride, though so full of terror and danger to him and every- 
body on his route? 

* Fig. 5 shows large Mirthful] .ess in the New Holland woman, and the face is lighted 
np with a smile. The physiognomy, as well as the phrenology, indicates Mirthfuhi'ies. 
The reader will notice the elevation of the corner of the mouth and that peculiarly cheer- 
ful expression of the eye in harmony with those of fig. 1 and fig. 3, and contrast with figs. 
2, 4, and 7 T..i upper part of die fci-ehead is broad ard square at the location of Mirth 




Another of Ihe uses of Mirthfulness is to give us an appreciation of I he 
ridiculous :;o that we shall he led to avoid it in our conduct, and the more 
amply developed one has this faculty the more keenly will he appreciate 
the pain of being ridiculed. There is also in Mirthfulness the power 
to aid in the formation of good taste by teaching us what is incongru- 
ous, and giving us a disposition to avoid it; while Ideality, located just 
behind it, inspires us tc cherish the beautiful, the harmonious, and the 

As we have said, animals do not have this quality. They have secre- 
ti/enoss, and they occasionally play tricks on each other, but there is no 
sense of wit or mirth in these transactions. We once saw a little dog 
chased by a big one in play, which ran close to the edge of a high bank 
with the big, clumsy one following him with all his might, and just at the 
edge the little one made a 
short turn, and his eager 
adversary went headlong 
end over end down the 
bank forty or fifty feet; but 
as it happened to be a sand- 
bank, and stood at*an angle 
of forty-five degrees, he 
rolled down to the bottom 
in a cloud of dust and an 
avalanche of little stones. 
Everybody who saw it 
shouted with laughter ; but 
the little dog stood at the 
top of the bank looking 
down at his discomfited 
playmate with a face as 
sober as if nothing had 
happened— he did not " see where the laugh came in." The big dog 
gathered himself up, shook the sand out of his ears, and with a good deal 
of labor climbed up again, and went to play as usual, and he did not appre- 
ciate the ludicrous trick, or the comical figure he had been made to cut, 
"ud did not seem to feel that he was being laughed at, and that he " owed 
one" to his associate. The little dog might not have anticipated such 
a result by running close to the bank, but to us it looked precisely as if 
he understood it so far as the trick was concerned, but he did not see it 
in the light of mirth or fun. 

Rev. Sidney Smith was an eminent example of a really witty man ; 
the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher is a living example of this faculty, and is 
brimming over with wit. No weapon is stronger than wit and ridicule in 

* The laughing Doctor shows Mirthfulness not only larLje in the head, lint in a state 
of extreme activity. His love of wit and fun is awake highly excited, while that of fifjj.a 
ie bt'i.t. waiting to be nwun^d or culled into action The L. U pives no medicine. 

Fig. 6.— The Laughing Doctor. 


ihe work of making wrong-doing xnd meanness odious. Many persons 
who have a dull conscience can be made to feel the lash of sarcasm and 
ridicule, and the cause of morality and religion has a right to act through 
any of the, human faculties to produce an aversion to vice and to make 
the way of the transgressor hard. Dr. Gall, in endeavoring to convey an 
idea of the faculty which produces wit, cited the writings of Cervantes, 
Racine, Swift, Sterne, and Voltaire, and we might add Neal, author of 
the Charcoal Sketches, Seba Smith, author of Maj. Jack Downing's 
Lettei's, and many others of later time. The writings of Horace Mann, 
though full of sound philosophy, and beaming with beneficence, also 
sparkle with wit, and gleam with holy sarcasm against insolent vice and 
rapacious selfishness. 

Mirthfulness enters largely into the writings of Washington Irving, 
Charles Dickens, James Russell Lowell, and indeed into those of all the 
most popular and genial authors. It crops out in all the most successful 
lecturers ; in many preachers, especially those who arouse the popular 
heart as revivalists ; and we could name a score who have been remark- 
able for devotion and also noted for wit and humor, and have employed 
true wit as a means to make vice and immorality appear ridiculous as 
well as criminal, and to sting meanness and lasb error and sin into 
shame and repentance. 

Weight of Brains. — If weight of brains has anything to do with 
intellectual and moral development, then ought we to be able to form a 
tolerable estimate of the relative status of nations and races from the 
figures on the subject given to the Royal Society by Dr. Davis. A glance 
over the tables compiled by this latest of cranium guagers, shows that the 
average brain-weight among Englishmen is 47 1 ounces, and that Italians, 
Lapps, Swedes, Dutch, and Frisians are gifted with just about the same 
amount of cerebral matter. The lightness of hand and heart that charac- 
terizes our neighbors the French may be attributable to lightness of brain, 
for the average derived from examination of sixteen French skulls was 45a 
ounces — two ounces less than the English weight; while the solid-headed 
character of the Germans is borne out by the fact that thirteen of their 
crania gave an average of 50J ounces of brain for each; but this estimate 
is probably too large, as previous investigators, using more materials, 
obtained much smaller weights. The general European average deduced 
by Dr. Davis, is somewhat under 47 ounces per man; the Asiatic and 
American races average two ounces, the African about three, and the 
Australian five and a half ounces less than this. There is more raw 
material of brains in the world than one would have supposed. 

[To make these comparisons of value in judging of the relative power 
of men, we should also weigh the bodies. The whole man must be taken 
into account. Then the temperament or quality is to be very carefully 
considered. By all these means, we may arrive at a tolerably correct 
conclusion as to innate capacity. But size or weight of brain alone will 
not tell the whole story.] 


^|iiUR readers 

terested in 

(he following 
t ketch of a veri- 
table Australian 
cannibal. What a 
hideous counte 
nance! and yet in 
human form I 
There are even 
lower types than 
this, and more sav- 
age. Some of our 
North American 
Indians have 
broader heads, and 
even less intellect. 
So among the Hot- 
tentots there are 
lower specimens ; 
and also among 
the Feejee island- 
ers, and the Caribs. 
But this is bad 
enough! Little can 
be said of his intel- 
ligence. The per- 
ceptive faculties 
seem to be im- 
mensely large ; but the forehead recedes rapidly ; and there is in reality 
lnss intellect than is indicated in the picture. There is little space 
between the ear and eye, consequently little room for those faculties 
which are more largely indicated in the civilized brain. There would be 
Borne mechanical skill, and the necessary faculties to enable him entrap 
game without the higher order of mechanism. Little can be said of 
the social natiu-e of this specimen ; still less of the moral or religious 
He is little more than an animal, and yet he has the same number of 
bones, muscles, faculties, and organs that the best of us have. But there 
is evidently work here for missionaries. If they can so manage as to 
escape the gridiron, they may, in time, by education and religion, produce 
some good effects on the character of these and other cannibals. 





COLLINS, widely 
known as an English 
novelist and miscellaneous writer, 
was born in the year 1825, iu 
London. His works show hirn 
to be a great master of mystery 
He can so hide a secret or a plot 
in a wrappage of circumstances 
that, before it is discovered, tho 
whole tissue of events must be 
unrolled. Several of his works 
are models of construction ; and 
in working out his plots he 
diverges neither to the right nor 
to the left ; indulges neither in ir- 
reverent pathos nor description, 
but keeps strictly to the business 
in nand, pursuing his denouement steadily to its development. Ilia 
principal works are, " Antonia," " Basil," " Hide and Seek," " After 
Dark," " The Dead Secret," " The Woman in White," " The Queen's 
Revenge," "The Stolen Mask," "The Yellow Mask," "Sister Rose," 
" Mad Monkton," etc., etc. 

What immense perceptives ! What capacity to collect information ! 
This verily must be a brain stored with all sorts of materials which the 
world of matter offers to human observation. He is by no means 
deficient in thought-power, but enjoys more the discussion of the real 
than of the imaginary. His ability to describe is eminent; he takes in 
all the facts, incidents, relations, and suggestions of a subject ; and being 
possessed of Construct iveness and Ideality fully developed, he should 
exhibit much esthetic taste and management in his delineations. 

He is steadfast in disposition, and more affable, genial, and fond than 
ceremonious or devotional. The religious element in his nature :loes 
not predominate. 


The Law op Form. — Length indicates and causes activity and in- 
tensity ; and breadth, comprehensiveness, stability, latent force, and 
endurance, In accordance with this law, stout, broad-built persons are 
slow but plodding, take good care of themselves, and are not soon worn 
out by overwork, while those built on the long and narrow principle are 
quick-motioned, lively, fond of action, and apt to overdo and prematurely 
exhaust themselves. This law explains the tact that woman's mental 
operations are more rapid and intense and less prolonged than those of 
man. Her head has relatively less breadth and more length than his. - 
New Physiognomy. 



^rW-'-MS DIXO N, a much admired 
English author, was born 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
England, in 1821. In 1846 he went 
k) London, and gained considerable 
reputation by a series of papers 
"On the Literature of the Lower 
Orders," and " London Prisons." 
His published works are, " John 
Howard," " The Prison World of 
Europe," " William Penn," " Life 
of Blake," "The French in En- 
gland," " Life of Lord Bacon." In 
1853 he was appointed editor of the 
London Athenaum, which position 
he still occupies with credit. His 
recent work, '' New America," is, 
perhaps, the best cursory sketch of a tour in America by an Englishman 
yet published, and has won for him the general esteem of the American 

This is a delicate organization ; nature here has carefully drawn the 
plan of mind and body. The tendency of the brain is to thought — to the 
elaboration of ideas — the penetration of causes. The observing organs 
are subordinated to those organs above them. He looks about him, he 
scrutinizes men and things for certain thought — born purposes — not as a 
pastime or to gratify mere curiosity. He has a forceful imagination and 
fine capacity in the way of expressing his ideas. He loves to meditate 
and to dream ; is comprehensive in his views ; knowing some things well, 
he is inclined to fkncy that he knows more than others, and will inevi- 
tably fall into the error of supposing that what he don't know is not 
worth knowing. It would have been remarkable if he had not, with his 
large reflect ives and very large Approbativeness, almost unconsciously 
become the vain, seli-opinionatcd egotist which he is. What he lacks iu 
kuovvledge he will make up in assumption. 

Let Woman be Womanly. — Woman gains nothing by striving to 
become more like man. Her crowning beauty consists in being tiuly 
womanly. It is that quality which wins the love of man inwhcmshe 
loves above all things else strength, manliness — something to lean upon, 
look up to, be proud of. It is a grand, a noble thing to be a man. To be 
a woman is to lie truly 

" God's last, best gift to man," 

without whom his strength is useless, his wisdom folly, his life a failure. — 
New Physiognomy. 

•6 231 



victor cousin. 


French philosopher, was 
born in Paris, November 
28, 1792. He studied at the I/yccc 
Charlemagne with brilliant sue 
cess. In 1812 his name headed 
the list of students admitted into 
the Ecole Normale ; in 1812 ho 
was appointed Greek Professor, 
and in 1814 Examiner in Philos- 
ophy there ; and at the same 
time held a chair in ihe Lytic 
Napoleon. He first lectured in the 
chair of M. Royer Collard, of 
whom he was the favorite pupil, 
at the Sorbonne, in the year 
1816 and 1817, where he spoke 
with enthusiasm against the 
skepticism of the day, his doctrines resting on the psychological method 
of investigation, and developed in France the spiritual theories of the 
Scotch school of metaphysicians, as advocated by Reed, "Walker, and 
others. The vacations of 1817 and 1818 he spent in Germany, where he 
was introduced to the bolder and more speculative systems of philosophy, 
and the metaphysics of Kant tinged the lectures delivered after his icturn 
In 1824 he paid a second visit to Germany ; but suspected of Carbonarism, 
he was arrested at Dresden, and during a six months' compulsory stay in 
Berlin studied the philosophy of Hegel, which exercised considerable 
influence on his susceptible intellect. He returned to Paris in 1827. 
where he again lectured — his doctrines then being those of deism, of the 
spirituality of the soul, and of moral liberty — doctrines which have 
become more prominent in his philosophy ever since. In 1830 he was 
made a member of the Council of Public Instruction ; in 1832 a peer of 
France, and, later, director of the Ecole Normale. In 1840 he became 
Minister of Public Instruction in the cabinet of Thiers. In 1848 he 
aided the Revolution ; since which time he has disappeared from public 
life. The principal American editions of Cousin's works are the " Intro- 
duction to the History- of Philosophy," " Elements of Psychology,' 
" Course of Modern Philosophy," and his " Lectures on the True, the 
Beautiful, and the Good." M. Cousin is known as the founder of system- 
atic eclecticism in modern philosophy. 

It is to his lucid and brilliant eloquence that modern eclecticism owes 
sta popularity. This system, if it can be so-called, may best be defined 
vis an effort to expound, in a critical and sympathetic spirit, the previous 


systems of philosophy. Its aim is to apprehend: the speculative thinking 
of past ages in its historical development. 

His death occurred in the spring of 1868. 

There are substance, strength, and weight in every lineament of this 
countenance. The large ;„nd heavy features, though much relieved by 
that softness which accompanies a brain of superior quality, indicate no 
common man. Steady, firm, positive, and emphatic in disposition, he 
was nevertheless fervent, conciliatory, impressible, and affectionate. The 
broad forehead with its well-marked perceptive faculties evinces both 
comprehensiveness of understanding and closeness of observation. The 
eyes show power of expression and ability to fix the attention. The 
general organization of the brain and body proclaims the earnest, 
substantial thinker and not the idealist, not the mere speculative meta- 
physician. His temperament contained too much of the motive element 
to be in thorough sympathy with the simply theoretical. 

Temperament in Cattle and Horses. — Animals have as clearly 
marked temperaments as man. Those who understand horses and oxen 
or dogs will recognize this at a glance, especially if they are familiar 
with the doctrine of temperaments. The sharp-eared, thin, excitable 
horse lias the mental, or nervous, temperament. The one that has a solid 
and abundant framework, clothed with hard muscles, and inclined to 
dark complexion, represents the bilious temperament. The cart horse 
and the cavalry horse are of this make; they are not quick, but powerful. 
Another inclinrs to be fleshy, round, smooth; eats and digests well; 
likes to take life easily, and always keeps in good flesh; in this we find 
the vital, or sanguine, temperament. Another is lazy, sluggish, clumsy, 
not intelligent; here we find the lymphatic temperament, He that, has 
driven oxen will recognize in some the slim horn and flat neck, the 
clean muzzle, the light head, the trim and finely-modeled limbs, the slim 
tail, and the active mental temperament. Such oxen learn easily, and 
are usually driven on the " near side," to act as brains for both. Again, 
the great round muzzle, the heavy, clumsy head, the thick neck and thick 
legs, and the club tail, indicate the bilious and lymphatic temperaments. 
Such are slow to learn, slow to move, but strong, and steady, and endur- 
ing. These remarks apply equally to dogs and all the other animals. 

Mentai, Conceptions. — The most beautiful poem is trash to liim who 
reads only bare words, and sees not the glorious visions of which I bo 
words are but symbols. Had only a faint conception of the wondciful 
beauty which filled the soul of a Milton entered the mind of the critic of 
" Paradise Lost," the world would have gained somethiug by uevcr having 
eucn his criticism. 



Fig. 1.— The English Girl. 

£* LMOST every one is in the habit, unconsciously, perhaps, in many 

p*\> cases, of studying faces and of tracing in them more or less definite 

and distinct signs of character. This is done not merely by those 

who accept Physiognomy as a useful art, if not an established science, 

but even by those who ignore or oppobe 
its claims altogether, while unwittingly 
availing themselves of its advantages. 
Very few, however, are guided in their 
study by any established rules or any 
scientific method, and therefore make 
comparatively little progress and reach 
no very satisfactory results. To help 
such persons to read the open book of 
human nature to better advantage, we 
submit the following hints : 

In every physiognomical examiuation 
the first thing to be done is to observe 
the general outlines. These not only 
reveal much, but they serve as a guide to 
the study of the minuter markings — the 
details of the features. 
Look, then, first, at the head (including 
the face) as a whole. Observe its configuration as seen in front and profile. 
We will suppose, for instance, that the subject before you has a face 
and head which, in the front view, present a nearly circular outline, like 
fig. 1. The profile will show the same tendency to roundness as in fig. 2; 
and this will be the character of the whole physical sys- 
tem — the body and limbs being plump and full, and the 
whole figure broad and stout rather than long and slender. 
Now, you may at once conclude that your subject has 
a predominance of the Vital Temperament, and this fact 
will furnish the key to his or her character. 

There will be great vigor, a good digestion, love of 
fresh air and exercise, and a fondness for good living 
and physical enjoyments generally, with a disinclination 
to hard and protracted labor. 

Mentally, you may look for ardor, impulsiveness, en- 
thusiasm, and versatility, if not fickleness. There will 
he more diligence than persistence, and more brilliancy 
than depth. There may be a quick and violent temper, 
but it will be easily calmed, and in general the disposi- 
tion will be cheerful, amiable, and genial. 

Having thus got as it were a synopsis of the character, you can proceed 
to find the details in the various lines of the face. 



Perhaps your next subject will have a faue like fig. 3, in which length 
is the predominant characteristic. The profile will present strong angular 

Fig. 3. — Andrew Jackson. 

Fig. 4. — Profuw 

lines, as in fig. 4, in place of the curves which prevail in the previous 
illustration. The figure will be found to be tall and striking, with a 
manifest tendency to angularity, as in the case of the features. 

In this Case we have the Motive Temperament before us, and may infer 
density and firmness of texture in all the organs, and great strength and 
endurance in the physical system, with energy, capacity for work, and a 
strongly-marked character, in which executiveness, love of power, stabil- 
'ty, persistence, and directness are noticeable traits. There may be, though 

Fig. 5. — Raciiel. 

Fig. 6. — Profile. 

not necessarily, an objectionable degree of hardness and coarseness, but 
we shall generally find a degree of firmness and constancy which may be 



relied on in business, in friendship, or in love. This temperament and 
form of face are less common among women than among men, and the 
characteristics we have named are of course subject to the modifications 
Buperinduced by sex and age. 

A third form of face is shown in fig. 5. It may be called the pyriform 
or pear-shaped face, of which the profile is less rounded than oi fig. 2, loss 
angular than in fig. 4, and more delicate than in either, as in fig 6. 

As it is the expansion of the superior parts of the face, including the 
forehead, which gives the pyriform shape to the whole in the front view, 
we may without looking farther set down our subject who presents this 
form as having a predominance of the Mental Temperament. We shall 

find the figure in this case slender 
and delicate rather than elegant 
or striking. The indications are 
great mental activity, a lively 
imagination, fine sensibilities, res 
finement, delicacy, taste, and liter 
ary or artistic talent. 

The three classes of faces we 
have thus briefly noted include, 
with their various combinations 
and modifications, all that normal 
human development presents, and 
furnish the starting-point in all 
physiognomical estimates of char- 

We will, to make still clearer 
our brief instructions, give a few 
illustrative examples, referring 
the reader to '* New Physiognomy" for the details for which we have no 
room here. There the eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, neck, hair, beard, and 
complexion aie all shown to afford indications of character. 

We have no trouble in referring this face (fig. 7) to its proper class. All 
the characteristics of Vital Temperament are evident at a glance. The full 
chest and portly figure are in keeping with the plump cheeks, the promi- 
nent double chin, and the large, short neck. There is no lack of vital 
power here, and little danger that it may be used up faster than it can be 
manufactured by the system. Our subject is fond of the good things of 
this life, and finds enjoyment in the mere sense of animal existence— io 
the rhythmic beating of the pulse, in the rise and fall of the chest in 
hmitling — in the regular and natui al action of the whole vital machinery. 
lie enjoys life, as you may see by the expression of his face., and is sun: • 
to take foi his motto '* Let us live while we live." He is ardent, im- 
pulsive, impassioned, imaginative, versatile, remarkably fluent in language, 
and overflowing with genial humor. 
But the reader will observe here an expansion of the forehead not 

Fig. 7.— Alexander Dumas. 



Fio. 8.— Algernon Charles Swinburne. 

belonging to the typical round-faced class. Here the predominating Vital 
Temi erament is modified by a large development of brain, in which the 
intellectual as well as the executive 
faculties and the propensities are 
largely represented. It is just the 
organization for a sensational 
novelist. There is no end to the 
books such a man may write with- 
out exhausting either his inventive 
talent or his vital force. 

In striking contrast with the 
face of the great French novelist 
is that of the young English poet, 
Swinburne (fig. 8), whose delicate 
features and pyriform face in- 
dicate clearly a fine nervous or- 
ganization ; in other words, a 
marked predominance of the Men- 
tal Temperament. Here we have 
imagination, taste, refinement, 
delicacy, love of the beautiful, spirituality — inspiration almost ; but there 
is a lack of the vital stamina necessary to the highest manifestations of 
mental power, and the danger is that the body will fail to sustain the 
brain's rapid and restless activity, the inadequate stock of physical vigor 
becoming too soon exhausted. 
Fig. 9 presents us with a long and a strong face, very different from 

either of the preceding ones, and 
illustrating the oblong form and 
Motive Temperament. 

Here is a man with a will and 
a purpose of his own, and who 
will be likely to carry out his 
plans with a strong hand, mani- 
festing a degree of energy and 
persistence not easy to resist. In- 
tellectual ability, culture, and 
taste are not lacking, but they are 
subordinate to the more active 
and powerful faculties which im- 
part executive talent, and ministel 
to the love of place and power. 
This is a worker, and a man of 
action as well as a thinker. 

These illustrations will serve to 
nliow how one should commence the study of "the human face divine;" 
and a beginning rightly made, the rest will be found comparatively ea^y 
See " New Physiognomy" for all the " Signs of Character." 

Fio. 9.— Hon. Mb. Julian, M.C. 



(f^T^f'AIT a moment, young man, before you throw that nw.ney down) 
f|im| un the bar and demand a glass of brandy-and-water. Ask 
yourself if twenty-five cents can not be better invested in 
something else. Put it back in your pocket, and give it to the little 
cripple who sells matches on the corner. Take our word for it, you wil' 
Dot be sorry! 

Wait, madam — think twice before you decide on that hundred-dollai 
shawl ! A hundred dollars is a great deal of money ; one dollar is a 
great deal, when people once consider the amount of good it will accom- 
plish, in careful hands. Your husband's business is uncertain ; there is a 
financial crisis close at hand. Who knows what that hundred dollars 
may be to you yet ? 

Wait, sir, before you buy that gaudy amethyst breast-pin you are 
surveying so earnestly through the jeweler's plate-glass windows. Keep 
your money for another piece of jewelry — a plain gold wedding-ring 
made to fit a rosy finger that you wot of. A shirt neatly ironed, and 
stockings darned like lace-work, are better than gilt brooches and flaming 
amethysts. You can't afford to marry? You mean, you can't afford not 
to marry ? Wait, and think the matter over ! 

Wait, mother, before you speak harshly to the little chubby rogue who 
has torn his apron and soiled his white Marseilles jacket. He is onty a 
child, and " mother" is the sweetest word in all the world to him. 
Needle and thread and soapsuds will repair all damages now; but if you 
once teach him to shrink from his mother, and hide away his childish 
faults, that damage can not be repaired ! 

Wait, husband, before you wonder audibly why your wife don't get 
along with family cares and household responsibilities, " as your mother 
did." She is doing her best — and no woman can endure that best to be 
slighted. Remember the nights she sat up with the little babe that died ; 
remember the love and care she bestowed on you when you had that long 
fit of illness '. Do you think she is made of cast-iron? Wait — wait in 
sileuce and forbearance, and the light will come back to her eyes, the old 
light of the old days ! 

Wait, wife, before you speak reproachfully to your husband when he 
comes home late, and weary, and "out of sorts." He has woiked for 
you all day long; he has wrestled, hand to hand, with Care, and Selfish- 
ness, and Greed, and all the demons that follow in the train of money- 
making Let home be another atmosphere entirely; let him feel 'hat 
there is one place in the world where he can find peace, and quiet, and 
perfect love ! 

Wait, bright young girls, before you arch your pretty eyebrows, and 
whisper " old maid" as the quiet figure steals by, with silver in its hail 
and crow's-feet round the eyes. It is hard enough to lose life's gladness 

WAIT. 239 

and elasticity — it is hard enough to see youth drifting away, without 

adding to the bitter cup one drop of scorn! You do not know what she 
has endured ; you never can know until experience teaches you, so wait, 
before you sneer at the Old Maid. 

Wait, sir, before you add a billiard-room to your house, and buy the 
fast horse that Black and White and all the rest of " the fellows" covet. 
Wail, and think whether you can afford it— whether your outstanding 
bills are all paid and your liabilities fully met, and all the chances and 
changes of life duly provided for. Wait, and ask yourself how you 
would like, ten years from .iow, to see your fair wife struggling with 
poverty, your children shabby and want-stricken, and yourself a miser- 
able hanger-on round corner groceries and one-horse gambling saloons. 
You think that is impossible ; do you remember what Hazael said to the 
seer of old : " Is thy servant a dog that he should do this thing?" 

Wait, merchant, before you tell the pale-faced boy from the country 
"that you can do nothing for him." You can do something for him; 
you can give him a word of encouragement, a word of advice. There 
was a time once when you, were young, and poor, and friendless ! Have 
you forgotten it already ? 

Wait, blue-eyed lassie; wait awhile before you say "yes" to the dash- 
ing young fellow who says he can't live without you. Wait until you 
have ascertained " for sure and for certain," as the children say, that the 
cigar, and the wine-bottle, and the card-table are not to be your rivals in 
his heart; a little delay won't hurt him, whatever he may say — just see 
if it will. 

' And wait, my friend in the brown moustache ; don't commit yourself 
to Laura Matilda until you are sure that she will be kind to your old 
mother, and gentle with your little sisters, and a true, loving wife lo you, 
instead of a mere puppet who lives on the breath of fashion and excite- 
ment, and regards the sunny side of Broadway as second only to 
Elysium ! As a general thing, people are in too great a hurry in this 
world ; we say, wait, wait ! 

All ox Account of nis Nose. — Mr. Shandy's great-grandfather, when 
tendering his hand and heart to the lady who afterward consented to 
"make him the happiest of men," was forced to capitulate to her terms, 
owing to the brevity of his nose. 

"It is most unconscionable, madam," said he, "that you, Wh ) have 
only two thousand pounds to your fortune, should demand from me an 
allowance of three hundred pounds a year." 

" Because you have no nose, sir." 

" 'Sdeath ! madam, 'tis a very good nose." 

" 'Tis for all the world like an ace of clubs." 

My great-grandfather was silenced; and tor many years after me 
Shandy family was burdened with the payment of this large annuity out 
of a small estate, because his great-grandfather had a snub nose. Well 
might Mr. Shandy (the father of Tristram) say, " that no family, howeA'er 
high, could stand against a succession of short noses." 




BY S. T. SPEAlt, D.D. 

^rjfV [IE several faculties which constitute the grandeur and glory of 
? y«tj3 our spiritual humanity as so many distinct and separate persona, 
held a convention. Each of these mysterious persons made a 
formal statement of his exploits in the kingdom of mind. I saw them, 
mid heard them, and took brief notes of what they said. 

Perception through the boctily senses — a solid and matter-of-fact-looking 
Character — thus opened the conference: "My office is to make men 
acquainted with the outward world. I am a sentinel posted on Iho 
watch-tower of material nature. By me the eye sees, the ear hears, and 
the hand touches. I rock the cradle of the first human thoughts. With 
me begins all knowledge. All the physical sciences come to me for all 
their facts and observations. In my own sphere I am supreme ; and 
whoever disputes my authority in that sphere is simply a fool, with 
whom it will be a waste of words to hold any argument. 1 ' 

" Yes," said Consciousness — a much more delicate and ethereal person- 
age, now becoming the speaker — " this is indeed your work ; but let me 
tell you that I have an eye that you have not. If you see matter, I see 
mind. I am a soul seer ; and but for me men would know nothing about 
themselves. What they call mental science is simply the inscription of 
my pen. By me the soul works in an atmosphere of pure light, and 
bathes itself in the limpid stream of self-knowledge. I am the sun of the 
interior world, and shed my beams on all its parts." 

"Very true," responded Memoi'y-, seeming to be loaded with an im- 
mense budget of something. " Yet bear in mind that I am the keeper of 
knowledge. I am the historian and antiquarian of the soul. I tread the 
walks of the mysterious past, and connect that past with the present. 
All that man acquires he trusts to my care, and I keep it safely for his 
future use. Without me there could be no education, no mental progress, 
and no well-taught experience." 

Intuition next came forward, having an eye blazing with the very 
whitest light, and thus addressed the conference: "Wait a moment! I 
have not yet spoken. I have a sharper eye than all of you — I am 
absolute sight. All primitive ideas and necessary principles are mine. I 
am, after all, the ultimate authority. I hold no disputes, and I hear none. 
When 1 speak, all men believe. My opinions are laws. I depend ou 
nothing but myself. All absolute certainties must have my indorse- 
ment " 

" A. 11 right, so for!" said Reason, bearing the distinctive marks of being 
i hard worker. Yet argument is mine, syllogism is my formula; con- 
clusions are my creations, and premises my instruments. I pass from 
the known to the unknown, using the former to find the latter. The 

* Publ'-shed in The Independent, after the manner of " A Debate in Crania," 


Weijsters, the Bacons, and the Newtons of the race are my pupils. 
Even common people can do nothing without me. Having an end, 1 
pian the means. Seeing an event, I find the cause. When anything is 
to be proved, my services are always in demand." 

Imagination had been patiently waiting her turn ; and now it came. 
Before uttering a word, she spread her plumes and scented the air with 
fragrance. Her shining countenance, her long and flowing robes, her 
graceful attitude, at once fixed all eyes and opened all ears. Thus she 
proceeded : " I am the creative faculty, reconstructing the relations of 
thought, gathering nectar from every flower, culling all the beauties Ilia*, 
exist in the garden of nature, and so combining them as to deligh the 
children of men. At my touch the passions burn. The Cowpers and 
the Miltons were taught in my school. The diction of the orator is the 
charm I have lent him. A common object in my hands shines like a 
gem. I know where men keep their hearts, and how to reach them. 
Reason, until warmed by my inspiration, is cold, passionless, and un- 

And who is that grave, sedate, dignified, and imposing character, that 
followed the Imagination with the measured and awful tread of moral 
truth ? Hear him : " I am Conscience. That is my name. I am the 
sense of right and wrong in human action. I enact and publish laws for 
the government of men. Of their duties, I judge. 1 am the great 
comforter of the good, and the unpitying tormentor of the bad. My 
smile is peace, and my frown is woe. Those who dispute my authority 
do so at their peril. Those who keep my laws are safe. Both the 
happiness and the virtue of the world depend on my sway. The Cod 
who made me, made a monarch." 

At length a character, seemingly little else but bone and muscle, 
marched forward, and, mounting the rostrum, gave utterance to the 
following words : " I am the Will — the free, the sovereign, the choosing 
power. When I tell the hand to move, it moves. When I bid the 
reason to think, it thinks. I am the commander-in-chief of all these 
forces. Purposes and decisions are mine. Ends adopted and plans 
pursued are my choice. I say Yes and I say No. Energy is simply the 
steadiness of my hand. But for me these other speakers would be a 
mere mechanism of rigid and inelastic fate. Philosophers have long 
disputed whether I am a free man or a slave ; yet I have always assumed 
my own freedom. If there be any claims binding me, I neyer felt 

Just at tfcjg point there was a general and sudden rush, as of a vasl 
ciowd in violent motion — a sort of universal buzz, that seemed for the 
moment very seriously to mar the good order of the conference. " Here 
we are 1" shouted the Feelings, ail appearing anxious to be heard at once. 
" Yes, here we are — all the Desires, all the Propensities, all the Emotions, 
and all the Affections, that figure so largely in the history of earth. 
True, we do not think as does the reason, or choose as does the will ; ye< 


we are the steam-power of humanity, both heating ami moving its 
thoughts an .1 furnishing the ultimate seat of all its joys ami sorrows. 
We form the impulsive electricity of human life. We sing all the tunes 
of that life. We magnetize souls. We constitute alike the attractions 
and repulsions of men. We have been known by different names, and 
felt in every heart, ever since God made man of the dust of the earth. 
We shine in the eye, and we blush on the cheek, and weep in the fallicg 
tear. We paint the purest characters of time, and adorn with our oaii 
grace all that is human. We can make a hell or a heaven in any bosom.' 
Is it possible that all these multiform wonders are brought together iu 
one soul? Is each single man such a stupendous picture-gallery of 
marvels ? Lives there in every human breast such a vast empire of 
powers? Is this indeed the man whom we see walking the streets— so 
God-like in his nature, so glorious when morally erect, and so fully 
showing his original stateliness even when lying in the dust? What 
guests, then, did earth receive when human souls came here to dwell ? 
What a wealth of being moves with this revolving globe! What a 
wealth of being death is transmitting to some other sphere ! Humanity 
is surely no cheap article to be pitched into a gutter, and left there to rot, 
Its powers are imperial and immortal. It took a. God to make a man. 
Millions of material suns are not equal to one soul. The universe of 
souls is immeasurably grander than the universe of matter. The ruin of 
a sou] is the greatest evil imaginable. A chaos of matter would be a 
sorry sight, but " a chaos of the soul is a sorrier spectacle than a chaos 
of worlds." 



IN making professional examinations we frequently remark, " You 
resemble your mother," or, " You resemble your father," and the 
person looks up with surprise, and inquires, " Did you ever see 
my mother? " or, " Do you know my father? " 

It would, perhaps, be more difficult to so explain this apparent mys- 
tery to the reader than to illustrate it by form of body, of features, and 
of head. Like the subject of temperament, given in our Annual for 
1809, the subject of resemblance to parents is best impressed upon the 
reader by illustrations. No amount of description could properly teacu 
geography, botany, anatomy, architecture, human temperament, or tht 
multiform beauties of nature. To do frill justice to the subject before 
us, a hundred, instead of a dozen, illustrations could be profitably used. 
A few well-marked instances, exhibiting resemblance to the masculine 
and feminine, which we give, will, we trust, put the reader in the way 
of making correct observations. A little study and practice will open 
in this direction a most interesting field of observation, which can be 
cultivated at pleasure, until the eye shall be as well trained in its judg- 
ments of family resemblance as it usually is in colors, When one 



understands Phrenology, Physiology, Temperament, and the laws and 
signs of resemblance to parents, he is interested in any group of stran- 
gers, however foreign or diverse they may be from himself in nativity, 
language, creed, attainment, or pursuit. 
There are forms of body which we regard as emphatically masculine^ 

Fig. 1.— Male Figure. 

Fig. 2. — Female Figure. 

and there are others which are equally feminine. There are also forms 
of head and face equally well marked as indicating the masculine and 
feminine; and the very texture of the body also differs as well as the 
figure, the features, and the head. 


We invite attention to the bodily differences as seen in tig. 1 and fig. 
1 Tin: male form has broad, square, and high shoulders, a stout and 
apparently short neck, a capacious chest, a moderate development ol 
Ike abdomen, and relatively narrow hips. In man, the joints are large 
>md angular, the projections of the bones prominent, the muscles well 
defined, rigid, and rough, and the entire contour is marked by angular- 
ity, prominence, and boldness. The female figure is generally less in 
size and more delicately formed than the male; the limbs are shorter, 
more plump and smooth, and the extremities smaller, the neck 



smoother and relativv 1}- longer, the throat showing no " Adam's apple," 
the shoulders sloping, the chest comparatively narrow but plump, the 
abdominal and nutritive system 
larger, and the pelvis or hips 
broader. The figure, therefore, is 
more round, the muscles softer, 
and the whole system more 
graceful and pliant. 


The motive or bilious temper- 
ament, winch is indicated by 
strong, heavy hair, heavy bones 
and muscles, is more common in 
man than in woman. Fig. 3, 
Lord Napier, and tig. 7, Judge 
Hitchcock, are eminent examples. 
On the contrary, the female, for 
obvious reasons, has a larger nu- 
tritive and sympathetic organiza- 
tion than man, and consequently 

Fig. 4.— Mbs. Hemax: 
as they are softened and blended. 

Flu. 3. — Lord Xapiek. 

takes on more of the vital and men- 
tal temperaments, as 
indicated by a bony 
structure of moder- 
ate size, a plump 
smooth form and 
soft skin, which are 
seen in the likeness 
of Mrs. Hemaus (fig. 
41. This tempera- 
ment sometimes 
characterizes men 
who strongly resem- 
ble their mothers, 
and thus take on the 
feminine figure, fea- 
tures, and tempera- 
ment. Lord Somers 
(fig. 9) is an exam- 
ple. When a person 
has learned to dis- 
cern these extremes 
of outline and tem- 
perament, the nicer 
shadings and less 
palpable differences, 

will at once become apparent. 




The kermis of the sexes differ quite as much as do their forms of body. 
The two engravings of skulls (fig. 5 and tig. G) show this strong point. 
Fig. o is a fair specimen of the male cranium. It rises high from the 


Fig. 5.— Male 

opening of the ear (a) to Firmness (b), and is broad and full at the sides. 
It is large in the back or social region, particularly at Amativeness (c). 
The bones of the cheek and nose, and the ridge extending over the eyes, 

-Jcjjge Hitch 

Female Head. 

are comparatively large and conspicuous. The crown of the head is 
high, indicating Firmness and Self-Esteem, and the forehead is massive, 
showing power of thought and intellectual energ}\ Fig. 6, which is 
from a well-balanced female skull, shows smoothness of outline, fine- 



ness of texture, and a prominent development at d, which is the region 
of the organs of Parental Love, Friendship, and Inliabitiveness, while 
b (Firmness) and c (Amativeness) are much less than the same regions 
in the male skull. At e (Benevolence) and at/ (Veneration) the female 
skull is relatively more developed. The head is long, narrow, and not 
high in the region of the organs of Self-Esteem and Firmness. 

Every reader, after seeing these engravings, would- be able to dis 
tiuguish the picture of a male from that of a female skull, and by s 
tingle examination of the skulls themselves, he would thenceforth Vmj 
able, in like manner, tp distinguish well-marked male and female cra- 
nia. The male skull, 
moreover, is generally 
thicker, and the points 
and angles sharper and 
rougher than those of 
the female, showing 
more strength and a 
more hardy tempera- 
m e n t . Cautiousness. 
Parental Love, Friend- 
ship, Approbativeness, 
Conscientiousness, Spir- 
ituality, and Benevo- 
lence are larger in the 
head of woman ; while 
in man, Combaliveness, 
Destructiveness, Ama- 
tiveness, Firmness, Belf- 
Esteem, Calculation, 
and Causality are usu- 
ally larger. In the por- 
traits, fig. 7 (Judge 
Hitchcock) and fig. 8 (a 
feminine head), we see 
marked a contrast be- 
tween the masculine and 
Fig. 9.— Lord Sojters. feminine characteristics. 

From the opening of the ear to the crown, how high the head of the 
man towers! His remarkable Firmness and Self-Esteem show his re- 
semblance to his grandfather, Col. Ethan Allen, the famous hero of 
Ticondcroga. The back-head, how short, as compared with its height 
and length forward of the ear ! In these respects how different is the 
female head! (fig. 8.) How long it extends back of the ear! how full 
and rounded the back-head ! The forehead is not so broad or expand- 
ed, and the crown does not rise so high. 

Sometimes a son resembles a mother, and takes on her feminine form 
.jf head, face, and body. That was the case with Lord Somers (fig. 9). 



Sometimes the daughter resembles the father and lias a Roman nose, 
high cheek-bones, broad, bony chin, a square, strong forehead, a high 
crown of the head, and a relatively short back-head, with width of 
head at the ears, showing force, and enterprise, and determination, and 

power to conquer and trample 
down opposition. Mile. Fa- 
vanti (fig. 10), a celebrated vo- 
calist, resembles her father and 
mother both. The forehead 
containing the intellectual, and 
the back-head containing the 
social developments, are fem- 
inine. The neck and face are 
also feminine. The face is 
like fig. 8, gentle, delicate, and 
unassuming ; but she has a 
high crown, like fig. 7, and 
the head is broad and heavy 
between the ears. She is firm, 
proud, independent, positive, 
thorough, efficient, and deter- 
mined. In character, ambi- 
tion, and independence of dis- 
position, therefore, she is mas- 
culine ; while in the intellect- 
ual and social nature she is 
feminine. Mrs. Hemans (fig 4) 
has a well-marked feminine 
nature, with something of the masculine to give compactness and vigor 
to the constitution, and that strength and earnestness which is shown 
in the heroic character of her poetry. The head and face of Welling- 
ton (fig. 11) are eminently masculine. His towering Firmness and Self- 
Esteem, his prominent forehead and massive features, great Roman 
nose, broad chin, and stern expression, all evince the masculine ele- 
ments, and seem to indorse the correctness of the name the people 
instinctively gave him, of " Iron Duke." Look, also, at the great bony 
nose of Judge Hitchcock (fig. 7). The face is all features. How en- 
tirely tributary the cheek seems to the nose, as if the whole face was a 
basis for that organ to stand upon ! How the cheeks rise up at the side 
of it and brace and sustain it ! The same is true of Wellington and 
Napier. These strong, masculine faces seem to be all features, with 
only just enough of face to hold the features together. Remove the 
features, and there would be no face left. Lord Somers has a small 
mouth, a pliant and apparently a soft nose, no ridge over the eye?, a 
round, smooth chm and cheek, with no strong lines in the face ; the 
forehead is not massive, and the whole organization is smooth and 
apparently inefficient His face, and many of similar type, bears its 

Fig. 10.— Mlle. Favanti. 



features rather as decorations than as prime constituents. Remove the 
features, and there would be a plenty of face left. The features look aa 
if set on merely as appendages and ornaments. 

Sometimes these masculine and feminine traits are very singularly 
combined. We see, sometimes, a little girl with a great parrot-nose, 
like Napier, inherited from her father, with a mouth and chin like her 
mother. Sometimes we see a broad and logical forehead along with 

a very feminine face. Sometimes a 
gh, masculine crown, a broad, com- 
bative, masculine head, with a great 
deal of the feminine in the sympathies 
and intuitions and affections. We oc- 
casionally find a man whose features re- 
semble the mother, while the croT\n of 
his head resembles the father. Again: 
we find all the masculine qualities well 
marked ; that is, the organs of force, 
pride, will, and self-reliance, combined 
with the organs which indicate the fem- 
inine, viz., Ideality, Spirituality, Be- 
nevolence, Parental Love, Cautiousness, 
and Veneration, and other qualities 
which mark the feminine. When a 
man resembles his mother, he has 
smaller feet than if he resembled his father, shorter and rounder 
limbs, smaller hands and wrists, smooth, sloping shoulders, broader 
hips, and a rounder body, comparatively smaller features, stronger 
social organs, and generally that quality of intellect which acts in- 
tuitively, and seizes upon truth almost instantaneously, reaching pos- 
itive conclusions, and hardly knowing why. It is regarded favorable 
for sons to resemble the mother, and for daughters to resemble the 
father, the father and mother being equal, because then, by virtue of 
sex, the son will have enough of the elements belonging to his own sex 
to give strength of character, and, while resembling the mother in dis- 
position and constitution, her strong characteristics will be indicated, 
so that all that belongs to both parents will be combined in him. The 
daughter, on the contrary, resembling the father in character and 
spirit, will be brave, strong, and earnest, while by virtue of her sex she 
will possess the sentiments, the gentleness, and the intuitions of Ihu 
feminine, thus embodying in her own constitution all the desirable char- 
acteristics of both sexes. 

When a (laughter resembles the mother, she has a duplication of tho 
feminine elements, and she is too gentle, sympathetic, cautious, and 
dependent. If a line of sons were to inherit mainly from the father, 
they would, in a few generations, become bony, angular, and rough, and 
be too stem, proud, positive, combs.tive, and unbending, and lack tho 
pliability, sympathy, and mellowness necessary to the proper harmony 

Fig. 11. — Lord Wellington. 


of character. Daughters inus following the line of the feminine a few 
generations, would become tame, round, soft, inefficient, and weak. 

There is a constant tendency in those who resemble the parent of the 
opposite sex to work back toward their own sex. Hence, a woman 
who strongly resembles her father, if she should have a daughter favor- 
ing herself, the daughter will be much less masculine than her mother. 
A son who resembles his mother, if he have a son resembling himself, 
he will, by virtue of his masculine sex, be more masculiue titan tho 



/"^ ENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT was bom at Point Pleasant, 
I t Clermont County, Ohio, on the 27th day of April, 1822, and is, 
consequently, now in his forty-ninth year. He was educated 
at West Point, served with credit in the Mexican war under Taylor and 
Scott, resigned his commission in 1853, and was engaged in commer- 
cial pursuits when the war of the Great Rebellion broke out. His mag- 
nificent career since that period, stretching over the hundred bloody 
battle-fields which lie between FortDonelson and Richmond, is familial 
to every reader. 

He is a well-built man of average stature, and may be pronounced 
a very good specimen of the average American man. His brain is of 
good size, in proportion with the body, and it is large in the percep- 
tives, full in the reflectives, large in Constructiveness, Human Nature, 
Cautiousness, Continuity, Secretiveness, Hope, Spirituality, Conscien- 
tiousness, Destructiveness, Combativeness, and Benevolence. The. 
social affections are also fully developed. Language, Acquisitiveness, 
Imitation, and Suavity are but moderately indicated. Approbative- 
ness and Self-Esteem are subordinate ; but Firmness is decidedly 

We would pronounce him a man of strong practical common sense, 
with an intuitive perception of character, knowing almost at a glance 
whom to trust. He possesses good mechanical ingenuity, with plan- 
ning talent, watchfulness, application, policy, prudence, honesty, en- 
terprise, kindness, friendship, and generosity, without much French 
palaver or make-believe. He is a man of few words and great courage, 
fortitude, resolution, perseverance, and executiveness. These arc some 
of the leading points in this character. We may add that he is no 
egotist, no vain boaster, nor will he turn to the right or tin left for the 
love of praise or for the fear of blame. 


This gevtleman is a descendant of one of the " old families of New 
York,'' and was born in this city in the year 1809. He was educated 



at Columbia College, and graduated there with a most creditable rec- 
ord. He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1830. As a 
lawyer, he attained high reputation and extensive practice. Early in 
his career, however, he entered the field of politics, and in 1S3? he way 
elected to the State Assembly. In 1842 he was elected to Cougress 
from the Fourth Congressional District of New York city ; in 1S4T he 
was elected Lieutenant-Governor of New York, and the year following 
Use Governor's chair was accorded him by a large majority vote. 

During his administration the slavery question was agitated with 
much bitterness, but he was early committed to the provisions of the 
Wilmot Proviso, and in his annual messages took strong ground 
against the extension of slave territory. He was subsequently elected 
a United States Senatoivserving from 1851 to 1857, when he retired to 
orivate life, and spent some years in foreign travel. At the breaking 

Ultsses S. Grant, Pees, of U. S. 

Hamilton Fish, Sec. of State. 

out of the rebellion he was outspoken in his support of the Republic, 
and participated in the great Union gathering at Union Square, May 
20lh, 1861, where he made a short but stirring address. 

Mr. Fish has for several years past avoided political notoriety. He 
is a gentleman of high-toned character, and one of the most active, 
though quiet, of New York philanthropists. 


Mr. Boutwell was born on the 28th of January, 181S, at Brookline, 
Massachusetts. He commenced to study law when eighteen years of 
age, and on the attainment of his majority entered into active practice. 
In 1842 he took a prominent part in Massachusetts politics, and though 
still a very young man, was elected to the State Legislature, in which 
be served from year to year until 1850. In political sympathies at that 


time, lie was a Democrat. He served as a member of the Massachusetts 

Constitutional Convention of 1853, and won distinction as the success- 
Ad opponent of Mr. Clioate, in the debates of that bod)'. In 1854 he 
left the Democratic party on the Kansas-Nebraska issue, and was a 
leader in the organization of the Republican party in Massachusetts. 

He was elected to the National House of Representatives in 18G2. 
He kept Ins seat in each successive Congress, and was elected and took 
his seat as a member of the present House. During his last two terms 
in Congress Mr. Boutwell was chairman of the Judiciary Committee. 


Mr. Cox was born October 27th, 1828, in Montreal, Lower Canada, 
where his parents, who were natives of the United States, were resid- 
ing at the time. In 1829 they removed to New York, where his early 

Geo. S. Boutwell. Sec. op Treas. 

Jacob D. Cox, Sec. of Interior. 

years were chiefly spent. In 1846 he went to Ohio, and entered Ober- 
lin College, from which he graduated at twenty-three, and then imme- 
diately took up the study of law. 

In 1859, then an ardent Republican of the most advanced radical 
type, he was elected to the Ohio Senate. Soon after the breaking out 
of the war he w T as appointed a brigadier-general. He participated in 
the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, commanding the corps 
after the fall of General Reno. For his services in this campaign he 
was made a major-general. Subsequently he commanded with credit 
a division of the Twenty-third Corps during the Atlanta campaign, the 
numerous engagements which occurred serving to make that, campaign 
almost a continuous 'battle. During the pursuit of Hood's army, fol- 
lowing the fall of Atlanta, General Cox commanded the Twenty-third 
Corps. He also rendered gallant service with that corps during Hood's 



pursuit of General Thomas' army, which ended in the triumphant suc- 
cess of the Union forces at the battle of Nashville. 

Soon after the close of the war he was nominated and elected Gov- 
ernor of Ohio. At the expiration of his term of office he refused a 
re-nomination, and, removing to Cincinnati, engaged in the practice of 
law. He was generally understood to be a Conservative Republican 


General Rawlins is a native of Illinois, having been born in Jo Daviess 
County, February 13th, 1831. lie received a common-school education, 
and, until he was twenty-three years of age, was engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. He then entered a law office in Galena, Illinois, where 
he first became acquainted with Grant. In 1855 he was admitted to 
the bar, and in the practice of the law was tolerably successful. In 

John A. RAWLfNS, Sec. of War. E. Borie, Sec. op the Navy 

politics he was formerly a Democrat, but separated himself from the 
party at the commencement of the war. 

In August, 1861, Rawlins was, at Grant's request, appointed assist- 
ant adjutant-general. He w T as chosen chief-of-staff in November, 1862, 
a position which he retained until his recent appointment in the cabi- 
net. Having shown himself a most faithful and thorough officer, and 
having been so long in close association with General Grant, it is no 
matter for surprise that he has been honored by this preferment. Gen- 
eral Rawlins is remarkable for his modest deportment. 


This gentleman, who has been called from comparatively private life 
to assume the functions of an important post in the administration of 
the General Government, was born in Philadelphia in 1809. He is of 


L'Yench derivation, his father having emigrated from Bordeaux and 
established himself as a merchant in Philadelphia. Mr. Borie gradu- 
ated from the University of Pennsylvania at the age of sixteen. When 
twenty-four he went to Paris, and subsequently traveled considerably 
in Europe. On his return he entered into commercial life, and by 
industry arid the exercise of a superior business judgment he has accu- 
mulated wealth. 

In 1862, when the Union League was organized in Philadelphia, Mr 
Borie was one of its founders, and is now its vice-president. Except 
in this v/ay he has never taken an active part in politics. During the 
war he contributed largely, both by his means and his influence, to the 
enlistment of soldiers for the Union armies. He was introduced to 

E. R. Hoah, Attorney-General. 

J. A. J. Cresswell, Postmaster-Gen. 

General Grant, after the close of the war, by General Meade, and the 
acquaintance ripened into friendship. 


Ebeneze.r Rockwood Hoar, a son of the Hon. Samuel Hoar, of Mas- 
sachusetts, was born in 1816, in Concord, Mass. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of Roger Sherman, of Connecticut, one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The Hon. George F. Hoar, a member of the 
Forty-first Congress from the eighth Massachusetts district, is lii^brother. 
He entered Harvard College in 1831, graduating with distinction in 
1835, and after reading law with his father at Concord, spent two years 
at the Cambridge Law School. He was admitted to the bar about the 
year 1840, and practiced with great success in Middlesex and the neigh- 
boring counties. After a few years he was appointed a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, but he resigned and returned to the practice 
of his profession, this time opening ar office in Boston, where he sooi» 


acquired an extensive and lucrative business. In April, 1859, he was 
appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and haa 
since held that office. As a lawyer, he has few superiors in the country. 
He is a man of fine literary culture, is endowed with great wit and 
unusual social qualities, and is very popular, especially at Concord, 
where his family reside. 


The Qew Postmaster-General was born in Cecil County, Maryland, 
in 1828. He received a liberal education, and after graduating from 
Dickinson College, studied law, and was admitted to the practice of law 
in Maryland in 1850. He occupied for 1861 and 1862 a seat in the 
Maryland House of Delegates, and served in 1862 as an assistant adju- 
tant-general. In 1862 he was elected to Congress, and not long after- 
ward, when Governor Hicks died and left his seat in the Senate vacant. 
Cresswell was nominated by the Unionists and elected United States 
Senator, after a sharp contest. 

Mr. Cresswell was chairman of the Maryland delegation to the Chi- 
cago Convention which nominated General Grant for President. He 
had long been talked of as a fitting representative of the border States 
or Southern States in Grant's cabinet, and his nomination, therefore, 
caused less surprise than that of some others. 

Mr. Cresswell is a lawyer in large practice ; a skillful politician, an 
eloquent orator, and a man of fine literary tastes. 

An analysis of the character and capacity of each member of the 
cabinet — which we have not room to give at length — indicates fair in- 
tellectual ability, good moral development, and no lack of energy or 
executiveness. We shall look for a plain, straightforward course, 
without egotism, display, brilliancy, or eccentricity. Though evidently 
patriotic, these gentlemen are not belligerent; and their policy will be 
justice, self-defense, moderation, and peace. They will not court war, 
noi will they shrink from any manly duty. 

" George Eliot." — " George Eliot" is the literary nam de plume of 
Mrs. Lewes {nee Marian Evans), the daughter of a dissenting minister in 
the north of England. She was born in 1820. Her first literary work 
was a translation of Strauss' " Life of Jesus," after which, though she 
was joint-editor of the Westminster Review in the interval, little was 
heard of her until her " Scenes of Clerical Life," in Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, attracted some attention. But her reputation as a novelist was 
established by "Adam Bede," published in 1858. Conspicuous among 
her other works are " The Mill on the Floss," " Romola," and " Felix 
Holt." She is one of the best educated of the British female authors, 
having a familiar knowledge of modern languages as well as of tin 
classics and mathematics. 


Love is a celestial harmony, 

Of likely hearts compos'd of star's consent. 

Which join together in sweet sympathy, 

To work each other's joy and true content— Spenser. 


"1 a" A MIT AGE is intended to promote, and not to destroy, happiness 
|| It is normally a perennial spring of joy, and not a perpetually 
flowing fountain of bitterness. When it becomes a source of 
bickerings, contention, and domestic misery, we may conclude that the 
conditions under which it has been contracted are not favorable — not 
such as nature has indicated to be essential to its harmonious opera- 

When we see an unhappy married couple, we are apt hastily to infer 
that one of the parties, at least, is greatly in fault, and that perhaps 
both are of an unamiable disposition ; but this is often far from being 
the case. In many instances both parties are naturally amiable, kind- 
hearted, and affectionate. Each is capable of loving and of making 
another being happy in the marriage relation, but that other does not 
happen to be the one to whom he or she is bound. Thej^ are mismated. 
They do not harmonize — the bond of sympathy or understanding of 
each other is lacking. The parties have made a mistake. The world 
is full of these mismated couples — full of the unbappiness, the deep 
misery which inevitably grows out of incom/patiMiiiy in the marriage 
relation. Can anything be done to prevent the so frequent occurrence 
of these errors ? or is marriage a mere game of chance — a lottery — aa 
some have called it ? We believe that something can be done. Igno- 
rance is the main cause of these unhappy alliances, and the diffusion of 
the needed knowledge will, in a great measure, prevent them. It is 
our purpose in this chapter to impart at least some hints toward this 
knowledge, so as to enable our readers to avoid the terrible dangers 
which beset the path of those who are ignorant of nature's laws in 
respect to the union of the sexes in marriage. He who, in the full light 
of day and with his eyes wide open, persists in running into the jaws 
of a calamity worse than death, must accept the inevitable conse- 


Prominent among the conditions affecting the happiness of married 
oouples is temperament ; and this is one of the first things to be consid- 
ered by those contemplating matrimony. To enable the reader fully to 
understand our teachings on this point, we here give a brief description 
of the three primary temperaments. 

Temperament is a particular state of the constitution, depending 
upon the relative proportion of its different masses or systems of organs. 

♦From "Wedlock; or, The Right Relations of the Sexes; Who Should and Who 
Ghould Not Marry," etc. New York : Samuel R. Wells. 1S69. Price. $1 50. 



\Vc are ace iStomed to consider these constitutional conditions as pri- 
mal ily three in number, called, respectively, 


The first is marked by a superior development of the osseoua and 
muscular systems, forming the locomotive apparatus ; in the second, 
the vital organs, the principal seat of which is in the trunk, give tlv* 
tone to the organization ; while in the third, the brain and nervous sys- 
tem exert the controlling power. 

1. The Motive Temperament. — In this temperament the bones are 
comparatively large and broad rather than long, and the muscles only 
moderately full, but dense, firm, and tough. The figure is generally 
tall, the face long, the cheek-bones rather high, the neck long, the 
shoulders broad, and the chest moderately full. The complexion and 
eyes are generally, but not always dark, and the hair dark, strong, and 
rather abundant. The features are strongly marked, and the expres- 
sion striking and sometimes harsh or rigid. The whole sj^stem is 
characterized by strength and capacity for endurance as well as for 
active labor. Persons in whom it predominates possess great energy 
and perseverance, and, in other respects, strongly marked characters. 
They are observers rather than thinkers, and are better suited to the 
field than to the council chamber. They are firm, self-reliant, constant 
in love and in friendship, fond of power, ambitious, and sometimes 
stern and severe. This temperament in its typical form is not common 
among women, in whom it is modified by a larger proportion of the 
vital element of the constitution. 

2. The Vital Temperament. — The vital temperament is marked by 
breadth and thickness of body rather than by length. Its prevail- 
ing characteristic is rotundity. The chest is full, the abdomen well 
developed, the limbs plump and generally tapering, and the hands and 
feet relatively small. The neck is short and thick, the shoulders broad, 
the chest full, and the head and face inclining to roundness. The com- 
plexion is generally florid, the eyes and hair light, and the expression 
of the countenance pleasing and often mirthful. 

Persons in whom this temperament predominates are both physically 
and mentally active, and love fresh air and exercise as well as lively 
conversation and exciting debate, but are, in general, less inclined to 
close study or hard work than those in whom the motive temperament 
takes the lead. They are ardent, impulsive, versatile, and sometimes' 
fickle; and possess more diligence than persistence, and more bril- 
liancy than depth. They are frequently passionate and violent, but 
are as easily calmed as excited, and are cheerful, amiable, and genial 
in their general disposition. The vital temperament is noted for large 
animal propensities generally, and especially Amativeness, Aliment- 
ivuness, and Acquisitiveness. Benevolence, Hope, and Mirthfulnes3 are 
also generally well developed. 


3, The Mental Temperament. — This temperament is characterized by 
a rather slight frame ; a head relatively large ; an oval or pyriform face ; 
high, pale forehead; delicate and finely cut features; bright and ex- 
pressive eyes ; slender neck, and only a moderate development of chest; 
The hair is generally soft and fine, and neither abundant nor very dark, 
tne skin soft and fine, and the expression of the face varied and animated. 

Sensitiveness, refinement, taste, love of the beautiful in nature and 
art, vividness of conception, and intensity of emotion mark this tem- 
perament in its mental manifestations. The thoughts are quick, the 
senses acute, the imagination lively, and the moral sentiments generally 
active and influential. 

Balance of Temperament. — Where either of the temperaments exists 
in excess, the result is necessarily a departure from symmetry and har- 
mony, both of body and mind, the one always affecting the character 
and action of the other. Perfection of constitution consists in a proper 
balance of temperaments.* 


With regard to the proper combinations of temperament in the mar- 
riage relation, physiologists have differed, one contending that the con- 
stitutions of the parties should be similar, while others, on the contrary, 
have taught that contrast should be sought. It seems to us that neither 
of these statements expresses fully the true law of selection. The end 
to be aimed at is harmony. There can be no harmony without a dif- 
ference, but there may be difference without harmony. It is not 
because a woman is like a man that he loves her, but because she is 
unlike. The qualities which he lacks are the ones in her which attract 
him — the personal traits and mental peculiarities which combine to 
make her womanly ; and in proportion as she lacks these, or possesses 
masculine characteristics, will a woman repel the opposite sex. So a 
woman admires in man true manliness, and is repelled by weakness and 
effeminacy. A womanish man awakens either the pity or the con- 
tempt of the fair sex.f 

This law, we believe, admits of the widest application. The dark- 
1) aired, swarthy man is apt to take for his mate some azure-eyed blonde , 
the lean and spare choose the stout and plump; the tall and the short 
often unite ; and plain men generally win the fairest of the fair. 

In temperature, as in everything else, what we should seek is not 
likeness, but a harmonious difference. The husband and wife are not 
counterparts of each other, but complements — halves which joined 
together form a rounded symmetrical whole. In music, contigu- 
ous notes are discordant, but when we sound together a first and a 
third, or a third and a fifth, we produce a chord. The same principle 

* See "New Physiognomy" for a more complete description of all the phases and 
shades of human temperament, with numerous illustrations. 

t One of the most withering or cutting epithets one male Indian can use towird 
another is to call him a squaw. 


pervades all nature Two persons may be too much alike to agm\ 
They crowd each other, for two objects can not occupy the same space 
at the same time. While, therefore, we do not wholly agree with 
those who insist upon the union of opposites in the matter of tempera- 
ment, we believe that a close resemblance in the constitution of the body 
between the parties should be avoided, as not only inimical to their har- 
mony and happiness, but detrimental to their offspring. If the mental 
temperament, for instance, be strongly indicated in both, their union, 
instead of having a sedative and healthful influence, will tend to inten- 
sify the already too great mental activity of each, and perhaps in the 
end produce nervous prostration ; and their children, if, unfortunately, 
any should result from the union, will be likely to inherit in still greater 
excess the constitutional tendencies of the parents. A preponderance of 
the vital element in one of the parties would tend not only to a greater 
degree of harmony and a more healthful influence, but to a more desir- 
able and symmetrical development and complete blending of desirable 
qualities in their offspring. 

A predominance of the vital or of the motive temperaments in both 
parties, though perhaps less disastrous in its results, favors, in the same 
way, connubial discord and a lack of balance in offspring. 

Where the temperaments are well balanced in both, the similarity is 
less objectionable, and the union, in such case, may result favorably, 
both as respects parents and children ; but perfect balance in all the 
elements of temperament is very rare ; and wherever there is a defi- 
ciency in one party, it should, impossible, be balanced by an ample 
development in the same direction in the other, and vice versa. 


The modem nations of Europe and America are all more or less 
mixed, and this is especially true of the English, and the Americans of 
the United States. The results of the crosses, in these cases, seem to 
be favorable. The good qualities of several races appear to have com- 
bined, to a certain extent, to form a new race, superioi to either of its 
elemeuts. It does not follow, however, that any and every racial mix- 
ture is desirable or allowable. In this case, as in the matter of temper- 
ament, there are incompatible as w T ell as compatible combinations. An 
Americas may marry an English, German, French, or Irish lady, pro- 
vided the differences between the parties in character, habits, ani 
religion be such as can be made to harmonize, and the results may be 
favorable to all concerned. A union, however, of a Caucasian with 
an American Indian, a Mongolian, or a Negro can result neither in con- 
jugal harmony nor in well-constituted offspring. But the God-given 
instincts of every well-constituted white man and woman furnish a suf- 
ficient refutation of the theory of miscegenation (mixture of races), so > 
far. at least, as it relates to races so widely separated as the Caucasian 
and the Negro, the Mongolian, or the American Indian. 

Whether a mixture of blood shall result in a compound superior to 


either of the ingredients or inferior, depends upon the adaptation of 
the one to the other. Some mixed races are more powerful than their 
progenitors on either side ; but this is not the case with the offspring of 
a union between the white and the black, red, or yellow races. Tin' 
Mulatto, though superior to the Negro in intellect, is inferior to both 
the black and the white man in physical strength and endurance ; 
and the mixed race always either becomes absorbed in one or the other 
of the pure races, or else speedily dies out. It should be observed, too, 
that the fairer the Caucasian, the more incompatible the union with 
the dark races ; the Teutonic and Anglo-Saxon branches forming the 
worst possible combination with the Negro or the Indian, while the 
Celtic French, and especially the Celt-Iberian Spaniard, forms a less 
objectionable mixture with these races. The intermarriage, however, 
is not admissible, we believe, on physiological grounds, even in their 


If the law of harmony already stated be correct, it follows that men- 
tal congeniality or affinity, like physical adaptation, must grow out of 
mental differences, and not out of similarity. In fact, the tempera- 
mental differences we have indicated as desirable, involve correspond- 
ing mental differences. Each temperament has its leading traits of 
character, and those properly belonging to one are never collectively 
and in a similar degree found associated with either of the others. 

But while we believe a degree of dissimilarity in character is desira- 
ble and promotive of harmony, we are far from wishing to encourage 
those whose mental organizations are radically and necessarily antago- 
nistic to unite in marriage. A person with a highly developed moral 
nature, for instance, would be rendered miserable by a union with a 
partner in whom the animal propensities predominate in development 
and activity and give their tone to the character and the life. So deli- 
cacy, refinement, and love of the beautiful can not associate happily 
with coarseness, vulgarity, and a hard, repulsive insensibility to the 
finer feelings of the soul; but it does not follow that a husband's large 
Benevolence, for instance, should be matched by an equal development 
in the wife; or that her predominant Veneration and Spirituality must 
be met by 1he same degree of manifestation in the husband. On the 
contrary, it is better that there be a balance, as it were, between them, 
no that the one may hold the other a little in check, if necessary; but 
the difference must not be too great, as it might, in that case, lead to 
angi y contention and permanent estrangement. 

If we admit the doctrine, that the greatest possible similarity is to l,e 
Bought in matrimonial alliance, we should be compelled to advise the 
artist to marry an artist, the literary man a writer, the musician a 
singer, and so on ; but experience has proved that such connections are 
seldom desirable, and sometimes result in separation or perpetual do- 
mestic discord. Exceptions can be quoted, it is true, but this is the rule. 
The artist should marry one who is able to appreciate his art. but ur* 


should not be the ruling passion in both ; and the same rule applies to 
literature, music, or any other pursuit involving strong special develop- 
ments. There should be sympathy in each with the leading tastes and 
aspirations of the other, but not necessarily the same talents or capacities. 
The question to be settled in regard to any two persons of opposite 
sexes contemplating matrimony is, " Will their characters harmonize ?" 
We have stated the general law of harmony in the preceding section. 
We can not lay clown an exact formula for its practical application to 
the relations of men and women, because the gamut of the mental fac- 
ilities has not, like that of music, been fully determined ; but we can 
confidently assert that affinity between the sexes depends upon certain 
measured differences, and that any one who will take the trouble to 
become thoroughly acquainted first with himself or herself, and then 
with the person of the other sex with whom a union may be contem- 
plated, there will generally be little difficulty in deciding the question 
of compatibility or adaptation. 


As a rule, the parties proposing a matrimonial alliance should pos- 
sess the advantages of education in a similar degree, but modified in 
kind of course by^sex. One's tastes and habits are greatly influenced 
by culture, and a very great disparity here must result in a lack of com- 
plete sympathy, if in nothing worse. Where the husband, for instance, 
is well educated, fond of books and the society of cultivated people, 
and inclined to intellectual pursuits and enjoyments, and the wife has 
•leither the ability to appreciate his tastes nor the desire to cultivate 
similar habits, there must be a painful sacrifice on his part or a hum- 
bling sense of inferiority on hers, tending to anything but conjugal 
harmony. Where the lack of culture is on the part of the husband, the 
results are sometimes even more painful. 

There are exceptional cases. Some men and women lack culture 
simply through the want of educational privileges, and manifest the 
strongest desire to make good all their deficiencies. In such cases v 
however much the lack may be regretted, we would not make it a bar 
to marriage with a person of superior culture. When one has arrived 
at a marriageable age, it is a late day on which to commence an edu- 
cation ; but better late than never. Many a person has begun the work 
of mental culture at thirty, or even forty years of age, and yet become 
distinguished for learning and its practical application; so there is no 
cause for despair. To the loving husband or wife, the office of teacher 
may be made a delightful one, and the progress of the beloved pupil 
rapid and satisfactory ; but marriage brings with it other duties and 
responsibilities, which are likely to interfere sadly with the home 
school; so we must not hope too much from it 


Man and woman should meet, as nearly as possible, on the same 


plane of social position and mental status. Kings and milkmaids form 
blissful alliances only in the musical measures of old-time ballads, and 
it is in the same records alone that beggars marry princesses, and fair 
faces atone for the absence of brain, position, and common sense ! 
Very few people are happy who marry either much above or much 
below their station in life. If one of the life partners must be superior, 
it had better be the husband. A woman easily learns to look up, and 
it is natural for the man to assume a protecting superiority, even 
when there is no real ground for it; but woe betide the couple where 
the woman looks down on him whom she has solemnly promised to 
love and honor. 

Nor should there be any insuperable difference in the mental capac- 
ity, for, even supposing them to be well mated at first, a man generally 
grows in mind and brain as he progresses onward with a progressive 
world, and his wife must either grow with him, a companion in every 
sense of the word, or be left behind, a mere doll to be hung with silks 
and jewels, or a drudge to cook his dinners and take care of his chil- 
dren. Remember this, girls, when you are inclined to lag behind in 
the widening path of ever-new discoveries and developments, and don't 
follow the example of Lot's wife. 


Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, in one of his discourses, in commenting 
on the twenty-eighth chapter of Genesis, said : 

" Jacob's father forbade him to take a wife from the daughters of 
Canaan. Why? Because he knew that with the wife he would take 
the religion ; that had he brought into his house the fairest and dis- 
creetest of wives, he would have brought in the cause of a long train 
of miseries with her. It is an old proverb, that a man is what his wife 
will let him be; and old Isaac was a wise man when he said, 'Don't 
go among the Canaanites to get a wife.' Canaan nowadays is every- 
where. It is every house where there has been no family prayer, 
where mammon is God ; wdierever there is a godless household, there 
is the land of Canaan. A man that marries a good wife has very little 
more to ask of the Lord till he dies. A good wife is a blessing from the 
Lord, and there are very few blessings that he gives now or hereafter 
that are comparable to it. And marriage is a thing not heedlessly to be 
rushed into, but slowly, discreetly. It is anything but a or a cal- 
culation. It is a matter of moral judgment and duty as high as any 

duty that lifts itself between you and the face of God It is not 

wise to mix religions. A man avIio marries a wife of a different religion 
from his own, thinking afterward to bend her to his views, has very 
little idea of timber." 

[Valuable suggestions as to the selection of the most suitable life- 
partners may be found in our recently pubMshed work entitled " How 
to Read Character," a new Hand-book of Phrenology and Physi- 
ognomy. Sent frco by post for $1 25.] 









DANIEL HUNTINGTON, President of the Nationa. Academy of 
Desigr., was born in New York, October 14, 1816. His predilec- 
tion for painting is said to have first been excited on visiting the 
studio of Trumbull ; but his first efforts failed to elicit from that artist 
any encouragement. A visit to the studio of, and an acquaintance with, 
Charles L. Elliott, the portrait painter, then painting at Hamilton Col- 
lege, N. Y., decided him to practice Art as his vocation. He began by 
painting the likenesses of his college companions, and also a number of 
comic pieces. In 1835 he entered the studio of S. F. B. Morse, then 
President of the National Academy of Design, and soon afterward pro- 
duced the " Bar-Eoom Politician," "A Toper Asleep," etc., besides land- 
scapes and portraits. 

He has visited Europe several times, executing there some well-known 
and much admired pictures. 

For nearly thirty years Mr. Huntington's pictures have been familiar 
to the visitors of the annual exhibition at the Academy. His versatility 
is remarkable. His chief talent is for portraiture, but in landscape he 
does not shrink from entering the lists with Kensett, Church, and Bier- 
stadt. In Mr. Huntington's two most celebrated pictures, " Mercy's 
Dream" and the " Republican Court," his best qualities are admirably 
exhibited. They have a sweetness and a refinement, a conscience and 
care, which reveal the thoughtful student and the accomplished painter. 
President Huntington is now in the prime of his power. He is honored 
and beloved by his fellow-artists. 

Mr. Huntington has a superior mental organization and a finely toned 
temperament. His large and active perceptive intellect constitutes him 
a keen observer. He is by no means deficient in reasoning* ability, es- 
pecially as adapted to criticism and analysis. The face is refined and 
lit up with the grace of cultivation, and there is a decided approach to 
the Grecian type of contour, which resembles that of Canova, as will be 
obvious to the reader on comparing a portrait of the great sculptor with 
that of our subject. 

His foile is figure or shape, to the full appreciation and reproduction 
of which his large organs of Form, Size, Weight, Locality, and Order 
lend their invaluable aid. 


William Page was born in Albany, N. Y., January 23d, 1811. His 
parents removed to New York city in 1819, where he was sent to school ; 
and at the age of eleven received a premium from the American Insti- 
tute for .i drawing in India ink. At the age of fourteen he was place'd 
in the i^mcc of Frederick De Peyster, with a view to his becoming a 
awyer ; but Mr. De Peyster discovering his inherent talent for draw 
ing, took him to Col. Trumbull, the painter of the " Signing of the Dee 



taxation of Independence," and asked whether the boy would be likely 
to succeed as an artist. Art not then being especially appreciated in thia 
country, Trumbull told him to " stick to the law ; " but young Page's 
inclinations for drawing were so decided that, through the influence of 
his half-brother, a place was obtained for him in the office of Mr. Her- 
ring, a portrait painter in New York city, where he was employed upon 
banners, transparencies, and other ornamental work. The year after he 
entered the studio of S. F. B. Morse, and was admitted as a student at 
the National Academy, where he received a large silver medal for his 
drawings from the antique. 

He went to Europe in 1849, spent eleven years in Florence and Rome, 
studying and working, and in 1860 returned to New York, where he 
still resides. During his Italian residence, besides painting portraits of 
many distinguished men, he produced his two " Venuses;" " Moses and 
Aaron on Mount Horeb;" "The Flight into Egypt;" "The Infant 
Bacchus," and other works. His copies of "Titian" were so remark- 
ably like the original, that one of them was stopped by the authorities 
at Florence, under the belief that it was the original painting. He 
is a member of the National Academy, and is not only esteemed as an 
artist, but also well known as a lecturer on Art. 

Mr. Page has a tine-grained temperament, and a contour of cerebral 
organization approaching the classic. The balance between the percept- 
ive and reflective orders of the intellect appears to be nearly perfect. He 
is both an observer and a thinker. He has no little ability as a critic, and 
had he devoted himself to literature, he would have ranked well as a 
graceful and discerning writer. He is positive and emphatic in disposi- 
tion ; ambitions to excel, and spirited in effort. Not easily diverted 
from his purposes, he concentrates his mental forces on whatever he 
takes in hand, and finds much more difficulty in satisfying himself than 
in pleasing others. 


Eastman Johnson, made famous among our artists by his picture, 
" The Old Kentucky Home," was born in the little town of LovclJ, 
near Freyburg, Maine, and first became known to fame as a crayon 
limner ; his skill in getting the correct expression, and the grace and 
vigor of his drawing, rendered him popular and prosperous. The pecu- 
niary returns from his drawings enabled him to visit Europe, where he 
spent two years in Dnsseldorf, in the earnest study and practice of oil 
painting. Subsequently he set out for Italy by the way of Holland and 
France, visiting the best galleries and scenery along his route. At the 
Hague he fell in with Miguot, with whom he sojourned four years, find- 
ing congenial work and meeting with flattering success in portraiture 
There he executed his first original and elaborate work in oil — repre- 
senting a boy with dark eyes and hair and olive complexion, with the 
rude dress of a Savoyard peasant, leaning against Hie weather-stained 
wall of an old court-yard. The face is full of character, — the color rich, 
mellow, and harmonious. He executed several other paintings of the 


same clas^i, which were received with warm commendation and found 
ready purchasers. Meantime he did not neglect portrait painting, and 
was liberally encouraged therein by the court and leading and wealthy 
families at the Hague. 

Mr. Johnson's delineations of American life deserve special mention 
and commendation. " The Old Kentucky Home " is not only a mas- 
terly work of Art, full of nature, truth, local significance, and character, 
hut it illustrates a phase of American life which the late rebellion baa 
essentially modified. The picture is therefore valuable as an historical 
relic. It is a scene of Slave State life — a quiet interior, the edge of a 
slip-shod household, a pair of young negro lovers, not caricatured, but 
of a kind familiar to common experience, admitting the prescribed race 
to the common sympathies of humanity. The moral of the picture, in- 
stinctively felt, is, " a man's a man for a' that." The human romance 
of the picture as pure as that of Romeo and Juliet. " Mating " is another 
of Mr. Johnson's admirable pictures. It is a picture full of meaning 
and expression — in fact, expression is Mr. Johnson's forte — not dramatic 
or historical so much as depicting the human countenance. On a low 
roof of a farm-house a flock of pigeons are billing and cooing, strutting 
and puffing, every eye and feather kindled with amorous vivacity ; while 
leaning against a door-post below is a buxom girl, whose air and atti- 
tude and eye are just as full of " hopes and fears that kindle hope," as 
those of the doves — while her rustic lover in shirt sleeves, absently 
whittling a slick, does his courting in a like spirit of bashful desire. 

The portrait of this eminent scenic painter represents a face of no lit- 
tle power. It impresses the physiognomist by its resemblance to the old 
Norman types. The long reach forward of the ear indicates superior 
intellectual capacity, especially as a discriminating observer. Language 
is not small, but seemingly so by reason of the prominent brow. He 
is the man to gather in the materials which constitute knowledge, for 
those faculties which perceive, apprehend, and retain information are 
largely developed. The temperament is apparently of the motive type, 
and co-operating with his strong perceptives inclines him to make na- 
ture his study. 


George Inness was born near Newburgh, N. Y., May 1st, 1825, and 
passed his early youth, from the age of seven until sixteen, in Newark, 
N. J. He began to draw and paint when a mere child, and was permit- 
ted to follow the bent of his inclinations, although his parents wished 
to turn Lis attention in other directions. 

As a painter, Mr. Inness has made landscape his chief study for the 
past twenty years. In the outset of his artistic career he attempted en- 
graving, but his delicate organization could not endure the confinement 
of close study, so that he was obliged to abandon that field. He enjoyed 
the association and instruction of Gignoux in the early days of his study 
of painting, and after a few years of European travel and experience he 
took up his residence at Eagleswood, a beautiful park near Perth Air- 


bo} N. J Possessed of deep religious convictions, and disposed tc 
quiet and meditation, Mr. Inness finds in the retirement of Eagleswood 
and the employments of his studio the repose and enjoyment which his 
heart seeks, and of which a life of publicity and emulation would de- 
prive him. He is a disciple of Swedenborg, and believes that material 
things have a spiritual significance, and this belief is crystallized in his 
pictures, for they are full of beautiful sentiment. 

Mr. Inness realizes perhaps more than any of our painters the popu- 
lar idea of an artist. His slight form, his marked features, his sensitive 
mouth, his high cheek-bones, and sharp-cut prominent brow, which in- 
cases dark-brown eyes, now restless, and now fixed, as when discussing 
some question of art or philosophy, or when engaged at his profession in 
the production of some exquisite effect of color ; his long black hair, al- 
ways in disorder, his ardent temperament and sensitive nature, his ig- 
norance of the " sawir faire" of life — all go to make up the artist. 

He is thoroughly American, but of the highest esthetical type of the 
American. He is, in his pictures, what Keats and Heine are to poetry, 
what Robert Franz and Beethoven are to music. If he had not pos- 
sessed an intense love of form, and a wondrous sense and power of ex- 
pression of color, he would have been a preacher or a philosopher in an- 
other way, for he has a deep religious nature and an extraordinary 
analytical mind. * * * Never sensational, his pictures are at times the 
gentlest expression of poetic sentiments, and, again, are full of the gran- 
deur and majesty of an epic. An illustration of both one and the other 
may be seen in the series of pictures, " The Triumph of the Cross." Mr. 
Inness is an associate member of the Academy of Design, and although 
acknowledged to stand at the head of his profession, for some unex- 
plained reason he has never yet been elected an academician. 

Mr. Inness is of a highly wrought mental type. His sensibilities and 
susceptibilities are exceedingly delicate — a condition doubtless due iu 
great measure to early nervous disease. He is an earnest, intense thinker, 
and with all his constitutional excitability, deliberate and calm as com- 
pared with most men. His organs of perception are generally large, 
the forehead wide through the temples, and well marked in Comparison 
and Human Nature. He should be remarkable for nice discrimination as 
an artirtl or as a thinker; his judgment of character is intuitive and ac- 
curate. Veneration is doubtless very large, inspiring and sustaining his 
well-known character as a religious man ; while Firmness is evinced both 
bv the height of the crown and the well-set, determined mouth. 

Home Influences.— Home ! it is the paradise of infancy, the tower 
of defense to youth, the retreat for manhood, the city of refuge for old 
age. Recollections, associations, cluster round it — O how thickly ! En- 
joyments are tasted there whose relish never dies from the memory. 
Affections spring, and grow there, through all the turns and overturns 
of life, and which last on, stronger than death. The thought of ita 
early innocence has kindled anew the flame of virtue, — almost smoth 
eitd beneath a heavy mass of follies and Crimea. 



fl^HE New York Sun says: We mentioned a few days ago, that a 
writer in the London Spectator had propounded a theory of " brain 
waves," to account for the appearance of persons at tne point of 
death to their distant friends. He claims that there is a kind of brain 
atmosphere, which extends over the globe, and upon which the brain has 
power of impressing undulations, just as a bell sets the ah in motion, 
or an electric battery the electric fluid in a telegraph whe. These 
waves, when they meet with a sympathetic organ, produce ideas and 
images more or less distinct, according to circumstances. The subject 
is undergoing discussion, and some facts confirmatory of the theory are 
advanced. One is the case of a person whose image was seen by his 
wife to enter his house and go up stairs some two hours before his actual 
arrival. On inquiry, it was found that at that moment he was mentally 
imagining himself as doing the precise thing which his apparition did. 
Another story is, perhaps, not new to many of our readers, but it is suf- 
ficiently interesting to be repeated : 

" Admiral Sir Thomas "Williams, a straightforward and excellent 
man, was in command of a ship crossing the Atlantic Ocean. His 
course brought him within sight of the island of Ascension, at that 
time uninhabited, and never visited by any ship except for the purpose 
of collecting turtles, which abound on the coast. The island was barely 
descried on the horizon, and was not to be noticed at all; but as Sir 
Thomas looked at it, he was seized by an unaccountable desire to steer 
toward it. He felt how strange such a wish would appear to his crew, 
and tried to disregard it, but in vain. His desire became more and 
more urgent and distressing, and foreseeing that it would soon be more 
difficult to gratify it, he told his lieutenant to prepare to ' put about 
ship,' and steer for Ascension. The officer to whom he spoke ventured 
respectfully to represent, that changing their course would greatly delay 
them — that just at that moment the men were going to their dinner — 
that, at least, some delay might be allowed. But these arguments seemed 
to increase Capt. Williams' anxiety, and the ship was steered toward 
the uninteresting little island. All eyes and spy-glasses were now fixed 
upon it, and soon something was perceived on the shore. ' It is white 
— it is a flag — it must be a signal !' and when they neared the shore, it 
was ascertained that sixteen men, wrecked on that coast many days 
before, and suffering the extremity of hunger, had set up a signal, though 
almost without a hope of relief." 

The Sun says the discussion promises to elicit more anecdotes of a 
similir character. Is that all ? Here are new phases of ps3 r chological 
import and interest. Let our English cousins pursue the mystery. It 
may be that we shall be able to enlighten them. We have something 
more to impart on " The Inner Senses," which will appear in due time. 
Our investigations go to show that there are scientific explanations til 
tho&e material phenomena, which now puzzle the philosophers. 







\HE American face has bef.n de- 
scribed as "high-browed, cold- 
eyed, thin-lipped ; with a dry skin, 
a long- nose, high cheek-bones ; keen, 
sensible, calculating, aggressive; de- 
void of poetry, sentiment, tenderness, 
and imagination." This is no doubt 
intended to be a truthful picture, and 
we can not deny that we recognize the 
likeness — a likeness to many Ameri- 
can faces that have fallen under oui 
observation. The face delineated is 
not an uncommon one in New En- 
gland and in the West, where the con- 
figuration of the New Englander is 
often reproduced on a larger scale and 
avilliam ii. beard. with an a d c lecl degree of angularity 

and uncouthness ; but it is not the typical American face of to-day ; 
much less does it indicate the physiognomy of our " coming man" — 
the future American. It is the face of one inured to toil and struggle, 
and compelled to be close-fisted, worldly-wise, sharp-witted, and self- 
reliant, if not selfish. It shows little indication of the softening influ- 
ences of the plastic arts, painting, music, or the drama ; and suggests 
none of the recreations and enjoyments of elegant leisure. A rough or 
new country, rough work, and a rough life have made their rough im- 
print upon it. The sharp outlines, the immobile features, and the cold, 
unsympathetic expression are simply the outgrowth of a life barren of 
romance, poetry, idealism — a life made up of hard, practical realities. 

It must be confessed, further, that the description I have quoted ap- 
plies more or less to a majority of the faces of noted Americans which 
confront us on canvas, or in the guise of photographs, or of engraved 
portraits. But who are the personages thus represented ? They are, 
in the main, the men and women who have risen — who have achieved 
their position under difficulties. They are individuals who are largely 
endowed with energy, pluck, and perseverance. They have fought and 
conquered, but they bear about them the marks of the conflict — faces 
blackened and scarred. Aggressive, unsentimental, devoid of tender- 
ness many of them truly are. Had they not been aggressive, they 
would never have made their way through the crowd to stand in the 
front ranks w here we now find them ; or had they been sentimental and 
tender, some homes might have been made brighter and happier by 
their ministrations, but their likenesses would never have appeared in 
the illustrated papers. Representative men and women, in a certain 



sense, these are, but they represent, in most cases, only the material and 
practical phase of our national life. They are men who have led 
armies, built roads and bridges, in- 
vented machines, edited political pa- 
pers, made stump speeches, managed 
caucuses, got themselves elected to 
Congress, or made governors, foreign 
ministers , collectors, commissioners, 
and so on ; or they are women who 
have not confined themselves to the 
old routine of domestic duties — to the 
sewing on of buttons and the care of 
babies. Their faces are intellectual 
and strong — sometimes, perhaps, he- 
roic ; but, as a rule, they are neither 
lovely nor loving. They are Ameri- 
can faces, but we find not among 
them the American face. 

We are too young as a nation to 
have fully developed and matured 
a national type of face ; but we have it in process of formation, and 
the true physiognomist can see that it is destined to be one of the noblest 
that the world lias produce . If at present it lack fullness and soft- 
ness, it has at least strength, clearness?-, regularity, and an expre ssion of 
heroic purpose, which only nc eds a more generous infusion of the poetic 

element to become sublime. The 
softening of its too sharp out- 
lines, the air of romance, the 
dreamy repose which it often, but 
not always, lacks, will come with 
time and a higher and more artist- 
ic culture. 

But we need not look forward 
to the possibilities of the future. 
We shall not seek in vain, if we seek 
aright, for fine faces — beautiful, no- 
ble faces— among the American 
men and women of the present 
dav— faces worthy to be mentioned 
as peers of such foreign ones as 
those of Baudelaire, Courbet, Listz, 
George Sand, Nilsson, Beranger, 
Lamennais, Delacroix, and Dore. 


If Washington's face was noble in its tranquil greatness ; if Webster's 
was massive and grand ; if Lincoln's, m its rude homeliness, was 
thoughtful and tender, may we not find in that of Chief Justice Chase 
something of Washington's lofty self-poised calmness; a breadth and 


depth almost Websterian ; and a kindliness as genuine as was mani 
fested in the murdered President? If we seek a dreamy mysticism 
combined with a clear, deep, active intellectuality, we have only to 
look into the face of Hawthorne (though we know no portrait that does 
him justice). Poe's face, with all its genius, is not a pleasant one to 
look at. Photographs of Whittier give us all his strength, steadfastness, 
and earnestness, but they sadly fail to convey the romantic sensibilities 
anil tender sympathies which underlie them, and which the real face, 
as I well remember it, habitually expresses. We find in the pk ture, 
perhaps, the singer of such ballads as the " Voices of Freedom,' 1 but 
the author of " Maud Muller" and "Snow Bound" never. Longfel- 
low's portraits are like him, and we need not fear to place them by the 
side of those of the European poets. Prescott, Everett, and Irving had 
fine faces, well marked and strong, but neither hard nor angular. That 
of Prescott was elegant and classical, and as full of kiudness and devo- 
tion as of genius. Bryant looks like an Eastern patriarch, or " like one 
of Fuseli's bards civilized," and Parke Godwin's strong face is worthy 
to have been a model for Rembrandt. 

Look, also, at our artists — at such faces as those of Huntington, 
Page, Beard, Church, Eastman Johnson, Inness, Giffor/1 (whose portrait, 
here given, does him great injustice), Palmer, Miss Hosnier, and others 
whose names will surest themselves. 



[The following is not only a very good story, but it has a basis of scientific truth, 
and may be made a text for any amount of speculation upon the mysterious operations 
of the mind during the sleep of the body. It suggests questions which it would take 
volumes to answer ir. a satisfactory manner.] 

"N one of the splendidly decorated saloons of St. James w T as assem- 
bled a group of young and lovely girls, whose delicate fingers were 
busily employed in different kinds of ornamental needle-work 
which, under their skillful arrangement, formed boquets which rivaled 
nature in the brilliancy of their colors and accuracy of shades. They 
were the Queen's maids of honor, and between their gay chattering and 
busy fingers employed the time while waiting for her rising. The only 
grave person in the assembly was tln3 Dowager Duchess d'Alby, tho 
chief of the ladies if honor. 

Among the blooming group, the youngest was remarkable for the sim- 
plicity of dress and the quiet modesty of her whole appearance. Her 
attire was a dress of black velvet, closed to the throat, but of which the 
skirt, open in front, disclosed an under-dress of white satin ; the sleeves 
came just below the elbow, and coquettishly disclosed an arm and hand 
of the most dazzling whiteness. A plaited tucker encircled her grace- 


ful neck, on which hung a chain, to which was attached a large cross, 
and luxuriant hair, simply parted on the forehead, and confined behind 
by a lace scarf, completed her costume. This was the daughter of one 
of the most illustrious families of Scotland : her father, Lord Rutkven, 
united to a princely fortune a pedigree of which he was more proud 
than of his wealth. Lucy, his daughter, had secretly arrived at the 
English Court, on her appointment to a post in the Queen's household 
— there to complete the education which had been carefully guided by 
uer father. Retired and simple in her tastes, her mind instinctively 
sought the sublime in the works of nature and art. She excelled in 
painting, and her genius had created a world of her own, in the daily 
contemplations of the production of the best masters, which adorned the 
galleries of her father. Paul Veronese, Guido, Rubens were of the 
number of her friends, and she vowed them eternal gratitude, for the 
light their talents had shed on her solitude. 

The habits and manners of Lucy contrasted strongly with those ef 
her companions, who had been habituated to more independence and 
liberty. Gentle and timid to excess, she scarcely attempted to answer 
the sportive and often mischievous sallies of her companions. The large 
clock in the saloon chimed the hour of ten ; all eyes were directed to it, 
and several voices exclaimed, "He's very late!" just as a domestic an- 
nounced the painter, Van Dyck. The announcement caused a general 
agitation among the smiling group. Each one changed her position on 
her velvet seat, rearranged her dress, and, composing her countenance, 
sought to give additional grace to her aspect. The young pupil of Ru- 
bens, albeit accustomed to the sight of beauty, could not suppress a 
murmur of admiration at finding himself in the midst of this brilliant 

The old Duchess, supposing the young painter's embarrassment to be 
caused by her own imposing appearance, to encourage him, addressed 
him in these words : " I am told you have talent, young man." 

" Those who have so informed you do me too much honor, madam ; 
doubtless they judge me by my intentions, but I have, as yet, produced 
nothing worthy of attention." 

There was as much confidence and noble pride in the reply of the 
painter as there had been arrogance and impertinence in the address of 
the noble dame. 

Lucy, who possessed the high spirit of her country, was shocked at 
the insolent tone of the Duchess, and now blushed with pleasure at the 
r*p y of Van Dyck. As her soft eyes rested approvingly on his face, 
he understood her feelings, and thanked her, by a look, for her generous 

" Well, we shall see. Her Majesty wishes to renew the ornaments of 
her chapel, so you will be fully employed. A residence will be assigned 
you in yonder monastery. There you will copy undisturbed. In sum- 
mer, also, you shad have a fit residence, besides a pension from Govern- 
ment. This, 1 think, is paying an artist pretty well." 


" Art can not be paid for, my lady Duchess, and if I possessed the- tal 
ents to which I aspire, the favor which you boast could not purchase 

"This is all very well; you are proud and we are noble; but, never- 
theless, those honors are conditional — you will be chosen painter to (he 
Queen if you succeed in gaining the prize which is offered for the most 
perfect head of the Madonna." 

"Ah, madam, if the patronage of Her Majesty is offered me ;my on 
these conditions, I fear I shall not obtain it." 

" Aud why not? " 

" Because I shall not gain the prize," replied he, with an expression 
of sadness, which w r as instantly reflected on the face of Lucy. 

" Why do you refuse this honor — do you fear to fail ? " 

" No, madam ; but how shall I represent, as she should be repre- 
sented, the mother of the Saviour? Where shall I find a model ?" 

As he pronounced these words, his eyes rested on the angelic face of 

" I have hitherto sought in vain the combination of mildness, sweet- 
ness, and candor which should characterize the Virgin." 

The fire of genius which illuminated the handsome countenance of 
Van Dyck elicited the admiration of all observers. 

" But I should imagine that there would be no difficulty in obtaining 
models for painters." 

" The models which can be obtained for hire are undoubtedly beau- 
tiful. I have sought in vain for the dignity and purity, wdiich I have 
never seen united but in a noble lady, who would disdain to sit to a pcor 

The animated and ardent glance of Van Dyck much embarrassed 
Lucy ; it told her he had at last found the object his fancy had depicted. 
The Duchess, however, had observed it, and asked : 

" Who is this noble lady ? " 

" The Virgin herself, madam ! n Bowing profoundly, and giving a 
parting glance at Lucy, he added : " If I gain the prize, you shall see 
me again, madam ; if not, I leave England." 

He took immediate possession of his apartments, where he could, at 
the same time, paint his Madonna, and copy the frescoes for the chapel. 
With his mind full of the celestial face he had just seen, he seized his 
pencil, and endeavored to trace her lineaments. But the extreme sensi- 
bility, so useful to art when time has calmed it, was now his chief obsta- 
cle. He felt too deeply to succeed in expressing the idea which filled his 
soul. The day passed in fruitless attempt, and the night surprised him, 
dissatisfied and desponding. 

In the mean time Lucy had suffered severely for the preference shown 
her by Van Dyck. The envy and jealousy of her companions found 
vent in impertinent sarcasms ; so that, on separating for the night, her 
mind was filled with his idea, and, after her nightly prayer, his name 
was the last on her lips. 


It was midnight, the heavens shone with a thousand sparkling stars, 
and a soft light spread itself on the old abbey, which stood solitary and 
alone among its ruins. 

A window of the palace opened, and a shadow passed slowly along 
the balcony and grand staircase, crossed along the court, and reached 
the monastery. 

It would be difficult to say how this figure had left the palace md 
penetrated so far ; but she must have been well acquainted w ith all the 
turnings, for, in a short time, she crossed the long avenues, and, arriving 
at one of the galleries of the chapel, she found herself in the painter's 
work-room, and, passing lightly on, seated herself, without looking around 
her, immediately in front of his easel. 

Oh, surprise ! oh, joy ! this being, so calm, so beautiful, is Lucy ! The 
desponding artist who had been unable to retrace her features on his 
canvas, now beheld a living model before his eyes. 

What could have induced her to come ? What idea could have given 
her the courage and resolution? He threw himself on his knees before 
her, but Lucy, motioning him to rise, pointed to his pencil. Her look 
penetrated him with a flame so pure, that he forgot the reality of his 
vision ; his astonishment seemed to him a want of faith. Transported 
by his imagination to an ethereal sphere, he seemed above the earth, 
and in tbe midst of the sublime concerts of angel he beheld Mary, en- 
vironed by divine rays. He was no longer the powerless artist, who 
had just thrown at his feet his unsuccessful pencil; the artist had re- 
placed the man. Mute and breathless, inspired by mysterious strength, 
he seized his palette. His colors gave the form, and his soul the life — 
in a few hours he created the most beautiful and most pure of virgins. 

When the young girl saw that after tracing her features he was occu- 
pied in imparting to his picture the soul which animated him, she 
rose silently, and with a calm and assured step left the monastery by the 
same road she had come. 

Van Dyck, with wondering eyes and oppressed breathing, made not 
the slightest effort to detain her. In his eyes, she was no longer mortal, 
and in her departure he thought he saw the Madonna returning to her 
native skies. Enchanted by his execution and excitement he fell asleep 
in his arm-chair. On awaking, his first thought was to examine his can- 
vas. Transported with joy at his success, he thanked, on his knees, the 
angel or woman who had so favored him. In vain he endeavored 
again to impart the ideality which existed in his imagination. He had 
so combined the thoughts of the Madonna and of Lucy, that he deter- 
mined to discover the truth, and wrote the following billet to the young 

" Tell me if you are indeed an angel, if you do not wish to deprive 
of his senses the poor artist to whom you have condescended to appear 
this night. Tell me if you are the Virgin, or a mortal ! " 

It was a part of the duty of the Dowager Duchess to open the billets 
addressed to the young ladies confided to her charge. What was ho* 


astonishment on reading this epistle ! " Horror ! " cried she, " a child 
of high family thus to violate her duty, in seeking a painter at mid- 
night." She rung and sent for the guilty one; but her rage redoubled 
when IiUcy, with customary gentleness, denied all knowledge of the 
cause of her reproaches. The Duchess, who expected to witness in 
her great confusion or a candid avowal, would listen to nothing. The 
alarm was given in the palace, and it was decided that Lucy, disgraced, 
should be sent home to her father. 

* Her prayers were of no avail ; a single night of respite was alone ac- 
corded her, and she was commanded to sleep in the apartment of the 
Duchess to avoid further scandal. 

At midnight, Lucy rose as before. The Duchess was roused from her 
unquiet sleep, and called all the ladies to witness the confirmation of 
her suspicions. With lighted flambeaux, the Duchess, attended by a 
numerous suite, followed Lucy, who traversed again the great hall, the 
long passages, and arrived at the door of the monastery. Her culpabil- 
ity could be no longer doubted, but they followed her even to the paint- 
ing-room, where she was already seated before the easel. The noise 
around her, and the brilliancy of the lights, awoke her in affright. She 
was a sleep-walker, a somnambulist ! 

Thus unconsciously had she. served as model to an artist who fully 
repaid in love what she had given him in renown. He obtained the 
prize, and was loaded at the court with honors and riches. 

Not long afterward, there was celebrated at St. Paul's the union of 
Van Dyck and Lucy the daughter of the noble Count Rutkven de 

Great Memory. — Some one has dished up the following hash of great 
memories. It is a dish strongly spiced with the marvelous, and, as 
Western men say, we think the compiler had a " powerful recollection." 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, knew each one of his eighty thousand 
soldiers by his right name. Seneca was able to rehearse two thousand 
words, which were given to him, in the same order. Hortentius kept in 
iiis memory all the prices paid on a day of auction. Hugo Grotius, on 
being present at a review of some regiments in France, recalled all the 
names of the single soldiers which were there called up. Justus Lipsius 
ventured to rehearse the works of Tacitus, from the first word to the last, 
forward and backward, even when somebody was standing before him 
with a drawn dagger, to pierce him at the very moment he had forgotten 
but a word ! A Venetian lady, well known by her erudition, when 
asked for the sermon she had heard in church, repeated scrupulously 
every word. Racine knew by memory all the tragedies of Euripides ; 
Bayle, the whole work of Montaigne ; Hughes Doneau, the Corpus Juris ; 
Metastasio, the entire Horatius ; and Carteret, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, 
all the New Testament, from the first chapter of Matthew to the end of 
the Apocalypse. The learned Scotchman, Thomas Dempster, affirmed 
he knew not what it was to forget ; and Scaliger is said to have appre- 
hended within twenty-one days the whole Homerus, and, within four 
months, all lie Greek poets. 






celebrated English 
painter of animals, wa.-j 
born in London in 1803. 
His father, John Land- 
seer, was a well-known 
English engraver and 
author. AVhile a child 
he was remarkable for 
his skill at drawing. 
He was encouraged by 
his father, who person- 
ally superintended his 
education, and took him 
into the fields and 
made him copy the or- 
dinary domestic ani- 
mals from life, and in 
the same way caused him to acquire his first notions of color. By these 
means he soon became a ready and skillful painter. At the early ag^ of 
fourteen he attracted attention by his spirited sketches of dogs, horses, 
cats, and other animals ; two years later he exhibited a picture called 
"Dogs Fighting," and shortly afterward he brought out a striking 
picture of two St. Bernard dogs rescuing a traveler from the snow. About 
this time he received a limited, though not regular, instruction from 
Haydon. He also drew in the schools of the Royal Academy, from 
the Elgin Marbles ; but animals have been the chief object of L >s study, 
in which every year has added to his fame. In 1827 he wa . elected 
an associate member of the Royal Academy, and in 185G he was 

At the Exposition Universelle of Paris, of 1865, a large goil medal 
was awarded to him; an honor accorded to no other English artist. 
No English painter has been more deservedly popular, and none more 
successful pecuniarily. He has received as much as £3,000, $15,000 
(gold), for the copyright of some of his pictures, in addition to the price 
of the picture. Among his most characteristic and best pictures are : 
" The Return from Deer-Stalking ; " " The Poachers— Deer-Stalking ; " 
" None but the Brave Deserve the Fair ; " " Sir Walter Scott and His 
Dogs;" "The Otter Speared;" "The Stag at Bay;" "The Drive;" 
" Shooting Deer on the Pass;" "The Random Shot;" "Night and 
Morning;" "Children of the Mist;" " Illicit Whisky Still;" " High- 
land Music ; " " The Drover's Departure ; " " The Old Shepherd's Chief 
Mourner;" "High Life and Low Life;" " Dignity and Impudence:' 


"A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society," a noble portrait 
of a Newfoundland dog ; " The Shepherd's Prayer," and many others. 
His latest works are the designs for four immense lions, which are now 
placed at the foot of the Nelson Monument, Trafalgar Square, London 

Landseer is a portly, stoutly-built Englishman, with a very large and 
active brain, amply developed in Constructiveness, Ideality, Form, Size, 
Cole r, Order, and Imitation, and having good Reflective faculties. He 
also has large Firmness ; a good degree of Self-Esteem ; large Appro- 
baliveness, and sufficient ambition, perseverance, and executivencss to 
^o through with whatever he begins. Such a person is capable of be- 
coming absorbed in his subject, and of putting his whole spirit into it. 
There is also indication of considerable love of property, without great 
economy or ability to save. 

Mr. Landseer's social feelings are strong, and he is eminently kind- 
hearted and sympathetic. Inroads doubtless have often been made on his 
pocket through his affections and his generosity. There is also indica- 
tion of high integrity, and those who know him best would trust him 

He is amiable, playful, fond of fun, quick at repartee, and capable of 
sarcasm ; but the kindlier elements predominate. Had he aoplied him- 
self to literature, the probabilities are that he would have oecome no 
less distinguished in that than he now is in Art, to whicl he has de 
voted himself. As an artist he has few equals. 


LORENZO DOW was born in Coventry, Tolland County, Connec- 
ticut, October 16, 1777. His parents seem to have been well-dis- 
posed, religious people. Lorenzo says in his Journal that " they 
were very tender toward their children, and endeavored to educate them 
well, both in religion and common learning." 

When about fourteen years old, Lorenzo began to be agitated by re- 
ligious feelings and speculations, and had various dreams or visions, 
which seemed to him prophetic and specially intended to influence 
him and turn his heart to God. At this period the " doctrine of un- 
conditional reprobation and particular election " troubled him greatly, 
so that on one occasion he was on the point of putting an end to his 
life. He finally found peace in- the full surrender of himself to God, 
and the adoption of the tenets of the Methodist Church, with which he 
united himself in opposition to the wishes of his family, and became 
an itinerant preacher. His youth and his eccentricity of character pre- 
vented his recognition by the conferences of the denomination, and he 
was at one period tempted to renounce the name of Methodist. He 
finally, however, received a license to preach, and in spite of frequent 
rebuffs, sometimes from members of his own sect, and ceaseless hard- 


ships and dangers, be persevered for nearly forty years with great cor- 
rectness and zeal, and with astonishing effect. 

In the course of his ministry he traveled over a large part of the 
tinted States and Canada, and in 1799, and again in 1805, visited Eng- 
land and Ireland, where his peculiarities attracted much attention, and 
on several occasions subjected him to persecution. His eccentricity of 
manner and dress excited much prejudice against him, and he was by 
many believed to be insane, so that he was known far and wide ss 
" Crazy Dow." In person he was awkward and ungainly, his voice 
was harsh, and he had none of those graces of delivery which commend 
a speaker to a cultivated audience; but his wit, his earnestness, and 
his fervor supplied the place of eloquence, and made his addresses re- 
markably effective. Many anecdotes illustrative of his oddity, religious 
faith, courage, and self-devotion are yet current in those parts of the 
country where he was best known. He died at Georgetown, D. C, Feb. 
2, 1834, at the age of fifty-seven years. 

Peggy, the wife of Lorenzo Dow, was born in Granville, Mass., in 
1780, and was married in 1804. She was a woman of a character and 
qualities similar to his own, and followed him fearlessly in many of his 

Lorenzo Dow had three qualities which caused him to be known and 
noted, and made his name a household word. The first of these 
was his great originality ; the second, his earnestness ; tbe third, that 
peculiar combination of originality and earnestness which made him 
bold and eccentric. 

His mind was quick, clear, and logical. He reached conclusions by 
intuition, and was often able to silence the skeptic by a single statement. 
He had few equals in his day. He had a great insight of character, and 
understood men with wonderful intuition and sagacity. In bis preach- 
ing, which was unique, he inspired his listeners with the idea that he 
had something which they did not possess — a hold on the life to come, 
which made him a prophet. He had a fund of wit and drollery which, 
joined to his earnestness and thorough seriousness", seemed out of place. 
It was illustrated in this way : On one occasion a man, thinking Dow 
possessed superhuman powers, came to him confidentially, and told him 
lie had lost something by theft, naming the article. Dow told him ho 
would tell him who had got it. Picking up a large stone, he carried it 
into the pulpit in his pocket. During the course of the service he re- 
n arked that a certain man had lost a certain piece of property by theft, 
and, raising the stone, and looking fiercely into the congregation, said, 
1 1 am going to hit the man who stole the article with this stone. 1 
have my eye on him;" and as lie drew back the stone, as if to throw 
it, a man bobbed his head down, upon which Dow shouted, " That's the 
man— seize him !" and the culprit confessed the deed. 

He had large Firmness and Self-Esteem, giving him determination, 
dignity, self-possession, and the poAver to do what he deemed best, with- 
out regard to public sentiment. He had a good degree of Approbative- 



ness, but his larger Self-Esteem enabled him to carry himself througu 
the world in an assured spirit, and thus he became noted. This noto- 
riety gratified his Approbativeness. 

He had a most remarkable memory and a great fluency of speech : 
and was a man of superior talent, high moral sentiment, and decideo 
energy. We have conversed with many persons who knew him. On 


one occasion, in Massachusetts, a horse, saddle, and bridle were pie- 
sented to him, to obviate the necessity of his traveling hundreds of 
miles on foot. He mounter 1 the horse, thanked the donor, and started 
off. A few hundred yards from the house the horse stumbled and fell. 
Dow went off over the head of the horse, and walked right straight on 
for three-quarters of a mile without looking back, leaving the horse, 
saddle, and bridle in the dirt, with the donor and his family looking on. 
The gentleman whose father gave him the horse related the facts while 
we stood looking over the very ground in question. He sometimes ap- 
pointed to be at a particular place in just one year from that time, and 
was always there, though it might be at a roadside, away from any 
house, and the news of the strange appointment being spreid, thousands 


flocked to hear him from far and near. He believed in that kind of 
fepecial providence which conies to man miraculously, and many re- 
markable instances of answer to his prayers are related by those who 
knew him. 

Peggy Dow, his wife, has a physiognomy (the head in our portrait 
if mainly covered) that reminds one of the mother of John Wesley 


\Vhat sincerity and truthfulness, what simplicity of spirit, what un- 
wavering religions confidence are expressed in all those features ! The 
religious organs appear to be large, and we judge there was a good deal 
of dignity, womanly kindness, and warm afi'ection ; a retentive mem- 
ory; quick perception, and very great sincerity of character. She was 
.1 godly woman, living above the world while i he lived within it. 

Educating the Eye. — The great majority of mankind do not and 
can not see one fraction of what they intended to see. The proverb, 
that "None are so blin'I as those that will not see," is as true of phys- 
ical as ( f moral vision 



HARRIET MARTINEAU, in her late volume of Biographical 
Sketches, thus speaks of the author of the " Constitution of 
" Man:" 

" A man must be called a conspicuous member of society who writes 
a book approaching in circulation to the three ubicpiitous books in our 
language — the Bible, 'Pilgrim's Progress,' and 'Robinson Crusoe.' 
George Combe's ' Constitution of Man' is declared to rank next to 
these three in point of circulation ; and the author of a work so wideh 
diffused can not but be the object of much interest during his life, and 
of special notice after death. ***** 

" In 1802 the Government at Vienna had suppressed Gall's work on 
the ' Functions of the Brain,' but Metternich saw its publication in 1810, 
when he was Austrian ambassador at Paris. It soon became on ihe 
Continent what it has now long been in England, the source of new 
views of the structure and functions of the brain. As for the ' bit- 
terness' and 'spleen' of the German philosophers, the appearance of 
Spurzheim in Edinburgh presently disposed of the imputation. Spurz- 
heim was found to be a modest, amiable, intelligent man, and quite as 
good a logician as an observer. He was not a discoverer, but he was a 
good teacher. He made some way at once, even as Dr. Gordon's an- 
tagonist on his own ground; and he did more for the establishment of 
his doctrine by a course of popular lectures, where he was listened to 
by a small body of earnest young men. The Combes were among the 
scoffers outside. They never saw the lecturer ; and much less would 
they have cared to hear him One day, how T ever, a brother lawyer met 
George in the street, and invited him to his house to see Spurzheim dis- 
sect a human brain. "What he saw there satisfied him that the human 
brain is something very unlike what it seemed to dissectors, who sliced 
it through, and looked no further. He attended the lecturer's second 
course, and reached a conviction which determined the character of 
his mind and life. He himself tells us that he was not ' led away by 
enthusiasm,' but won by the evidence that the doctrine was ' eminently 
practical.' ******* 

" In 1825 the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge was in- 
stituted — chiefly for the purpose of supplying good and cheap books 
to Mechanics' Institutes, where the want of books, as supplementary to 
lectures, was severely felt. Political troubles caused delay; but the 
scheme was resumed in 1826; and in March, 1827, the issue of the So- 
ciety's tracts began. Lord Brougham and his coadjutors had promised 
means of political, social, and what may be called personal knowledge. 
Theological teaching was wholly excluded, and morality had no chance. 
Now the thirst of mankind for moral philosophy is unquenchable, and 
the refusal or neglect of the Diffusion Society to give it merely turned 
the mocha. lies of the country loose, to find what they wanted for them- 


selves. Six weeks before the appearance of the Society's tracts, George 
Combe had read to the Phrenological Society of Edinburgh the first 
part of a work ' On the Harmony between the Mental and Moral Con- 
stitution of Man and the Laws of Physical Nature.' This was the 
first form of his celebrated ' Constitution on Man in Relation to Exter- 
nal Objects,' which was published in 1828, and read with unexampled 
eagerness by almost the entire reading classes of the nation. A benevo- 
lent gentleman, named Henderson, left a sum of money to be spent in 
rendering the book as cheap as possible; and extremely cheap it was 
made, so that multitudes possessed it who never owned any other book. 
Its circulation had long ago amounted to 100,000 in Great Britain and 
Ireland ; and it is in almost every house in the United States, besides 
having been translated into various continental languages." 


Wedlock : ob, The Plight Relations of the Sexes, etc. Who Should and Who 
Should Not Many, etc. New Tork : Samuel R. Wells. 1809. [Price, $1 50.] 

Works on Love, Courtship, and Marriage are numerous, but not 
generally good. The demand for practical information in regard to the 
important points involved in these interesting subjects has led to the 
preparation of many trash y and worthless treatises, as w T ell as some that 
are positively pernicious and subversive of morality and human well- 
being. The whole matter has, to a great extent, beeD .eft in the hands 
of quacks and charlatans, who have got money by mini jtering to the 
passions of the ignorant and credulous. There are a few books to 
which these remarks do not apply, but their teachings, though well 
meant, are unsound on some important points, and calculated to lead 
the reader astray. 

Personally, we make no claim to infallibility, but having given much 
attention to the social questions discussed in this new work, we have a 
right to assume that we speak understandingly, as well as with a sincere 
desire to benefit our readers, by giving them trustworthy information 
and sound, practical advice. The book is in every respect chaste in 
language and thought, and such as may properly find a place on any 
lady's center-table. 

Among the subjects treated at length and in a thoroughly practical 
way in " Wedlock" are the following : 

Marriage a Divine Institution; Qualifications for Matrimony; The 
Right Age to Marry ; Motives for Marrying ; Marriages of Cohsanguinily 
(May Cousins Marry'?); Conjugal Selection; Courtship; The Duty of 
Parents ; Marriage Customs and Ceremonies ; The Ethics of Marriage ; 
Second Mairiages; Jealousy; Separation and Divorce; Celibacy; 
Polygamy and Pantagamy (or Mormonism and Communism in Mar- 
riage) ; The Poet's Wile; Love Signs; Love Letters; The Model Hus- 
band ; The Model Wife ; Miscellaneous Matrimonial Matters ; The 
Poetry of Love and Marriage, etc. 



born at New Ber- 
lin, New York, in the 
year 1839. She com- 
menced to write for the 
press about three years 
ago. Some of her first 
efforts at writing poetry 
were published in some 
of the leading papers of 
Wisconsin, under the 
name of Nellie A. Mann; 
and those efforts were 
successful ones, and led 
.the way for many beau- 
tiful poems to follow 
Subsequently, she made 
her debut as an author 
ess in some of the lead- 
ing papers and maga- 
zines of Philadelphia, 
New York, and other 
cities, and is at present 
a popular and highly valued contributor to several periodicals of stand- 
ing literature. 

Mrs. Manville has only just begun her literary career. Three years 
ure all too short to tell what genius can do ; but they tell what has al- 
ready been done, and the future must decide the rest. Judging her fu- 
ture success in the walks of American literature by her success in the 
past, it is safe to say that there is much in store for her. Here is a little 
poem that is charming from its very simplicity. She has named it 
" Sunlight." 


Like a holy benediction, 
The sunlight falleth down ; 

And on my brow it iieth, 
A fair and golden crown. 

With gentle hand it toyeth 
With each free-waving tress, 

And kindly, softly lingers 
In one long, sweet caret:!. 

My heart has grown so joyful 
Beneath its kindly kiss ; 

I question it. Is Heaven 
A fairer land than this ? 

The likeness of Mrs. Manville here presented indicates an ardent 
emotional nature, quick and accurate intuitions, and ready intellectual 
perceptions. She is impulsive, but not fickle. She has keen sensibility, 
fe^ls deeply, and acts promptly. She has scarcely enough of the vital 
temperament to render her a hearty sympathizer with the sensuou.- 



phases of life. She lives more in the realm of the emotional and im- 
aginative than in the realm of the material, yet there is much practical 
common sense portrayed in those somewhat sharpened features. Her 
life, we think, would be more serene, joyous, and smooth had she a 
stronger development of that temperament — the Vital — which induces 
an interest in the things of time and sense. 


LAUME GUIZOT, the celebrated 
French politician and historian, 
was born of Protestant parents, at 
Nimes, Oct. 4th, 1787. He received his 
education in Geneva, where his mother 
had retired after the execution of her 
husband in 1795 ; and returned to Paris 
in 1805, and devoted himself to litera- 
ture. His first work appeared in 1809, 
" Nouveau diciionaire des Synonymes de 
la Langue Fran$aise" which revealed a 
very methodical mind. In 1810 he was 
appointed Assistant Professor of His- 
tory at the Sorbonne. His political life 
commenced with the fall of Napoleon, when he held various offices of 
state, upholding the principle of representative government, and after- 
ward lost his seat in the Council of State. In after-years he devoted his 
time exclusively to literary pursuits, published several important works, 
and in 1828 established "La Revue Francaise." 

In 1830 he again took an active part in the politics of France, and en- 
tered the Chamber of Deputies as representative of Lisieux. His po- 
litical life was generally successful. On the breaking out of the Revo- 
lution he was obliged to flee to England, where he turned his attention 
again to literature. His published works are too numerous for men- 
tion. He published the Life, Correspondence, and Writings of Wash- 
ington, in Paris, in 1840, which procured him the honor of having his 
portrait placed in the Chamber of Representatives at Washington. 

This is a most noble head and face. What intelligence, what clear- 
ness of thought, what sharpness of perception, what sincerity and earn 
e3tness, what soundness of judgment, and what breadth of character 
are evinced in these manly features and in that noble head ! The brain 
was large, the temperament fine and strong, and the intellect amply de- 
veloped, showing great strength of reasoning power and ability to ana- 
lyze with uncommon clearness, and great power to acquire, retain, and 
use facts. As a speaker and writer he exhibited facility as well as 
vigor. The head has considerable breadth, especially backw aid from 

284 ' OUR ANNUAL. 

the cars. Cautiousness was strongly marked, Combativeness was am 
pic, and the social afFections fully indicated. His head was high at Firm 
ness, showing uncommon perseverance and determination. He had 
more than ordinary dignity and self-reliance, believed in the results of 
his own judgment, and was willing to act up to its dictates. There is 
also a good moral development, Veneration, Benevolence, and Consci- 
entiousness being ample. That was not a very selfish head. He waa 
frank, direct, rather than ambiguous in his expressions, was s\ illing to 
be understood, and was possessed not only of intellectual sharpness and 
clearness, but of breadth and comprehensiveness as well, with great force 
of will and a kind of intense earnestness which made every thought tell 
on the reader or hearer. 


ON the first Tuesday of October, each year, we open our annual 
class for the extended and critical instruction of students in 
Practical Phrenology. Although for thirty years we have had 
annual classes, sometimes two or three in a year, in which students of 
law, medicine, and divinity, merchants and other business men, as well 
as teachers, have been members, we have not gone into such minute and 
thorough explanations and illustrations as in our late classes. Eveiy 
year increases the demand for more thoroughly competent phrenologi- 
cal teachers. The labors and success of one only open the way and 
create a demand for the labor of others. The country has never been 
half supplied with lecturers on Phrenology, and many who have at- 
tempted to teach it have not been properly qualified to do themselves 
or their patrons justice. America alone would sustain a thousand men 
as lecturers and practical phrenologists better than the few who are now 
engaged in it are sustained, because their labor would instruct the peo- 
ple in respect to the value of their services, and create such a cordial 
public sentiment in its favor that where one now patronizes Phrenol- 
ogy a hundred would be led to do so. Good talent, sustained by an 
Honest, earnest purpose, will bring to a man ample remuneration in this 
field of useful effort. Mere quacks and mercenary speculators we do 
not invite to the field, but those who cordially desire to do good and lo 
benefit their fellow-men will find in us willing helpers, and a public 
pationage which will make the " pursuit pleasant and profitable." Our 
object in these classes is to teach students how to lecture, and how to 
describe character on scientific principles; m short, to teach them how 
and train them to become practical workers in this sphere of human 
science. The subject will be illustrated by our large collection of skulls, 
busts, casts, and portraits. 



Count Vox Beust. 

THIS face and head show 
a substantial constitu- 
tion, an active tempera- 
ment, and a great deal of 
positiveness and power. Hi 
head is high, but not remark- 
ably broad. The fullness 
across the brow indicates good 
perception, and the height and 
prominence of the forehead 
shows breadth of thought and 
comprehensiveness of mind. 
His Firmness, Conscientious- 
ness, and Veneration are large, 
as shown by the high ridge 
through the center of the top- 
head. We judge him, there- 

fore, to be a man of benevolent impulses, strong respect for things 
great and sacred, and a very strong will. His head appears not to be 
very broad; hence he is not selfish, artful, or grasping. He loves 
power more than he loves wealth, and is more likely to achieve results 
by intellectual strength than by artifice or policy. The fullness of the 
eye indicates good talking talent. On the whole, he is a man of de- 
cided intellect, perseverance, dignity, respect, with power to compre- 
hend and control men. 

Count Von Beust was born in 1809 ; studied law from 182G-1829 at 
Gottingen ; in 1831 became attache to the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
in Dresden, Saxony, and in 1835 he became secretary to the ambassa- 
dor, which office he filled at Berlin, and three years later in Paris. In 
1841 he became ambassador for Munich ; 184G, for London ; 1848, for 

On the 24th of February, 1849, he became Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in Saxony, and afterward also of the Interior, which position 
lie filled until 1806, when he was called upon to fill the position of 
Minister of Foreign Affairs to Austria. It was understood that the 
chief aim of the new ministry would be to conciliate all the different 
nationalities of the Empire, and in particular the Hungarians. The 
policy of Baron Von Beust did indeed raise great hopes among the 
Hungarians, but created great dissatisfaction among the Germans. On 
February 7th, 1869, the Emperor accepted the resignation of Count 
Belcredi, prime minister, and appointed in his place Baron Voii 
Beust ; and in June of the same year he was also made Chancellor of 
the Empire. 





"E give, in a group, portraits of the principal editors of our most 
widely circulating daily newspapers now in the field. Brief 
sketches accompany the same, giving age, place of birth, 
weight, weight, complexion, etc., from which the reader may form a 
tolerably correct judgment of each. 

Wt propose to follow these with portraits and sketches of the editors 
of our principal religious, literary, commercial, and scientific newspapers 
and magazines ; those of different schools, churches, and creeds. Wo 
begin with the following : 


William Cullen Bryant was born November 3, 1794, at Cumminglon, 
Hampshire County, Mass. His father was a physician of some distinc- 
tion, and devoted much attention to the mental training of his children. 
Early in life Mr. Bryant manifested a high order of poetic talent, and in 
bis nineteenth year wrote " Thanatopsis," one of bis most admired 
poems. He studied law, and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 
1815. As a lawyer he rose to a good position ; but bis tastes inclined 
him more to Jetters. In 1825 he removed to the city of New York, and 
was engaged as an editor of the New York Review, afterward the United 
States Review. In 182G he connected himself with the Evening Post, of 
which he afterward became one of the proprietors, and has since 
remained so. He has written several prose compositions of merit, which 
are said to be marked throughout by "pure, manly, straightforward, 
and vigorous English." His poems, however, claim more attention for 
their purity of thought and high-toned religious sentiments. As a close 
and sympathetic observer of nature be is almost without a rival. 

Mr. Bryant has a large head, an exquisitely fine temperament, and, as 
a whole, one of the best balanced organizations. He stands about 5 feet 
9 inches in height, weighs 130 pounds, and is well proportioned. His 
complexion is fair ; eyes, deep blue ; hair, fine and white — originally it 
was a light brown or auburn ; skin, fresh and rosy. He has a full 
chest, and strong healthy lungs, an excellent circulatory system, and a 
brain well developed in all its parts. We have a cast in our collection 
taken from Mr. Bryant's head some thirty years ago, which shows a 
large intellectual lobe, including both the Perceptive and Reflective 
faculties. The groups of moral and social organs are also large — while 
the side organs, including Acquisitiveness, Constructiveness, Combative- 
ness, Destructiveness, etc.,. are subordinate. Ideality and Sublimity are 
well developed, but not predominating. To-day, at 75, Mr. Bryant is 
very different from the Mi - . Bryant of 35, or even 55. He has been 
changing and improving. All men ought to grow better as they grow 
older. Witli him this is emphatically true. Behold the man as l.c now 



is, in all the beauty of bale, ripe old age ! a far nobler sight than the 
best beautj" of beardless youth, or even of early manhood. 


Horace Greeley was born at Amherst, N. H., February 3d, 1811, 
His mother, whose maiden name was Woodburn, was of Scotch-Irish 
descent, and his father of English extraction. All bis ancestors were 
farmers — the Greeleys generally poor ones. His early life was divided 
between hard labor on the farm and attendance at the district school. 
He never enjoyed the benefits of a day's teaching in any other than a 
rural common school, generally from two to four months each winter 
and summer. 

At the age of fifteen he entered the printing-office of the Northern Spec- 
tator, at East Poultney, Vt., as an apprentice, where he remained more 
than four years, or until June, 1830, when the paper was discontinued. 

Mr. Greeley came to New York in August, 1831 ; worked as a 
journeyman during the first year and a half; then, in connection with 
another young printer, opened an office in which they were moderately 
prosperous ; and, finally, in March, 1834, he issued the first number of 
the New Yorker, a weekly journal devoted to literature and news. This 
paper was continued seven years and a half, and became very popular, 
but was never pecuniarily profitable. In September, 1841, it was 
merged in the weekly issue of the New YorK. Tribune, commenced as a 
daily on the 10th of April in that year, and still continued under Mr. 
Greeley's management. 

In personal appearance, as in character, Mr. Greeley is peculiar. He 
is tall, standing almost 6 feet high — 5.10.V — and weighs 190 pounds. 
His complexion is fair ; his eyes light blue ; his hair light and sandy, 
of a silky fineness ; skin soft and white, or of peachy hue. He has a 
youthful and genial expression, betokening temperance and health; 
which, with bis kindly, joyous spirit, give him a pleasant sunny coun- 
tenance. But what of his head ? We answer, it is of the largest class ; 
and is high, long, and rather broad. Benevolence is one of the largest 
organs in the moral group. Veneration, Conscientiousness, and Spirit 
uality are full. Cautiousness is less strongly marked. Approbative- 
ness is also full, and Firmness large, but Self-Esteem is comparatively 
moderate. Combativeness is large ; Constructiveness is small ; Acquisi 
tiveness not large ; and Secretiveness small. The intellect, as a whole, 
is predominating. He is observing, but more thoughtful and confiding 
than suspicious ; more philosophic than scientific ; more theoretical 
than practical. He is very social, friendly, and affectionate. He syra- deeply with those who suffer ; is in the highest degree kindly. 
Has not much imitation; only moderate in language; is blunt in ex- 
pression; possesses little suavity; but is hearty in his expression, 
whether of blame or praise. 

Mr. Greeley is evidently ambitious; would willingly take a part in 
every public measure looking to a bettering— as he believes — of our 


country and all its people. He is of the people, with the pe bple, and for 
the people — democratic in the true sense of the word, with no shade 
of aristocracy or affinity with monarchical principles. The world will 
miss Horace Greeley when he departs. 


James Gordon Bennett was born about the year 1800, at New Mill, 
Keith, in Banffshire, Scotland. He remained at school in his native 
place till he was fourteen or fifteen years old, when he went to the 
Roman Catholic seminary in Aberdeen, with a view of preparing for 
holy orders in the Roman Catholic Church, of which his parents were 
members. He remained at this institution for two or three years, when, 
giving up the idea of becoming a priest, he determined to emigrate to 
America. Arriving at Halifax in 1819, he engaged in teaching, but the 
occupation not suiting him, he soon abandoned it and made his way to 
Bostou, where he became proof-reader in the publishing house of Wells 
and Lilly. 

In 1822 he went to Charleston, South Carolina, where he became 
connected with the Courier as translator from the Spanish-American 
papers for that journal. He remained in Charleston only a few months, 
when he came to New York, where, after several not very successful 
attempts at journalism, he finally became associated with M. M. Noah 
in the editorship of the Enquirer. After the fusion of this paper with 
the Courier, he continued his connection, aud in 1829 became an associ- 
ate editor of the Courier and Enquirer, which position he continued to 
hold till 1832, when a difference in political opinion between him and 
the editor-in-chief, Col. Jas. Watson Webb, led to his retirement; and 
in October of the same year he issued the first number of a new journal 
called the New York Globe, devoted to the cause of Jackson and Van 
Buren. It was soon discontinued. 

Mr. Bennett next became part proprietor and principal editor of the 
Penmylvanian, a daily journal published in Philadelphia. He con- 
tinued this publication till 1834, when he returned to New York, and in 
May, 1835, issued the first number of the New York Herald, with which 
he has been identified ever since. 

Mr. Bennett is about 6 feet in height, weighs not far from 175 pounds, 
had originally light brown hair (now an iron gray), blue eyes, and a fair 
complexion. Our portrait represents him something as he was nearly 
thirty years ago, when in his prime. His brain is large, and his percep- 
tive faculties very prominent. Self-Esteem, Firmness, and Combative- 
ne3S are all prominent. He is eminently self-relying, and indifferent to 
the opinions of others, having moderate love of approbation, and suffers 
comparatively little from any feeling of penitence or compunction. He 
does what he pleases, and justifies himself in so doing, holding himself 
accountable to none. He asks no favors, and grants none. Such an 
organization will work or fight its way up, and society will accord him 
exact!}- the position he merits. 



Jimes Brooks was born at Portland, Maine, November 10th, 1810. 
By the death of his father, in 1814, he was left an orphan to struggle 
with poverty. He showed himself equal to the occasion, and at the 
age of sixteen became the teacher of a rural common school. At the 
age of eighteen he entered Waterville College, where he was grad- 
uated at the head of his class before he had completed his twenty-first 

After leaving college, he taught a Latin school in Portland for some 
time, then traveled in the Southern States and among the Creek and 
Cherokee Indians, writing letters to various journals. Afterward he 
became Washington correspondent of several papers, and was the 
origiuator of the regular system of Washington correspondences. 

In 1835 Mr. Brooks became a member of the Legislature of Maine, 
and the same year visited Europe, traveling on foot over a great part 
of the Continent and the British islands, and writing a series of interest- 
ing letters to the Portland Advertiser, descriptive of his travels and 
adventures. On his return, in 1836, he established the New York Ex- 
press, of which he is still editor-in-chief. 

In 1847 he was elected to the Assembly of the State of New York, 
and the following year became a member of Congress from New York 
city, in which post he has been continued, with a brief intermission, 
till the present time, generally taking an active part in debate, especially 
in matters relating to trade and commerce. He was formerly a Whig, 
but is now identified with the Democratic party. 

Mr. Brooks is a large man, fully 6 feet high, and weighing 200 pounds. 
He possesses a large and active brain, has great power of endurance, 
and is a most persevering worker. His complexion is fan, his eyes 
blue, the color of his hair brown; blending in a happy degree, in the 
general make up, the Vital, Motive, and Mental temperaments. 


Henry Jarvis Raymond was born in Lima, Livingston County, N. Y., 
January 24, 1820. His father was a farmer in moderate circumstances, 
and Henry was employed during his earlier years in aiding him hi his 
labors. In due time, however, he entered the academy at Lima, and in 
the winter of 1865-6 taught a district school. 

He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1840, and soon 
after came to New York, where he studied law for a year in the office 
of Mr. Edward W. Marsh, maintaining himself by teaching and writing 
for the press. 

When the New York Tribune was established (in 1841), Mr. Raymond 
became connected with it as assistant editor, in which capacity he 
greatly distinguished himself by reporting, an art then comparatively 
little practiced in America. In 1843 he accepted a position on the staff 
of the New York Courier and Enquirer, which he relinquished in 1851 


in consequence of a political disagreement with Mr. Jas. Watson Webb, 
its editor-in-chief. 

In 1849 Mr. Raymond was elected by the Whigs to the State Legisla- 
ture. He was re-elected in 1850, when he was chosen Speaker of the 
Assembly. On the adjournment of the Legislature he sailed for Europe 
for the benefit f his health. On his return he commenced the publica- 
tion of the New York Daily Times, the first number of which appeared 
September 18, 1851. It has continued up to the present time under hie 
management, exerting a wide influence in society, and being very 
profitable pecuniarily to its owners. 

Mr. Raymond was elected Lieutenant-Governor of the State in 1854, 
by a large majority. Since the close of his term in this office he has 
declined to be a candidate for any office. He warmly supported the 
Government in the late war for the Union. 

Considering the moderate size of his body, Mr. Raymond has a \ery 
large brain, besides which, the quality of his organization is fine ; he-is 
highly educated, which qualifies him to use all his faculties to the best 
possible advantage. He stands 5 feet 6 inches high, weighs 145 pounds. 
His complexion is dark, the color of his hair dark brown, while the 
eyes incline to blue. Mr. Raymond has a large intellectual lobe, includ- 
ing both the Perceptives and the Reflectives. He also has large Appro- 
bativeness, Cautiousness, and Secretiveness. He is thoroughly execu- 
tive, having sufficient Combativeness, Destructiveness, and ambition to 
give him very great energy. He is one of the most supple minded 
thinkers and rapid workers connected with the press.* 


Charles A. Dana was born in 1819. He attended a common school 
until he was eleven years of age ; after which he was employed in a dry 
goods store, kept by his uucle, in the city of Buffalo. Being of a studi- 
ous turn of mind he devoted his leisure to books, and made such pro- 
gress in his studies that at the age of twenty he had fitted himself for 
college. He entered Harvard, and studied with untiring energy. His 
severe studies, however, impaired his sight so that he was obliged to 
abandon his studies. About this time (1810) he visited the celebrated 
Brook Farm, joined that socialistic enterprise, and became one of its 
most efficient members. Among his associates were George Ripley, the 
literary critic of the Tribune; A. Bronson Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 
G. W. Curtis, Margaret Fuller, Dr. Hedge, Theodore Parker, W. n. 
Channing, C. P. Cranch, and others. During Mr. Dana's connection 
with the Farm, he taught school, edited the Harbinger, mastered the trade 
of sash and blind making, and superintended the culinary department 
of the establishment. After the Brook Farm failure he came to New 
York, where he obtained a position on the Tribune. He was then 

* Since the foregoing notice of Mr. Raymond was put in type, he has departed this: 
life having died suddenly of apoplexy, June 18th, 1809, aged forty-nine years. 


twenty-seven years of age, and in fine physical condition. His first em- 
ployment was that of reporter, with a salary of ten dollars a week . but 
his talents and scholarship were soon recognized, and in 1848, at the 
breaking out of the French Revolution, he was sent to Paris as a special 
correspondent of the Tribune. His brilliant letters formed an important 
feature in that paper. On his return to New York he was chosen city 
editor of the Tribune, and afterward he succeeded Oliver Johnson as 
managing editor. 

Notwithstanding his immense labors as the managing editor of the 
Tribiuie, Mr. Dana found time to prepare his admirable " Household 
Book of English Poetry," a very popular work. 

In 1858 lie began with Mr. Ripley to edit the " New American Cyclo- 
pedia." From 1850 to 1863 Mr. Dana directed the literary labors of the 
Tribune, when he was succeeded by Mr. Gay. 

Soon after leaving the Tribune, Mr. Dana accepted the position of 
Assistant Secretary of War, which he held with honor until the close 
of the war. He was with Grant during the Vieksburg campaign. 
Much of his time was spent with Mr. Stanton in Washington, where 
his personal kindness frequently softened the harsh sentences of the 
brusque secretary. Mr. Dana's pleasant relations with Gen. Grant 
probably induced him to prepare, in conjunction with Gen. Wilson, his 
" Life of Grant." 

He resigned his secretaryship at the close of the war to take charge 
of the Chicago B&publican, but he was so embarrassed by the restraints 
and changing views of the publishers that he gave up his editorial 
charge and returned to New York. He is now the editor-in-chief of 
Tlie Sun, whose local circulation is now about 60,000. 

Mr. Dana is a model journalist, having not only the high literary 
and esthetic culture, but also the practical knowledge and experience 
which eminently qualify him for his task. He has also that knowledge 
of men and things which enables him to make prompt decisions. 

In person he is above the medium height, standing 5 feet 11 inches, 
of stout build, and square of shoulder He weighs about 180 pounds. 
His erect figure and swinging gait indicate great physical vigor. His 
finely poised head is massive and very broad in front. He usually 
wears a full beard, which is now touched with silver. His hair is 
brown. His large hazel eyes kindle in conversation and public speech, 
for he is eloquent, and a most accomplished linguist. Mr. Dana is fifty 
years of age, but he appears much younger. 

There is great activity, energy, force, ambition, self-reliance, perse- 
verance, and push in this proud-spirited son of the Granite State. 


Manton Marble was bom in Albany, N. Y., in 1831, and is the son of 
Rev. T. Marble. He Avas graduated at Rochester University with a 
high character for talents and scholarship. He soon after entered upon 
the career of journalism in Boston, in ,onnection with the Atlas and 

HOW TO DO IT. 293 

bee. He waa afterward, for a time, assistant librarian of the Boston 

Having a strong predilection for literary pursuits, Mi Marble finally 
removed to New York, where he obtained a position on .he staff of the 
Evening Post as general literary editor, which he held till failing health 
compelled him to abandon the desk for a time. He availed himself oi 
the occasion to make a trip to Minnesota and the Indian Country. On 
his return, in 18G0, he became managing editor and part proprietor of 
the Daily World. In 1803 he became sole owner of the World as well 
as editor-in-chief n which position he still remains, his paper being the 
leading organ of the most intelligent and cultivated classes in the 
Democratic party and the special mouth-piece of the Manhattan Club. 

Mr. Marble has a full-sized brain, with a very active mental tempera- 
ment. His weight is 145 pounds, and his height 5 feet 7 inches. His 
complexion is fair, and his hair and eyes brown. His features are 
prominent and sharp, corresponding with his mental characteristics. 
He is perhaps one of the most elegant writers connected with journal- 
ism in New York. His style is chaste, vigorous, racy, and scholarly. 
He is emphatically his mother's son, inheriting many of her peculiarities) 
and traits of character. 


" Matcrtage is a lottery," they say. Too often, we fear, it is some- 
thing like this ; but it need not be so, as we have already shown. A 
young man witb a thorough knowledge of Physiology, Phrenology, 
and Physiognomy, and who had properly studied his own organization, 
would never "Tall in love" with a girl mentally and temperamentally 
unsuited to himself. His standard of excellence and of beauty would 
be founded, first, on a knowledge of what is intrinsically good in mental 
and physical organization, and second, on what is adapted to harmonize 
with his own constitution and disposition ; and none but those possessing 
those; qualities would seem lovable to him. Wanting a companion and 
a helpmeet, he would never wish to marry a doll for the sake of her 
"pretty" face. No face would be beautiful to him which has not soul 
in it; and knowing the "signs of character," he could not be deceived. 
So the trifler, the profligate, or the heartless fortune-hunter would pay 
his court in vain to the physiologically, phrenologically, and physiog- 
nomically educated young woman. His blandishments, his soft words, 
and llattering compliments, would avail him nothing. She would be 
disgusted and repelled by such persons, because, to her, the cloak which 
they think to make of their artful manners and language would be per- 
fectly transparent. She would read not only their characters, but the his- 
tory of their dissipated and dishonorable lives on their ftces. — Wed'.och 

294 OtR ANNUAL. 


Thts interesting question is thus systematically ans vered in Human 
Nature : 

In the language of Cosmology, Man is a part of the universe, subjtct 
to the various laws and principles that regulate its action in its many 
spheres of phenomenal development. 

In the language of Anatomy, Man is an organized structure — a mag- 
nificent physical temple — a unique specimen of architecture, so beauti- 
ful in appearance, convenient in arrangement, and suitable in material, 
that to fulfill all the purposes of ornament and use, no improvement 
could be effected in it by the cunning and experience of the -wisest de- 

In the language of Physiology, Man is a bundle of functions ; an 
instrument of a thousand strings adapted to discourse music of the 
most exquisite harmony, of the widest compass, of the most celestial 
altitude, of all keys, expressing in a universal language the most pro- 
found purposes of creative power. 

In the language of Chemistry, Man is " of the dust of the ground " 
— a shovelful of earth and a pailful of water ; a fortuitous compound 
of moldered rocks and condensed rain clouds — agglomerated round a 
mystic magnetic center, subject to that inevitable fiat, the laws of 

In the language of Hygiene, Man is a wondrous, vitalic, vegetative 
machine, the normal state of which is change, growth, health; at 
the same time subject, in whole or in part, to stagnation, disease, 

In the language of Phrenology, Man is a rational being, an individ- 
ualized entity, distinguished by organic conditions — the laws of the 
universe, in a state of self-consciousness and voluntary action. 

[In the language of Physiognomy, Man may be read by the various 
external " features " of his organization, which are the outward ex- 
pression of the internal qualities, as maybe seen in the eyes, ears, nose, 
mouth, cheeks, chin, complexion, and other " signs of character."] 

In the language of Metaphysics, Man is an accumulation of hered- 
itary and acquired mental experiences, thought-powers, and processes 
— an occult chemistry of mind-products in all degrees of union and 
logical relationship— a great subjective halo enshrouding the sphere 
of cerebral function. 

In the language of Psychology, Man is a "living soul," extending 
his influence and individuality beyond the confines of the body, recip- 
rocating the activities of other congenial souls, and those soul-forces 
of the universe which are represented in his being. 

In the language of true Spiritualism, Man is an immortal being 
tabernacling in the flesh, in the germhood of existence, preparing for 


the " higher sphere " and holding intercourse therewith, deve loping 
within his external form a comely and perfect organism, more intensely 
a reflex of mental states. 

In the language of Theology, Man is the " child of God " — that eter- 
nal and inexhaustible source of the principles of being ; and, as a 
necessity, man's mission is forever, through endless grades of exist- 
ence, to give fuller and truer expression to the " Deity that rules with- 
in him." 

In the language of Education, Man is a germ-seed of veiy jurrited 
extension, but capable of infinite development in all directions, in one 
or all of his powers, and in many degrees of combination. 

In the language of History, Man is a series of mental phenomena 
and social forms, repeating themselves in accordance with the sublime 
purposes of creation. 

In the language of Individualism, each human being is the center of 
the universe, by God made manifest in a special manner, and to aid in 
realizing which all other things exist. 

In the language of Society, Man is a myriad of atoms having com- 
mon interests and destiny — eacli one promoting his end in the highest 
degree by promoting the ends of all. 

In the language of Ethnology, Philology, etc., Man exhibits very 
different characteristics. What a diversity of aspect this mighty sub- 
ject presents ! The greatest that the mind of the investigator can 
apply itself to. In its many ramifications are embraced all other forms 
of knowledge and conditions of existence. Each distinct language in 
which Man can be read is the imposing frontage of a stately edifice 
looking out on a landscape of rare and characteristic beauty. The scene 
is changed, as if by enchantment, according to the position of the 
beholder ; and to wander amid these varied glories, and drink in their 
true significance, is an occupation, a privilege, worthy of the most 
sublime attributes of intelligence. But, alas ! many inquirers know 
not one-half of the many features of the subject they presume to dis- 
course upon. Like the unsophisticated children of isolated tribes, they 
vainly think that, all the wonders of existence are comprised in the 
familiar objects that portray their native spot, and that their limited 
horizon is the verge of creation. Hence, the students of Human Nature 
are, in most cases, the assiduous nurses of mongrel hobbies, which they 
pet and pamper till timely destruction overtakes them. The question 
may be asked, Is there a science of Human Nature ? or are we only 
admonishing ourselves as to the advisability of such a thing ? That 
there are ample materials for it, none can doubt ; and that they are 
being brought to light, day by day, is equally apparent. Our task is 
to collect these precious gems, and set them in their natural order. 
The past encourages us to persevere in the broad and catholic spirit 
that has inspired our efforts hitherto ; and, with well-founded hopes 
for the future, we cordially greet our readers and fellow-laborers on 
this advent of a new year. 


LET me say a few words to children who have gone out from their old 
homes, but who have parents still. There is always a liability, 
when sons and daughters have gone away from the home of 
their cliildhood, and have formed homes of their own, gradually to 
lose the old attachments and cease to pay those attentions to their 
parents which were so easy and natural in the olden time. New asso- 
ciations, new thoughts, new cares, all come in, filling the mind and 
noarf, and, if special pains be not taken, they crowd out the old loves, 
fhis ought never to be. You should remember that the change is 
with you and not with those you left behind. You have everything 
new, much that is attractive in the present and bright in the future; 
their hearts cling to the past, they have most in memory. When yon 
went away, you knew not, and will never know till you experience it, 
what it cost them to give yon up, nor what a vacancy you left behind. 
They have not, if you have, any new loves to take the place of the old. 
Do not, then, heartlessly deprive them of what you still can give of 
attention and love. 

Visit your parents. If you live in the same place, let your step be, 
perhaps daily, a familiar one in the old home; if you are miles, yea, 
many miles away, make it your business to go to them. In this mat- 
ter do not regard time nor expense; the one is well spent and the other 
will be fully, yea, a hundred-fold repaid. When some day the word 
reaches you, flashed over the telegraph, that father or mother has gone, 
you will not think them much, those hours of travel which last bore 
you to their side. 

Write to your parents. I have known father and mother wait with 
sick hearts through weary months, longing that some word might 
reach them from an absent son. They have watched the mails till in 
despair they have ceased to expect any more, and while they may not 
have the grief of a great bereavement, thev have what is almost as bad, 
the bitter consciousness that they are not in mind enough even to call out 
a few poor lines from one whose infancy and early years they watched 
with sleepless love. Sons are often guilty of this crime — I can not call 
it less — from sheer neglect or indolence. While an hour, perhaps a few 
moments, would suffice to write a letter which would "rive unspeak- 
able satisfaction, they let months and even years slip away in utter 
indifference to all the pain they are causing. Oh, how full is many a 
mother's heart of sorrow and foreboding, when just a few words from 
an absent son would fill it with joy and praise ! Such indifference or 
neglect is shameful and wicked. One need not wonder that sons 
guilty of it are not prospered, that they wait in vain for those turns of 
fortune which will send them home, as they dream, to surprise the old 
neighborhood with their wealth. Their thoughtlessness has been 
productive only of disaster. 

„„ * " Life at Home." $150. 



ni VIE have a saying, that " Nothing is beautiful which is no*; 
true," and this we believe is quite as applicable to the human 
form and face as to anything else. Real beauty of form is that 
which has nature and health as a basis. Wisdom, goodness, and truth 
constitute the basis of beauty in the face. Some see beauty in the 
sparkle of the serpent's eye, or in the varied hues of his scales and skin ; 
but when we remember that the eye blazes but to betray, and the radi- 
ance of the skin is but the cloak of the treacherous serpent, the thought 
of beauty is instantly dissipated, aud shivering dread and disgust take 
its place. 

In analyzing briefly the types of female beauty represented in the fol- 
lowing engravings, we begin Avith the Grecian lad}', with her jaunty 

Fig. 1.— Grecian. 

Pig. 2.— French. 

hat, classic features, tasteful habit, and symmetry of form, more artistic 
than utilitarian. Perhaps she would nearly realize the adage, " A 
thing of beauty is a joy forever." 

Here we have a brisk, intelligent, well-formed French face, with 
pointed features and a dashing style of dress, somewhat unique and 
independent, showing that she belongs to that polite and facile nation 
which, while it gives fashions to some of the most influential nations in 
the world, has no fixed fashion of its own, each lady dressing accord- 
ing to her own figure, complexion, and taste, and always being tasteful 
vivacity, emotion, and spirit are her leading traits. 

In the next, we have the Russian, from that growing giant nation of 
ihe North. What staid substantial features! what a neck! what a 
jroad chin! how sedate and earnest the expression! what an ample 
bust! evidence of no effeminacy, but of healthfulness, vigor, and endur- 
ance, strength, steadfastness, and power, and less of the artistic and 
ornamental. There is stamina, if not so much delicacy here. 

29 J 



In the next face we have the Swiss girl, with her masculine hat and 

short curly hair ; the features indicating health, cheerfulness, physical 
exuberance, with not much culture. Liberty and self-helpfulness rather 
than sentiment are seen to be the characteristics. 

Fig. 3. — Russian. Fig. 4. — Swiss. 

Here is the Swede, with a well-formed head, strong moral sentiments 
fi full, eloquent eye, and a really womanly face. Jenny Lincl has taught 
us to respect whatever is truly Swedish, and without any knowledge to 
the contrary, to think well of it. 

Fig. 5.— Swede. F ig . 6.— Austrian. 

Next, we have the elegant Austrian. Here is a stately beauty— we 
are reminded of Marie Antoinette— classical in eveiy feature, straight 
and dignified in person, with beautifully chiseled features, tresses abund- 


ant, exquisite taste in dress, which, though elaborate, is very appro- 
priate. The Austrian woman is loving and lovable, and doubtless 
merits all the gallantly of her countrymen. 

The Folish beauty, with a square hat and tassel, has a good figure, a 
marked face, and a strong character ; but we fancy there is a sadness in 

Fig. 7.— Polish. Fig. 8. — Holland. 

the expression, and we can not think of Poland without a feeling of 
S3'mpatby. In looking at this sad countenance, it is perhaps made 
more so by looking through sad glasses. In that head, how much of 
ambition and bravery, how much of affection and patriotism, how much 
of intensity and power ! 
The Holland beauty has a quiet, motherly, loving look ; the calmest, 

Fig. 9.— English. Fig. 10.— Gerhan. 

the most contented face in the group ; and exhibiting a most domestic, 
good-tempered, and affectionate person. 

This English face, though beautiful, has less strength of expression 
Vhan is requisite to illustrate English feminine character. It fails to do 
justice to the subject. An English — Anglo-Saxon— beauty has a soft 



silky skin, a florid complexion, fine auburn hair, blue or gray eyes, an 
ample chin, an aquiline nose, full rolling lips, sound, regular, and hand- 
some teeth, and is one of the best of wives and mothers. The artist 
was unfortunate in the selection of his model to illustrate the typical 
English beauty. There is a class of ladies in England which that face 
might represent, but there is not enough of breadth and strength to 

Fig. 11.— Chinese. Fig. 12. — Japanese. 

represent the true English woman. There has been in this represents • 
tive so much refining as to abolish the elements of strength, leaving 
only effeminate dignity. 

The German beauty is plump, strong, broad, and substantial. Health, 
constitutional vigor, endurance, and power are seen here, rather than 
artistic grace or aristocratic refinement. A motherly affection is evinced 

in the full back-head, and is also shown 
in the mouth, the luscious loving lips, 
and in the eyes. We see in this face, 
not much of aspiration, not a restless, 
discontented nature, but one who 
would love her husband, her chil- 
dren, her home, her friends, her pets, 
her duties, cares, and responsibilities, 
and be satisfied when she had fully 
met the claims of all these. 

Next we have the Chinese face, 
with its contracted forehead and 
opacpie features. There is not much 
expression of the spiritual in her. Restricted in her education and 
sphere, she must content herself with dress decoration, and a diffident, 
submissive, subordinate life. 

The Japanese woman doubtless looks beautiful to her countrymen, 
but th< se oblique, almond eyes, that narrow forehead, and that general 

Fig. 13. -Turkish. 


expression of weakness is not particularly fascinating to us. Still, there 
is bmevolence, if not bravery or beauty, there. 

In some of these beauties we perceive wit, love of clash and display; 
in others, earnestness, sincerity, and a sense of duty ; but in the Ger- 
man, in the Hollander, the English, and in the Russian we find those 
domestic qualities which give strength to a nation, and those constitu- 
tional levelopments which give power to a people. In the Grecian 
and in the French and Austrian we find grace, elegance, brilliancy, 
sprightliness, dash, and wit; in the Swede, sincerity and tenderness; 
and in the I'olander, power, patience, perseverance, patriotism, and a 
shade of melancholy. In the Asiatics, there is not much of the vital cr 
the voluptuous, and much less of the mental and the spiritual. Take 
on' the bands of barbarism and supply them with the light of a higher 
spiritual life, and they will take on expressions in accordance with the 
superior culture, true philosophy, and religion thus afforded. 


AS bread, in many families, is the chief article of food, and with 
some indigent, hard-working women almost the only article, it is 
a matter of the first importance that the bt-'ad be of the right 
material and made in a proper manner. 

The first necessity relative to wholesome bread is to have good, 
plump, well-ripened, properly cured, and well-cleaned wheat, which is 
lie best of all the grains for this purpose. 

The grain should be dry when ground ; the millstones should be 
sharp, so as to cut the bran pretty fine, and not merely bruise the grain, 
thus leaving the dark crust of the berry — the part called gluten — in 
large flakes. It should be ground without bolting or sifting, the entire 
grain possessing all the requisites for healthful food. The inventor of 
the mill-bolt was not a benefactor of the race. His work was a change 
without improvement. 

As it is thought to be indispensable that bread be raised in some way 
to lightness or sponginess, it is an important point to learn how this 
lightness can be obtained without loss or injury to the bread. 

Fermentation. — This process is the more common, and it is pro- 
duced by using yeast. This, to speak plainly, is a rotting process, a de- 
composition of certain elements of the grain, thereby producing car- 
bonic acid gas, and this gas in its effort to escape expands, and makes 
the bread puffy or light. The decomposition of the starch and sugar 
for the production of this gas uses up a considerable percentage of the 
nutritious elements of the grain, which is a dead loss to the consumer. 
Some bakers use flour which is made from grain that had been injured 
by being wet. and grown in the field, or heated in the mow or stack, 
ar heated and soured in the bin or storehouse ; or of flour that has been 


injured and soured after being put up in barrels. The process of raising 
by these bakers is pushed to a great extent, that it may be very light, 
and the acid is then modified by the use of lime and other alkalies. 
Common baker's bread is sometimes almost tasteless; occasionally we 
meet with that which tastes sweet, rich, and natural. The aerated 
bread, raised by a mechanical process in air-tight receivers, has this 
rich, sweet, wholesome quality, and is probably the very best baker's 
bread that is made. 

Raised Bread, so called, is that which is not made light by fermen- 
tation, but is raised by means of acids and alkalies instead of yeast. In 
this process bicarbonate of soda and muriatic acid are often used. In- 
trinsically, the result is the same in this method as when yeast is used 
— the acid combining with the soda forming common salt, and leaving 
the carbonic acid free to puff up the dough. In the process of fermen- 
tation to create gas to make the dough light, w r e lose a portion of the 
sugar, an important part of the nutriment of the grain. In using acids 
and alkalies, if they are combined in just the right proportion to neutral- 
ize each other, we have no other extraneous element formed and re- 
tained in the bread but common salt ; but if this union be not complete, 
we have disturbing elements which must be got rid of by the system 
of him who eats the bread. Who has not eaten soda-biscuit heavily 
charged with alkali ? The effects of such food can not but be very 
mischievous in its effects upon the health and constitution. 

Uxleavexed Bread made light and spongy by expanded air and the 
conversion of water into steam is the most nutritious and healthy, and 
also the most economical, because none of the elements are lost in the 
process of fermentation, and no foreign elements are added to the orig- 
inal material by the process of raising, as with acids and alkalies, to 
make war on the health, or to tax the system in its efforts to expel them. 

The lower animals find- grain a complete and healthful article of food, 
and do not seem to need sugar, soda, acid, or the fermenting process to 
make their food palatable ; nor do they appear to need drugs and doc- 
tors to repair gustatory damages. The lion, the horse, the ox, the pig, 
and the bird tribes, when left to select their food as well as their dwell- 
ing-place, and the amount and time of their exercise, are not troubled 
with dyspepsia, gout, or rheumatism, but enjoy themselves during their 
full term of life, accidents and casualties excepted. 

Wheat the Be^t Bread Stuff. — This grain is cultivated all over 
the world, but thrives best between the 25th and 65th parallels of lati- 
tude. It varies iu its composition according to location, soil, and cli- 
mate. Some varieties contain more carbonaceous elements, and are 
better adapted to use in cold climates, furnishing a greater amount of 
heat than others. Some have more nitrogenous materials, and are bet- 
ter adapted to give muscular power. Some have more phosphates, and 
therefore abundantly feed and sustain the brain, nerves, and bones. 
The distribution of these elements is such, however, that wheat affords 
better than any other grain the proper supply of all the requirements of 



the human system, and constitutes perhaps the best single article of food 
known to man, on which alone, with good water, his health and vigor 
might be sustained for an indefinite period. 


Of 100 parts of wheat there are — 

Water 14.0-10 

Gluten 12.8 

Albumen 1.8 

Starch 59.7 

Sugar 5.5 

Gum 1.7 

Fat 1.8 

Fiber 1.7 

Minerals 1.6 

)■ or- 

Water 14.0 

Nitrates or muscle makers 14.0 

Carbonates, or heat and fat pro- 
ducers 69.4 

Phosphates, or food for brain, 

nerves, and bones 2.0 


100.0 J I 

"When we examine rice, we find it excellent food to create warmth, 
but very poor food for the man who would work hard with brain or 
muscle. One hundred parts of rice contain — 

Water.... 13.5 

Muscle feeders 6.5 

Heaters 79.5 

Food for brain and bones 0.5 

Thus wheat contains more than twice as much muscle-feeding 
power and four times as much brain-feeding power as rice. Rice-eaters 
are slow, sleepy, and inefficient. 

If one will break a kernel of wheat, he will find a dark crust or shell 
covering the outside, and also the germ or chit, while the body of the 
grain is white, dry, and crumbly. In the process of grinding wheat for 
superfine flour, the outer shell, composed chiefly of gluten, being tena- 
cious and adhesive, comes from the mill in flakes with the bran, and is 
sifted out, while the starch is pulverized and constitutes the fine flour. 
Thus the starch, which is the chief element in tine flour, is saved, 
which contains no food for brain and muscle ; and the gluten, contain- 
ing phosphates and nitrates which furnish support for brain, bone, and 
muscle, is cast away with the bran, and is fed to horses, cattle, and pigs. 
And this is the kind of flour that makes nine-tenths of the bread in 
American cities, besides all that is used in cakes, puddings, and pastry. 

The most economical and best bread, especially in cold weather, when 
a hot fire is constantly kept, is what is sometimes called gems, or un- 
leavened biscuit. For this purpose a group of cast-iron pans or cups 
2i by 3s inches each, all made in one casting, is used. These pans are 
set on the top of a hot stove and allowed to become almost smoking 

The Gem-Pans of Cast Iron. 

not when buttered for use. Then with cold water and milk, half-ami 
*-*vli" or with col 1 water alone, and the colder the better, mix and stiJ 


quicklj with a stiff spoon as mucli Graham or unbolted wheat-meal as 
will make a stiff batter or thinnish mush ; and when the pans are hot, till 
them quickly witli the thin dough and let them stand a minute on the 
stove before putting into a very hot oven, where they should remain 
twenty or twenty-five minutes, until done. If the mixture be neither 
too thin nor too stiff, and the pans and the oven be hot, you will have 
twelve as light and wholesome biscuit as any epicure could wish to eat. 
They may be eaten smoking warm from the oven, as they contain no 
poisonous chemical elements like yeast bread, which requires cooling to 
be rid of. Thej r are good cold, or may be warmed in a steam-kettle. 
Anybody, how T ever unskilled hi cooking, can learn to make these light 
and nice every time. Nice, fresh wheat-meal, very cold wetting, quickly 
done, with a very hot place to bake them, will insure the best of " luck" 
always. These, like all other Graham bread, should be fresh every 

For growing children, and those people who work or think, and es- 
pecially students and sedentary persons, there is no other bread, and 
scarcely any other single article of food, that equals it. Let the poor 
who can not afford to lose 14 per cent, of the grain in the cast-off bran; 
let those whose bones and muscles are small, tending to rickets and 
spinal curvature; let invalids and dyspeptics try it, and they never will 
go back to superfine bread simply because it looks white and nice, and, 
when dry, is more pleasant to the mouth than the brown. 

Oats are largely used as an article of diet in Scotland and other North- 
ern European countries, as well as in British North America — countries 
where the oat is a sure crop and wheat not easily raised. It contains 
material for brain, bone, and muscle, and as an article of food is favora- 
ble to strength of body and to clearness and force of brain. By the fol- 
lowing analysis oats and buckwheat are contrasted: 


Water 14.0 I Water 13.6 

Muscle makers 8.6 I Muscle makers 17.0 

Heaters 75.4 Heaters 66.4 

Food for brain and bones 1.8 | Food for brain and bones 3.0 

Thus it will be seen that buckwheat is good food to keep one warm 
in cold weather, and is just the thing for a long ride in a sleigh, though 
for breakfast buckwheat cakes, with butter and syrup, on a hot sum- 
mer's morning, when coolness, not heat, is required, are a very unfit 
article of diet; but oats are worth double as a support for muscular 
labor, and nearly twice as much for brain work. Unlike wheat, the 
muscle-making materials in oats are not connected with the hull, and 
are not, therefore, removed and lost in making fine flour. The eaters 
of oats are strong, enduring, and thoughtful ; those who subsist largely 
on buckwheat and rice have far less power in these important respects. 

"Note. — If the reader desires to pursue this subject further, he is referred to an ex- 
tended scientific (vork entitled " Food and Diet," published at this office. Price, b) 
mail, $1 75. The gem-pans can bo had for $1, at this office. 



T the present time, when the question of woman's position and 
influence is a topic of so much discussion, any item of evi- 
dence in proof of her capacity to engage with man in the study 
or pursuit of the highest intellectual subjects will not be ungratefully 
received. That woman is endowed by nature with talents splendid 
enough to enable ber to excel in the departments of poetry, painting, 
music, etc., a long list of brilliant names abundantly testifies. In tbe 
following short biographies it will be seen that she is also possessed of 
tbe grasp and comprebensiveness of mind necessary to enter into tliose 
sublime investigations which have ever engaged the attention of some 
of the greatest intellects of the world. It will be seen, also, that a 
learned woman is not necessarily an unwomanly woman, or incapable 
of attending to tliose domestic duties which have been assigned by 
nature to her; but that a liberal education and opportunities for unfold- 
ing the mind enbance the charms of the feminine character, in tbe same 
degree in which learning and development increase tbe noble cpualities 
of a man. 

Among the women of early times, wbose names have come down to 
us, none is more conspicuous for solid learning tban 


an astronomer and mathematician of Alexandria, and head of tbe so- 
called Nco-Platonic scbool of that city. She was born in the latter 
part of tbe fourth century, and became remnrkable for her beauty and 
wisdom. She early exhibited amazing intelligence, and engaged in her 
father's studies with such success, and had otherwise acquired such a 
thorough philosophical culture, that in the year 880 after Christ she 
succeeded her father as public teacher of mathematics and astronomy. 
The fame of her teachings brought students from all parts of the East. 
She aided Bishop Synesius in the construction of his planisphere (prob- 
ably tbe first which was ever made), and was called by him " the excel- 
lent teacher." She computed astronomical tables after the manner of 
Hipparchus, and also improved by her own observations those of her 
own father. She was finally the onty person whose fame held up the 
fading glory of her city; but this very success was her ruin. Though 
much beloved by the Alexandrians, she became an object of envy 
among the savants and the religious zealots for her so-called heathen 

Her end was tragic. Amid the wide-spread corruptions of Alexandria 
She lived as spotless as a vestal; and if her teaching was not one that 
could lay a strong hand on the vices of heathenism and anest, their 
course, it was at least sufficient not only to preserve herself from stain, 



out also to inspire her with a love of beauty, truth, and goodness that 
was Christian in its spirit and earnestness if heathen in its form and 
limitations. The citizens of Alexandria were proud of her ; and such 
reliance was placed on her judgment and sagacity, that the magistrates 
used frequently tc consult her on important cases. Among those who 
were most intimate with her was Orestes, prefect of the city. At this 
time Cyril, the bishop of Alexandria, was a fierce hater of 1 xathens 
and heretics. Detesting Orestes, whom he suspected of being no true 
Christian, and who had drawn up an accusation against him for excit- 
ing a tumult, he soon cast an evil eye upon Hypatia, whom he regarded 
as a Satanic enchantress and the grand obstacle to his reconciliation 
with the prefect. His hatred communicated itself to the lower clergy, 
and especially to certain savage monks from the Nitrian deserts, who, 
headed by one Peter, a reader, attacked Hypatia in the streets as she 
was returning from her lecture-room. The maiden was dragged from 
her chariot, hurried to the Caesarian church, where she was stripped 
and murdered by being beaten with tiles, after which her body was 
torn in pieces, and her limbs carried to a place called Cinaron, and 
there burned to ashes. This most atrocious deed of savage bigotry oc- 
curred in the year 415. 


This most celebrated of all female astronomical calculators was born 
on the 5th of January, 172o, in the Hotel de Luxemburg, in Paris. Her 
lather was in the service of the dowager-queen of Spain, who inhabited 
this palace. From her earliest youth she manifested an extraordinary 
impulse for stud}', or, as Lalande expressed it, " she devoured books." 
She was married in August, 1748, to Lepante, the most celebrated 
watchmaker of Paris, and " horologer to the king." Together with 
her husband she formed a close and lifelong friendship with Lalande, 
who was the observer in the observatory in the palace of Luxemburg. 
Madame Lepante observed, computed, and also elucidated her hus- 
band's work. She assisted him in the preparation of an instruction- 
book on watchmaking, and in this work she described the contrivance 
of a watch which, with a single finger, would give the mean and true 
time by means of a curve of equation on the dial-plate. She further 
reckoned a complete table for the length of pendulums, and the dia- 
drom (oscillatory period) agreeing with them, which is annexed to the 
book. But her greatest work was in connection with the return of 
Halley's comet. It was expected in 1757, since from its appearance in 
1007 and 1082 its revolutionary period was reckoned at 75 years. Clai- 
raut, who had, a short time before, brought the celebrated problem of 
three bodies nearer to a solution than it had ever been brought before 
was invited by Lalande to apply it to the reckoning of the return of 
Halley's comet. This was a gigantic work, such as had never been un- 
dertaken before, and which puzzled even a Clairaut. " If Madame Le- 
pante •■vill help me," said he, at length, " I might venture it, for besi let 


her I know of no one who could render any assistance " She con- 
sented, and the tremendous reckoning lasted eighteen months. The 
comet was followed step by step through a course of one hundred and 
fifty years, and at each step the united disturbing influence of all the 
then known planets had to be computed. Both considered it a matter 
of houor to finish the reckoning before any one had set eyes on the 
i omet. Their perseverance won success. On the 14th of November, 
1758, Clairaut was enabled to give the result of their united labors to 
the Academy. They had calculated that the disturbing influence of 
the planets (Uranus and Neptune were not then known) would retard 
the return of the comet 611 days, and that it would pass through its 
perihelion on the 1st of April, 1759. The period of this first'calcula- 
tion for the return of the comet approached. It was first seen on the 
35th of December, by a peasant near Dresden. On the 21st of Janu- 
ary, 1759, it was observed by Messier in Paris, and soon after in many 
other places. It passed its perihelion on the 25th of March. With a 
knowledge of Uranus and Neptune, and a better determination of the 
mass of Saturn, the computation would have come nearer the mark. 

Madame Lepante also took part in the computing of the path of the 
comet of 1762. In 1764 an annular eclipse of the sun was expected, 
which she calculated for the whole of Europe, and published two maps, 
one of which showed the course of the eclipse through Europe every 
fifteen minutes ; while the other represented the phases for Paris. She 
was also a member of the Academy of Bezieres, the writings of which 
contain many contributions by her hand, among others a reckoning of 
the transit of Venus of the year 1761. Fifteen years, from 1759 to 1774, 
she helped in computing for the Comiaissan.ce des Temps, until another 
Academician could undertake the arduous task. She then undertook 
the calculating of the ephemerides of the sun, moon, and planets for 
ten years forward. This remarkable woman had to deny herself many 
of the amenities of life in order to pursue her labors of usefulness. A 
hard trial was reserved for the evening of her life. Her husband be- 
came ill, fell into a state of melancholy, and ended by becoming quite 
insane. She denied herself the society in which she had shone by her 
talents, discontinued the learned labors to which she had so long and 
zealously devoted herself, and gave herself to caring for her husband 
alone. She left Paris for St. Cloud, where she hoped her husband 
would be benefited by the pure air ; but in this she was disappointed. 
For seven years she patiently watched and nursed him, until she was 
at length worn out by her exertions and thrown on the bed of sickness. 
A fever ensued, and she died on the 6th of December, 178b 

We can not do better than close this memoir, with Madler, with Hie 
words of Lalande: " Since the day when I saw my father sink into the 
grave, the saddest for me was that on which I followed her on her last 
journey. She had beautified my life, she had accompanied my inex- 
perienced youth and guarded me from dangerous associations ; she led 
me into the society of noble and good men. Never will her remem- 



brance vanish from my memory ; never shall her image, that adorned 
my work-room, be torn from my eyes, until they close forever. 1 ' 


This talented lady first made her public fame in 1738, by a prize 
work on the " Nature of Fire." She had also finished in the same year 
her " Institutions de Physique," which were published in 1740. Her 
principal work was nevertheless a French translation, with algebraic 


elucidations of Newton's " Principia," the publication of which, how- 
ever, did not take place till seven years after her death She held a 
learned contest with Mairan, as we learn from a letter of 1 js of the year 
1741, concerning the so-called living forces in physic. Though we pos- 
sess nothing of hers on this contest, it is known that she gave a very 
spirited and witty answer to her antagonist. Voltaire's works are the 


only sources of everything concerning her life, and he gives, as is his 
custom, more brilliant declamation and reasoning than positive data. 
Lalande endeavored to supply the latter by research, but without suc- 
cess. Voltaire relates that on one and the same day she was engaged 
in translating Newton and plajing in a comedy, and that she also 
translated Virgil. He called her the Minerva of France, and added 
that in her social life she did not show the slightest trace of her learned 
occupation. She was born on the 17th of December, 1706. We are 
enabled to present herewith a portrait of this remarkable woman. 


This lady, the sister of Sir William Herschel, was born in March, 
1750, and lived in Hanover until 1772, when she went to England to 
live with her brother at Bath. When her brother turned his attention 
to astronomy, she became his constant helper, and when ne was ap- 
pointed astronomer to King George III., she became his secretary and 
assistant, and in that character received a small stipend from the king. 
While discharging these duties she carried on a series of observations 
on her own account, with a small Newtonian telescope which her 
brother had made for her special use. Her special business was to 
sweep the heavens for comets ; she discovered nine, in regard to seven 
of which she has the honor of priority of discovery. Several remark- 
able nebula and clusters of stars owe their descriptions in astronom- 
ical tables to her assiduous study of the sky. On the death of Sir 
William, in 1822, Miss Herschel returned to Hanover, then being over 
seventy years of age. She lived to be nine*v-eight, retaining, in a very 
remarkab.e degree, the vigor of her intellect to the very last. The in- 
terests and associations of her English life, and the scientific pursuits 
to which she had devoted her mental strength, could not be set aside 
amid the scenes of her native land ; for even in her advanced age she 
maintained a lively correspondence with friends in England, and read 
all the astronomical reports published by her nephew, Sir John, who 
had succeeded his father, Sir William, in the conduct of the Royal Ob- 
servatory. She loved to speak of " Our observatory at Windsor," 
where for so many years she helped her brother " sweep the sky and 
look for comets," and where she felt herself removed from the turmoil 
and cares of the jostling world. In 1828 the Royal Society of Eng- 
land conferred on her their gold medal for completing the catalogue of 
nebula and stars observed by her brother, and shortly afterward elected 
her an honorary member. Her death occurred in 1848. 


This lady was born in Scotland about the year 1780. Her father, Sir 
William George Fairfax, was a naval officer. In 1804 she married 
James Grieg, captain and commissioner in the Russian navy, who, be- 
ing fond of mathematics ind astronomy, instructed his wife in those 
ttudies through which she has since become celebrated. Her husband 


died in 1806, and in 1812 she married Dr. "William Somerville, of Edin- 
burgh. Mrs. Somerville first became known to the scientific world 
through some experiments on the magnetic influences of the violet rays 
of the solar spectrum. Her scientific researches eventually brought hei 
in connection with Lord Brougham, and at his suggestion she under 
took a summary of the " Mecanique Celeste " of La Place for the " Li 
brary of Useful Knowledge." But as this work exceeded the dimen- 
sions first contemplated, it was published in an independent form in 
1831, with an introduction by Lord Brougham. In 1834 she brought 
out her treatise " On the Connection of the Physical Sciences," which 
has passed through nine editions in England, besides being translated 
into several foreign languages. It forms a compendium of science 
which reminds one of Humboldt's " Cosmos," though of course not so 
comprehensive. Her next work was a treatise on physical geography, 
published in 1848, and her " Mechanism of the Heavens " followed 
soon after. The former bas gone through four editions, and has been 
translated into Italian. " Her works," says Madler, " will always re- 
tain an honorable place in the history of science. 


Wilhelmine Witte was born in Hanover in the year 1777, and was 
married to the Hofrath Witte in 1804. She early showed a predilection 
for the study of mathematics, with the highest branches of which she 
made herself acquainted. She subsequently was led by her mathemat- 
ical studies to that of astronomy. She possessed a fine achromatic 
telescope, with which she diligently observed the moon, and it length 
conceived the idea of constructing from the existing charts of the 
moon, assisted by her own observations, a lunar globe in relief. In 
commencing this labor she had to find out everything for herself — me- 
chanical contrivances, manipulation, implements, and material. She 
had set herself a task which only a rare genius, combined with a great 
amount of positive knowledge, could accomplish. Globes of the moon 
had been attempted before, although without relief, besides being of 
meagre details and unsatisfactory in design. On her first attempt 
Madame von Witte made her proportions too small. She lacked a 
good lunar chart. This at length she procured in the " Mappa Sclen- 
ographica" of Madler, which was three feet in diameter. After a 
year's time she produced a lunar globe of thirteen Paris inches in 
diameter, and arranged in such a manner as to allow of the repre- 
sentation of each phase and libration. Where the chart was at fault 
she supplied the error by observation. The material she used was 
wax, with an admixture of mastic. The globe was purchased by 
Frederic William IV. of Prussia. Sbe subsequently made another of 
the same dimensions, which came into the possession of Prof. Madler. 
This talented lady died in 1854, after having survived her husband 
thirteen years. She had brought up a large family in a most careful 
manner, although she carried on her scientific labors till the close of 
her life. 


It would be an easy task to increase our list of women whose names 
are celebrated in the history of astronomical research, but space com- 
pels us to merely mention a few other names. We have to thank 
Madame Riimker, of Hamburg, Germany, the wife of the astronomer 
in that city, for the discovery of a comet. Maria Mitchell, of Nan- 
tucket, U. S., also discovered a comet. Baroness von Matt, of Vienna, 
was a zealous astronomer, and before her death had built a private 



T3HREN0L0GY, which signifies " a discourse on the mind" is either trne or false. 
If true, it is of gre&t importance ; if false, it should be disproved and repudiated. 
Some have condemned it without a hearing ; others have accepted it without know 
ing enough of its principles or its history to explain and defend it ; still others — a few 
—have carefully learned its history, philosophy, and uses, and become its advocates 
and friends. The object of these pages is to give an outline of the subject, that all 
may know enough of it to form an intelligent judgment as to its truth and utility. 


The history of Phrenology must of necessity involve some notice of its discoverer 
and its principal promoters. 

Dr. Francois Joseph Gall, the founder of Phrenology, was born at Tiefenbrunn, in 
the Grand Duchy of Baden— one of the German states— on the 9th of March, 1757. His 
father was a merchant, and mayor of the town, and intended his son for the clerical 
profession. Early and continued attention was therefore given to his education. Gall 
was a diligent and successful scholar, but more distinguished as a student for solidity 
of talent and originality of mind than for literary brilliancy. Ilia forte was in branches 
involving science and philosophy ; here he met no superiors of his age. His passion 
for Nature led him in the direction of anatomy and physiology, and on coming to 
manhood he chose medical science as a profession. Having completed his studies at 
the University, Gall established himself at Vienna. He rapidly rose to distinction as a 
physician, and gained a high rank as a man of science. Being physician to a lunatic 
asylum in Vienna, he had opportunities of making minute and extensive observations 
on the insane. He visited prisons and schools ; was introduced to the courts of prin- 
ces, to colleges, and to the seats of justice, and counted among his associates the first 
men of the nation, and was connected with several public institutions. Thus it will 
be seen that Dr. Gall, the founder of Phrenology, was no charlatan, quack, or pre.en 
der. Dr. Gall was led, not by theory, but by practical observation, to the discovery 
of Phrenology. He did not, as has often been asserted. " map out the skull into com 
partments, and then apply names and faculties to each." To show the candor and 
simplicity of his method, we copy a few extracts from his own account of his course. 

" From my earliest youth I lived in the bosom of my family, composed of severa' 
brothers and sisters, and in the midst of a great number of companions and school- 
mates. Each )f these individuals had some peculiarity, talent, propensity, or faculty 


which distinguished him from the others. Among our number we soon formed onr 
judgment who were virtuous or inclined to vice, modest or arrogant, frank or deceitful, 
peaceable or quai relsome, benevolent, good or bad. Some were distinguished for the 
beauty of their penmanship ; some, by their facility in calculation; others, in their 
aptitude to acquire history, philosophy, or languages. One shone in composition by 
the elegance of his periods ; another had always a dry, harsh style : another reasoned 
closely and expressed himself with force. A large number manifested a talent or 
taste for subjects not within our assigned course. Some carved- or drew well ; some 
devoted their leisure to painting, or in the cultivation of a small garden, while thiir 
comrades were engaged in noisy sports ; others enjoyed roaming in the woods, hunt- 
ing, seeking birds nests, collecting flowers, insects, or shells. Thus each distinguish- 
ed himself by his proper characteristic.'" 

The pupils with whom young Gall had the greatest difficulty in competing in verbal 
memory had large, prominent eyes, while he was their superior in original composi- 
tion. When he entered the University, he at once selected every student who was 
gifted in this respect, and he found them by no means equally talented in other re- 
spects. The uniformity with which this peculiarity of the eye accompanied the talent 
in question, led him to suspect that they were connected as cause and effect, and were 
the result of a great development of a certain portion of the brain. If memory of 
words was indicated by an external sign, he conceived that the same might be true of 
other intellectual powers ; and therefore every person having any remarkable faculty 
became objects of his critical study. By degrees he discovered external character 
istics, indicating a talent for painting, music, and mechanism. He observed that 
persons remarkable for determination of character had a particular part of the head 
very largely developed. This fact led him to look to the head for the signs of the 
moral sentiments. He never conceived for a moment that the skull was the cause of 
different talents, as some have represented ; he referred to the brain for the influence, 
whatever it was. He observed a concomitance between particular talents and dispo- 
sitions, and particular/orow; of head ; he next ascertained that the figure and size of 
the brain are indicated by those of the skull ; and he then minutely dissected the 
brain, unfolding it in a manner entirely unknown to the medical world. 

It was his custom, when he observed a peculiar development of head, to study the 
character of the person closely, and learn his prominent dispositions, perhaps taking 
a cast of the head. When he found a head similar in shape, he learned the character, 
and compared it with the head and character of the previous person ; and not until he 
had found many hundreds of such correspondences between development and char- 
acter did he accept an organ as established. Thus for thirty years did he pursue this 
patient course of investigation, when he ventured to give public lectures on the sub- 
ject in 1796, and he was listened to by audiences the most intelligent and respectable. 
Scientific men who admired his lectures, published reports of them in different journals. 

In 1305, Dr. Gall accompanied by Dr. Spurzheim, also a German, who had now been 
with him as a student and coadjutor for five years, visited Berlin and more than thirty 
other towns in Germany, Prussia, Holland and Switzerland, giving lectures and anatom - 
ical demonstrations of the brain, and arrived in Paris in 1807. In these travels they 
received the most flattering reception. Sovereigns, ministers, philosophers, legisla- 
tors, and artists seconded their designs. Universities tendered invitations to lecture, 
which they accepted, and they created the most profound impressions upon the besl 
niinda of the age. They visited the prison at Purlin in company with the officers and 


physicians. In their presence they examined more than two hundred prisoners, se- 
lected and arranged into separate classes those convicted of murder, robbery, theft, 
etc., and stated many things with remarkable correctness concerning their previous 
history and character. 

In 1809, Gall and Spurzheim commenced the publication of their great work en- 
titled '• The Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, with Observations on ttie Possi- 
bility of Ascertaining several Intellectual and Moral Dispositions of Man and Animals 
by the Configuration of their Heads," price, 1,000 francs. 

Dr. Gall continued to reside in Paris, and to lecture to medical students and /'iterary 
and scientific men, and to study animals, dissect brains, and to write and publish to 
the close of his life, which occurred August 22d, 1828. His remains were followed to 
the grave by an immense concourse of friends and admirers, embracing many of the 
most distinguished men of that learned city, five of whom pronounced discourses ever 
his grave. Dr. Possati, in his funeral discourse, has the following touching paragraph : 
" What an irreparable blank do I perceive in the scientific world by the death of one 
man ! — a blank which will long be felt by all the friends of science and sound philoso- 
phy. But what a man have we lost ! what a genius was his ! what a happy organiza- 
tion Nature had given him ! Yes, Dr. Gall was one of those privileged individuals 
whom the Creator sends upon the earth at the interval of ages, to teach us how far 
human intelligence can reach ! " 

In 1814, Dr. Spurzheim visited England and Scotland, and in Edinburgh met thesa- 
vans of learning, and demonstrated the truth of Phrenology by a dissection and ex 
planation of the brain, and that day won over five hundred witnesses to the fibrous 
structure of the brain which Dr. Gordon, in the forty-ninth number of the Edinburgh 
Jieview, had described as "trash" and "despicable trumpery." This doctrine of the 
fibrous structure of the brain is nmu taught in every medical college, in the world. 

Dr. Spurzheim divided his time between Great Britain and France, lecturing, inves- 
tigating, writing, and publishing. He was invited to America by its best informed 
and most advanced minds, in response to which he arrived in New York on the 4th 
of August, 18.32, and proceeded to Boston, visiting on the way Yale College, and dig 
secting a brain before the learned men of New Haven ; thence he visited at Hartford 
the Deaf and Dumb Asylum and the Insane Retreat, and the State Prison at 
Weathcrsfield, everywhere making friends and converts. At this prison he examined, 
among many others, the heads of William Teller, a noted thief, and Cajsar Reynolds, a 
negro, the first convicted of passing counterfeit money. After dismissing these con- 
victs, he remarked to Mr. Haskins, the keeper, and others, " That negro interests me 
much. He is a desperate character and should be carefully watched." Not long after, 
these two prisoners, in an effort to escape, killed the keeper, Mr. Haskins, with a bar 
of iron, in the hands of Reynolds, and were executed at Hartford the next year. Tel- 
ler's skull is in the New York Phrenological Cabinet. 

On the 17th of September he commenced a course of eighteen lectures on Phre- 
nology at the Boston Atheneuru, and soon after, a course at Harvard University. Be- 
sides these, he gave, on each alternate afternoon, lectures beforo the medical faculty 
of Boston on the anatomy of the brain. During the daytime Dr. Spurzheim was 
Qiuch engaged visiting the public institutions and returning the calls of friends. 

In Boston, as at ail other places which he visited, he won the respect and friendship 
of the chief scholars and thinkers, such as Horace Mann, Dr. S. G. Howe, Rev. Dr. 
Channiiig, Uev. John Pierpoint, Dr. J. V. C. Smith, Dr. Woodward, and Dr. Brifham 


the two latter noted for skill in the treatment of the insar i at the asylums in Hart- 
ford, Ct., Worcester, Mass., and Utica, N. Y. The phrenological method of dissect- 
ing the brain excited the wonder of all anatomists ; for instead of slicing it in the 
usual manner, as one does a melon or a cheese, he unfolded it with his fingers and 
spread it out like an unfolded ruffle without rupturing its structure, until it would 
cover the top of a moderate-sized table. In the midst of a course of lectures to a se- 
lect class of learned and professional men in Boston he fell a victim to overwork and 
the severity of the climate, and died on the 10th of November, 1832, in the fifty-sixth 
year of his age. He was universally mourned, and was honored by a public funeral, 
and by a burial and a monument just within the entrance of Mount Auburn, bearing the 
simple but sufficient inscription " Spurzheim." Dr. Spurzheim's works (aside from 
the great work on the anatomy of the brain, which was the joint work of Gall and him- 
self) are " Physiognomy," "Insanity," "Anatomy of the Brain," now out of print, 
"Natural Laws of Man," and "Education Founded on the Nature of Man." 

Mr. George Combe, of Scotland, the eminent lawyer, and author of the "Constitu- 
tion of Man " and other works, was a convert and pupil of Spurzheim ; also his broth- 
er Dr. Andrew Combe, author of several valuable works on the application of Phre- 
nology to health, insanity, education, etc., have done much to place Phrenology in a 
favorable light before the English-speaking nations. Mr. George Combe, in 1838-41, 
by invitation and pre-arrangement, visited America and delivered extended courses 
of lectures in the chief cities of the United States, everywhere calling around him 
the ripest scholars aud those of the most vigorous intellects of that day. 

Among American phrenologists the late Dr. Charles Caldwell, President of Tran- 
sylvania University, at Louisville, Ky., should be mentioned with honor. He was, 
during his prime, the ablest American medical writer. He wrote several valuable 
works on Phrenology, particularly in vindication of it from the false charges of ma- 
terialism and fatalism, and against objections to the science on anatomical grounds. 

The visit, and unexpected death of Spurzheim just as he was opening his great field 
of labor awakened thought on Phrenology and led to the publication of the works of 
Spurzheim and Combe in America. Some students in Amherst College (Mass.), soon 
after Spurzheim's death, proposed to have a public discussion on Phrenology, one of 
whom, Henry Ward Bceeher, offered, at a venture, to argue against it. To prepare 
himself for the discussion, he sent to Boston for all the books he could get on the sub- 
ject. In reading them he became converted to the truth of the new doctrine, and 
from that day to this he has employed not only the philosophy, but the technology of 
Phrenology in his treatment of the human mind. He has been heard to say that he 
is largely indebted to his knowledge of this subject for any special success attained 
as a public teacher. He even went so far as to give public lectures on the subject 
while a student. After reading those books he loaned them to the brothers Fowler, 
one of whom was a student with him in college, and the other a student in the Am- 
herst Academy. So much were they interested in the subject, that they ador }ed it as 
a profession, and in the spring of 1835 commenced to give public lectures During 
the autumn of that year, the younger brother, L. N. Fowler, opened an office in New 
York, and soon after was joined by the elder, O. S. Fowler, and this was the first per- 
manent office opened in America, and the beginning of Phrenology as a practical pro- 
fession. Four years later, viz., in 1839, Nelson Sizer, of Massachusetts, commenced 
lecturing on the subject, having had his attention called to it in 1832 by reading the 
reported lectures aud writings of Spurzheim. 


In 1843, Samuel E. Wells left the systematic study of medicine to join the Messrs. 
Fowler at New York, when the firm of Fowlers & Wells was formed. The Fowlers 
for several years after the formation of the firm devoted themselves solely to lectur- 
ing, writing, and making professional examinations ; while Mr. Wells at that time 
devoted himself chiefly to the publishing department. 

Charlotte Fowler (Wells) came to the office in 1837, to aid her brothers in the 
work, and more than once kept the office from being closed and the enterprise of 
maintaininga cabinet and permanent office abandoned, and thus she stayed up their 
hands whenever they flagged, until her marriage with Mr. Wells in 1844 : and from 
that day to this she has devoted herself to the work of the office. 

In 1849, Mr. Sizer, having traveled asd lectured constantly for ten years, became as- 
sociated with Fowlers & Wells, and from that time to the present (1870) has%ccupied a 
prominent place on tho Journal and as professional examiner in the office. This ar- 
rangement permitted the Fowlers to respond to the many calls for labor in the lectur- 
ing field, and by these means and the publication of the Phrenological Journal, 
in connection with a long list of books written and published by the firm, the science 
has become widely known and respected. In 1854, Mr. O. S. Fowler retired from the 
firm, and has since traveled and lectured on his own account, and has had no connec- 
tion with the office or publications of Fowler & Wells. 

Mr. L. N. Fowler and Mr. Wells visited Europe together in 1860, and lectured for 
years through England, Scotland, and Ireland with acceptance and decided success. 

The large collection of busts and portraits of distinguished persons, also skulls and 
casta of noted criminals, animal crania, etc., make the Phrenological Cabinet one 
of the marked points of attraction in the commercial metropolis of the Western Con- 
tinent. In 1805, Henry S. Drayton, a graduate of the University of the City of New 
York, and also of its Law School, became connected with the office as Assistant 
Editor of the Phrenological Journal, ar.d also as a lecturer. Mr. John L. Capen 
has had an office in Philadelphia for fifteen years, which was originally a branch of 
the New York house. Several other persons have been engaged as phrenologists m 
the United States, some for five, ten, or more years, but most of them have studied 
for and entered some other profession or gone into other business. Phrenology has 
transformed public sentiment respecting man's mental nature; and literature is full 
of its teachings. Education, the training of children, the treatment of criminals, and 
especially of the insane, have been greatly improved by means of the light shed upon 
the nature of man by Phrenology. 

principles of phrenology. 

Phrenology claims to explain the powers and faculties of the mind by studying the 
organization of the brain during life. Its chief doctrines may be briefly stated thus : 

1. The brain is the organ of the mind. 

2. The mind has many faculties, some of which may be stronger cr weaker than the 
rest in the same person. 

3. Each faculty or propensity of the mind has its special organ in the brain. 

4. Size of brain, if the quality be good, is the true measure c f its power. The 
brain when deficient in size or low in quality is always connecte< with a low degree 
of mental power. Among the lower animals the brain is found to be large and com- 
plicated in proportion to the variety and strength of the faculties. 

5. Organs related to each other in function are grouped together in the brain. For 
example, the organ* of intellect are located in the forehead ; those of the social nature, 


in the back- Acad ; those of passion, ajpctite, ai d self-preservation, in the side-head 
those of aspiration, pride, and ambition, in the crown ; ana those of sentiment, syia 
pathy, morality, and religion, in the top-head. 

6. As each function of the body has its specific organ, so each faculty of the mind, 
each sentiment and propensity, has its own organ. If this were not so, each person 
would exhibit the same amount of talent or power on all subjects, such as arithmetic, 
language, music, mechanism, memory, reasoning, love of property, courage, prudence, 
pride, etc. Everybody knows that persons rarely show equal talent on all topics. A 
man will be a genius at one thing, and find it impossible, by long training, to become 
even respectable in other things. This would not be the case if the mind were a sin- 
gle power and the brain a single organ. As the senses of seeing, hearing, tastinz, 
smelling.T:tc.,are not always possessed by each person in an equal degree of perfection, 
these several powers being dependent on different organs, so i.he mental faculties and 
dispositions are sometimes very unequal in a given person, owing to the greater 
strength or weakness of their respective organs in the brain. Partial genius, partia! 
idiocy, and partial insanity strongly sustain the phrenological theory of the mind ; in- 
deed* they demonstrate its truth. 

7. The quality or temperament of the organization determines the degree of vigor, 
activity, and endurance of the mental powers. These temperaments are indicated by 
external signs, including the build, complexion, and texture, and may be compre- 
hended to a greater or less degree of perfection by every intelligent person. 

There are three Temperaments, known as the Vital, Motive, and Mental. 

The Vital Temperament is evinced by large lungs, powerful circulatory system, 
and large digestive and assimilating organs, abundance of blood and animal spirits. 
This temperament is a combination of the Sanguine and the Lymphatic, as set fort' 
by Mr. Combe and other writers. But as the digestive and assimilating organs, whic. 
constitute the Lymphatic temperament, together with the respiratory and circulatory 
systems, which constitute the Sanguine temperament, are really vital organs, we re- 
gard their combination into one, under the name of Vital Temperament, as both con- 
venient, and philosophical. This condition of the bodily system produces ardor and 
impulsiveness of mind, a tendency to passional enjoyment, social affection, warmth 
of tamper, cheerfulness, and a desire for active, practical business. 

The Motive Temperament, corresponding to the Bilious, has a strong bony sys- 
tem, an abundance and hardness of muscle, dark wiry hair, dark eyes, rough, promi- 
nent, features, dark complexion, and a great disposition to locomotive effort. 

Thp- Motive temperament is favorable to dignity, sternness, determination, power of 
will, and desire to govern and control others. It gives slowness of passion but great 
permanency of disposition, sternness and strength of thought but not brilliancy, and 
a desire to engage in heavv labor or large business operations. 

Tue Mental Temperament (formerly called Nervous) depends on the brain and 
nervous system, and is accompanied by mental activity, smallness and fineness of mus- 
cle, light frame, thi.i skin, fine hair, delicate features, and a large brain as compared 
with the body. As this temperament gives delicacy of body, it also imparts a peculiar 
sensitiveness and vivacity to the mind, a disposition to think, study, and cultivate 
art, or follow some light and delicate business. 

The structures which, in excess, determine these temperaments exist in each indi- 
vidual. In one person one temperament may predominate — in the next, another. 
J'hey can be, by proper training, essentially modified, particularly in youth. 





HIIS eminent German scholar and writer had a fine temperament, 
and a strong yet sensitive mental nature. He had a broad and 
prominent forehead, indicating originality of thought, and taste 
for refined learning. His moral and religious organs were amply de 
veloped, showing a strong tendency to think in the direction of ethics 
and theology He was regarded as one of the foremost men in Ger- 
many, especially in that field of inquiry and effort ordinarily denomhi 
ated liberal Christianity. An eminent American divine, in speaking ot 
him, said " his theology was based on God manifested in Christ, and to 
him the personality of our Saviour was the Avay, the truth, and the life 
of God to men. He stands, probably, at the head of the liberal Chris- 
tian moralists of our time ; has all the freedom and loftiness of Chan- 
ning and the breadth of Dewey, with far less elocpience and beauly of 
style, yet larger learning, deeper insight, and more evangelical positive- 
ctss than either. His chief work, his ' Ethics,' is probably the moy> 


memorable contribution to Christian thinking in our time, and opens 
1.0 us a grand temple of life as large as human duty and high as the 
grace and truth of God. It takes in the whole domain of humanity 
and declares our whole life sacred, and demands fair play for every sen- 
sibility, and taste, and emotion, and faculty in the name of the living 
God, whose heirs we are in Christ." 

Rich a i - d Rothe was born at Posen on the 28th of January, 1799 ; re- 
ceived his first instruction at Rreslau ; was two years at Heidelberg, 
then at Berlin, afterward at Rome, as chaplain to the embassj r , in close 
relation with Bunsen. From thence he went to Wittenberg, as theo- 
logical professor, with great success. In 1830 he opened a course of 
theology at the new school of preachers in Heidelberg. In 1849 he 
went to Bonn, and after a few years he returned to Heidelberg, where 
he remained till his death, August 19th, 1867. 

His " Theological Ethics " are regarded as the masterpiece of his 
writings, proving him to be a profound thinker, a Christian sage, and 
a great teacher, and this work is regarded as an imperishable monu- 
ment to his name. His domestic life was very retired. Having an in- 
valid wife, he devoted a great part of his time to her, patiently and 
assiduously laboring to promote her comfort. In disposition and man- 
ner he was genial and sociable to that degree which wins the esteem 
ind confidence of society. 


BY a persistent course of training, a person endowed with fairly de- 
veloped pei'ceptive faculties may become so skilled that his rapid 
and accurate inferences, from conditions hardty appreciated by 
others, appear to fall little short of the magical. Meu who mingle in 
those spheres of human activity which require a quick eye, a sharp ear, 
a sure and skillful hand, are distinguished by their well-marked and 
prominent perceptive faculties. The forehead, from the hair down to 
the root of the nose, inclines outwardly from the plane of the face; the 
eyes appear sunken, on account of the projection of the brows ; the head 
appears retreating, because it is so built out at the base ; and the whole 
aspect is one of inquiry and scrutiny. The accompaning engraving of 
the naturalist Agassiz illustrates this class of organization well. Men 
who pursue the callings of hunters and trappers, who, like the Indian, 
are skilled in the secrets of woodcraft, have a cranial organization 
which approximates to that of the aboriginal. Their external senses 
are sharpened ; they can discern the character of objects at distances 
so great that the unpracticed eye perceives only an indistinct form, and 
they can catch sounds inaudible to the inexpert, and explain their 

It is exceedingly interesting to read the narratives of men who have 



lived amid the scenes of wild life in the far West. Many of their re- 
citals of actual performances fall little short of the marvelous. 

In those extensive regions toward the setting sun, where civilization 
has not yet planted its prolific seed, there is a class of men who may 
be called " prairie detectives," and who practice the art of trailing. Dr. 
Hachenberg, of the United Slates Post Hospital at Fort Randall, Da- 
cotah Territory, describes the trailers in a very graphic manner, and 

recounts some of his experiences with 
them. We are indebted to him for th 
following instances illustrative of the 
trailer's powers : 

The trailer is not a graceful man. He 
carries his head much inclined ; his eve 
is quick and restless, always on the 
watch, and he is practicing his art un- 
consciously, hardly ever crossing the 
track of man or animal without seeing 
it. When he enters a house, he brings 
the habits he contracted in the practice 
of his art with him. I know a trailer 
as soon as he enters my room. He 
comes in through the door softly, and 
with an air of exceeding caution Be- 
fore he is fairly in, or at least has sat 
down, he has taken note of every ar- 
Agassiz. t i c ] e an j person, though there may 

be a dozen vacant chairs in the room. His description of a route he 
took as guide and trailer for the Ogallalas in bringing them from the 
Platte to this place was minute, and, to me, exceedingly interesting. 
Every war party that for the season had crossed his trail — of course un- 
seen by him — he described with minuteness as to their number, the kinds 
of arms they had, and stated the tribes they belonged to. In the strange 
revelations that he made, there was neither imposition nor supposition, 
for he gave satisfactory reasons for every assertion he made. 

I have rode several hundred miles with an experienced guide and 
trailer. Hack, whom 1 interrogated upon many points in the practice of 
this art. In going to the Niobrara River we crossed the track of an 
Indian pony. My guide followed the track a few miles and then said, 
" It is a stray, black horse, with a long, bushy tail, nearly starved to 
death, has a split hoof of the left fore foot, and goes very lame, and lie 
pissed here earry this morning." Astonished and incredulous, I asked 
hi 1 11 the reasons for knowing these particulars by the tracks of the ani- 
mal, when he replied : " It was a stray horse, because it did not go in a 
direct line ; his tail was long, for he dragged it over the snow ; in brush- 
ing; against a bush he left some of his hair, which shows its color. He 
was very hungry, for, in going along, he has nipped at those high, dry 
ivee Is which horses seldom eat. The Assure of the left fore foot left 


also, its track, and the depth of the indentation shows the degree of his 
lameness : and his tracks show he was here this morning, when the 
snow was hard with frost." 

At another place we came across an Indian track, and he said, " It is 
an old Yankton, who came across the Missouri last evening to look at 
his traps. In coming over, he carried in his right hand a trap, and in 
his left a lasso, to catch a pony whk'h he had lost. He returned with- 
out finding the horse, but had caught in the trap he had out a prairie 
wolf, which he carried home on his back, and a bundle of kinikinic wood 
in his right hand." Then he gave his reasons : " I know he is old, by 
the impression his gait has made, and a Yankton by that of his moc- 
casins. He is from the other side of the river, as there no Yanktons on 
this side. The trap he carried struck the snow now and then, and in 
the same manner as when he came, shows that he did not find his pony. 
A drop of blood in the center of his tracks shows that he carried the wolf 
on his back, and the bundle of kinikinic wood he used for a staff for sup- 
port, and catching a wolf shows that he had traps out." " But," I asked, 
" how do you know it is a wolf? wiry not a fox, or a coyotte, or even a 
deer?" Said he, "If it had been a fox, a coyotte, or any other small 
game, he would have slipped the head of the animal in his waist belt, 
and so carried it by his side, and not on his shoulders. Deer are not 
caught by traps ; but if it had been a deer, he would not have crossed this 
high hill, but would have gone back by way of the ravine, and the load 
would have made his steps still more tottering." 

Another Indian track we saw twenty miles west of this he put this 
serious construction upon: "He is an upper Indian — a prowling horse 
thief— carried a double shot-gun, and is a rascal that killed some white 
man lately, and passed here one week ago ; for," said he, " a lone Indian 
in these parts is on mischief, and generally on the look-out for horses. 
He had on the shoes of a white man whom he had, in all probability, 
killed, but his steps are those of an Indian. Going through the ravine, 
the end of his gun hit into the deep snow. A week ago we had a very 
warm day, and the snow being soft, he made these deep tracks ; ever 
since it has been intensely cold weather, which makes very shallow 
tracks." I suggested that perhaps he bought those shoes. " Indians 
don't buy shoes, and if they did, they would not buy them as large as 
these were, for Indians have very small feet." The most noted trailer 
of this country was Paul Daloria, a half-breed, who died under ray hands 
of Indian consumption last summer. At one time I rode with him, and 
trailing was naturally the subject of conversation. I begged to trail with 
him an old track over the prairie, in order to learn its history. I had 
hardly made the proposition when he drew up his horse, which was at 
a ravine, and said : " Well, here is an old elk track. Let us get off oui 
horses and follow it." We followed it but a few rods, when he said it 
was exactly a month old, and made at two o'clock in the afternoon. 
This he knew, as then we had our last rain, and at the hour named the 
ground was softer than at any otter time. The track before us way 


then made. He broke up here and there clusters of grass that lay in 
the path of the track, and showed me the dry end of some, the stumps 
of others, and by numerous other similar items accounted for many cir- 
cumstances that astonished me. We followed the trail over a mile. Now 
and then we saw that a wolf, a fox, and other animals had practiced 
their trailing instincts on the elk's tracks. Here and there he would 
show me where a snake, a rat, and a prairie dog had crossed the track. 
Nothing had followed or crossed the track that the quick eye of Daloria 
did not detect. He gave an account of the habits of all the animals 
that had left their footprints on the track, also of the state of the weather 
since the elk passed, and the effect of sunshine, winds, aridity, sand 
storms, and other influences that had a bearing on these tracks. 

The First Oyster-Eater. — Methinks I see the first oyster-eater ! 
A brawny, naked savage, with his wild hair matted over his wild eyes, 
a zodiac of fiery stars tattooed across his muscular breast; unclad, 
unsandaled, hirsute, and hungry, he breaks through the underwoods 
that margin the beach, and stands alone upon the sea-shore, with noth- 
ing in one hand but his unsuccessful boar-spear, and nothing in the 
other but his fist. TIktc he beholds a splendid panorama ! The west 
is all a-glow ; the conscious waves blushing as the warm sun sinks to 
their embraces ; the blue sea on his left ; the interminable forest on his 
right ; and the creamy sea-sand curving in delicate tracery between. 
A picture and a child of Nature ! Delightedly he plunges in the foam 
and swims to the bald crown of a rock that uplifts itself above the 
waves. Seating himself, he gazes upon the calm expanse beyond, and 
swings his legs against the moss that spins its filmy tendrils in the 
brine. Suddenly he utters a cry ; springs up ; the blood streams from 
his foot. With barbarous fury he tears up masses of sea-moss, and 
with it clustering families of tcstaces. Dashing them down upon the 
rock, he perceives a liquor exuding from the fragments ; he sees the 
white pulpy delicate morsel, half hidden in the cracked shell, and in- 
stinctively reaching upward, his hand finds his mouth, and amid a sav 
age, triumphant deglutition he murmurs — " Oyster ! " Champing, in 
his uncouth fashion, bits of shell and sea-weed, with uncontrollable 
pleasure he masters this mystery of a new sensation, and not until the 
gray vail of night is drawn over the distant waters does he leave the 
rock, covered with the trophies of his victory. — Ilayicarde. 

How to Break Oneself op Bad Habits. — Understand clearly the 
reasons, and all the reasons, why the habit is injurious. Study the sub- 
ject until there is no lingering doubt in your mind. Avoid the places, 
the persons, and the thoughts that lead to temptation. We are respon- 
i ible even for our thoughts. Frequent the places, associate with the 
persona udulge the thoughts that lead away from temptation. Keep 


busy ; idleness is the strength of bad habits. Do noi give up the 
struggle when you 1 ave broken your resolution once, twice, ten times, 
a thousand times. While there is life there is hope, and that only 
shows how much i eed there is to strive. When you have broken your 
resolution through lack of firmness and moral sense, just think the 
matter over, and endeavor to understand why it was you failed, so 
that you may be on your guard against recurrences of the same cir- 
cumstances. Do not think it a little or an easy thing that you have 
undertaken. It is folly to expect to break off a habit in a day which 
may have been gathering strength in you for years. Be manly, be 
brave. Learn to say No, and to stick to it. 



IT is of great importance to every person to select a pursuit best 
adapted to his peculiar qualities of constitution and character. 
Many persons, though not endowed with talent for a high pursuit, 
crave earneslty the pleasures and emoluments of pursuits for which 
they have little if any capability, and in which, of course, they can 
deserve no high degree of success. God bless those who are willing 
to do the laborious work requiring manual strength ! We render spe- 
cial honor to the genius which contrived the steam-engine, whereby 
horse-flesh and manual labor are greatly relieved, and the comforts of 
the world multiplied a hundred-fold. He who invented the mowing 
machine relieved the aching backs of millions. Honor to the man who 
invented iron fingers to do the world's sewing, as well as to him who 
invented the spinning jenny and the power loom with which to make 
the cloth. Notwithstanding all the machinery the world has in use, 
there is still a great deal of laborious work to be done, and happy ia 
the man who has the wisdom and the honesty to accept cheerfully the 
pursuit in which he can best serve the world and himself, whether it 
be, according to the world's estimate, high or low. To be a good and 
faithful doer, and to secure success in the doing, should be the great 
object of effort. It is better for a man to be a first-class lumberman 
than a third-class cabinet-maker or carpenter. One had better make 
good timber and boards than to be a shabby builder or cabinet-maker 
who partially spoils good lumber in the construction of indifferent 
houses or poor furniture. Success, in its best sense, is the measure of 
merit. What, then, can each person do which will be most useful to 
the world, and bring to himself such remunerations as will be neces- 
sary for his support, comfort, and happiness? 

Farming. — The first necessity of man is food ; consequently food 
producers should rank well. In this country we need five farmers 
whore ue now have one. Men should learn to till the soil well, and 


make every acre largely productive. Nor should men be satisfied to 
raise com, wheat, pork, beef, and b inter for the market. Every farmei 
should raise all the fruit he needs, and if possible some for the market. 
Farmers should not be the mere drudges and intellectual dwarfs they 
now are. They should study chemistry, botany, and physiology that 
they may understand the nature of soils, plants, and the laws of health. 
Intelligence, not mere brute force, is required by the farmer. A man 
with culture will get as much profit from ten acres, as one without 
culture or knowledge will from fifty acres. Young men of talent and 
culture should turn their attention to farming, and while elevating the 
vocation, acquire a generous support instead of shivering and starving 
around the outskirts of the overcrowded professions. 

A farmer needs courage and strength, caution and economy; Con- 
structiveness, to enable him to use the tools skillfully; perceptive pow- 
ers, to learn by observation ; analysis and memory, to classify and 
treasure all the knowledge acquired ; and a good constitution, that he 
may endure and enjoy the labor incident to his pursuit. 

Mechanics and Manufacturers — require large Constructiveness, 
combined with large perceptive organs, to give good judgment and 
facility in the use of tools and machinery; also large Causality and 
Ideality, to give success in planning and inventing. The mechanic is 
forced more or less by competition to educate himself in his business, 
to bring all the appliances of science to the perfection of his work. 
He therefore needs a good intellect, an active imagination, patience, 
perseverance, and energy, as well as a healthy constitution to bear the 
necessary labors with pleasure. 

There are two kinds of mechanics: one plans well and executes 
indifferently; the other can not plan, but has skill in working. Some 
individuals can both design and execute in a high degree of perfection. 
Michael Angelo is an example. A perfect man can do anything, can 
become a master of arts, but may not become a Beethoven or a Thalberg 
in music ; a Watt, a Stephenson, or a Fulton in invention ; a Newton 
or a Bacon in philosophy ; a Cicero in oratory, or a Shakspeare in 
poetry, as he might do in any one of these departments were all his 
power thrown into that channel ; yet he who can do all things is the 
greater if not the more useful man. 

Teaching. — What does the teacher require ? First, an elastic and 
eneigetic constitution with a predominance of the Mental and Motive 
temperaments, which give activity, clearness, and compactness to the 
mind, and strength and earnestness to the character. He needs robust 
health, and the temperance and exercise which promote health. The 
teacher requires, second, a large and active brain with a decided pre- 
dominance of the perceptive intellect, indicated by a fullness of the 
lower part of the forehead. These give him facility in acquiring, while 
fullness through the middle of the forehead enables him to retain what 
lie learn* and have it ready for use. The reasoning organs, which give 
fullness and prominence to the upper part of the forehead, should be 


ample, so that he may be able to explain to inquisitive pup^s the phi 
losophy involved in the subjects of study. He needs a full back-head, 
where the social organs are located, that he may win' and hold the 
affection of his pupils. He should have large Self-Esteem and Firm- 
ness, to give dignity and strength of character, to govern well and com- 
mand the respect of pupils. Large Conscientiousness will make him 
just and impartial; large Language, enable him to explain what he 
knows; Veneration and Benevolence, that he may impress his pupils 
wiLh a spirit of kindness and with a consciousness of a higher Power, 
and that reverence for just authority is a virtue. A good development 
of Caution and Secretiveness, to give watchfulness and shrewdness 
equal to detect the most tricky of pupils ; Combativcness and Destruct- 
iveness, to give power and courage that the rebellious may be impressed 
with respect for his latent power to punish. 

It will thus be seen that the teacher requires an excellent organization 
mental and physical, and that he needs all the Christian graces carried, 
in the spirit of wisdom. 

The Artist. — The artist should have a poetic nature, a temperament 
full of feeling and activity. He should have a high, long head, and 
broad from the external angle of the e}'e upward and backward. 
These give emotion in the direction of sentiment, and that creative 
fancy, imagination, power of construction and combination, and ability 
to work out the image which the mind has created. The true artist 
does not begin his picture or statue as one does the brick wall of a 
house, laying it out by metes and bounds, and erecting it by line and 
plummet according to fixed mathematical rules ; but in the dream of 
the artist or the artisan the beautiful dome, with all its elegant finish, 
is instantly brought into being and spanned above his head. The 
statue or the picture comes to him like the inspiration' of a dream. 
The secret of art-power is to hold those images in the memory until 
the faculties of Constructiveness, Form, Size, and Order shall have 
wrought out and fixed the image in material form. The artist should 
not only be moral but religious. Pie should have strong social affec- 
tion, so that his work may be imbued with and minister to that great 
element of human life. He should put love as well as beauty in the 
statue or the picture ; in short, the poet or the artist who can appeal 
strongly to every feeling that is natural and noble in human nature, is 
the true artist, and in proportion as they approximate to this high point 
are they artists, and their works valuable and enduring. 

Law. — " I would be a lawyer ! " Do you know how much you pro- 
pose to yourself? Can you master the knowledge which the legal 
profession requires ? Have you the courage to meet the opposition 
which is incident to that profession ? Have you the memory to hold 
the knowledge required? Have you the quick perception to seize upon 
facts and appropriate them to your use on the instant? Have you the 
breadth of thought, the philosophic capability which will enable you 
to comprehend the arguments of others, or to meet them successfully? 


Have you the fluency of speech which will enable you to express yom 
knowledge, your feelings, or your arguments with facility and point. 
Do you read the human mind so as readily to understand a witness, a 
jury, or an opposing attorney? Have you such a balance of all the 
qualities that you can appeal to every feeling, social, moral, and sym- 
pathetical, in judge, jury, and audience ? Have you enough of Consci- 
entiousness to meet all manner of temptation successfully — to judge of 
the right, the true, and follow it ? If you have all these qualifications, 
be a lawyer, and you will be a good one. 

The true lawyer, in our judgment, is the man of eminent ability, with 
a splendid body, an harmonious temperament, a huge brain well culti- 
vated and well balanced, so that he will not fail in courage, prudence, 
policy, memory, judgment, or justice, with learning and knowledge and 
eloquence to set them forth, and may justly be regarded as among the 
first of men. It is thought by many that the lawyer needs only tact 
keenness, cunning, assurance, and uuscrupulousness; but the true law- 
yer seeks for justice, not merely for victory right or wrong ; for the 
establishment of truth and right according to law, both human and 
divine. If the profession has fallen below this level, it should be at 
once rectified and elevated to such a noble rank, that pure and gifted 
young men may enter it in the fear of God and in the love of man. 



rTl HERE is nothing more attractive and fascinating than personal 
! beauty. All men instinctively admire a handsome form and face. 
They go to the opera, the theater, the church, wl erever people 
congregate, to feast their eyes upon human beauty. Tliey r pay the 
highest price for the painted counterfeit of it, however imaginary the 
semblance to adorn their parlor walls. We do not wonder that men 
are so fascinated by it, and sometimes are so smitten by the sight of i;, 
that they pine away in misery if they can not call its possessor theirs. 
We do not wonder that people resort to all devices and expedients to 
preserve anc. cultivate it, and that the aid of costly clothing, paints, and 
cosmetics are invoked to conjure up its semblance and prolong its spells. 


Nor do we wonder that impostors, who advertise that they will re- 
store the faded bloom to the cheek, and make the plain face " beautiful 
forever," find dupes enough to make them rich. A beautiful person — ■ 
mink hid has always gone down on its knees before it as at the shrine 
of a god. To be beautiful is one of the spontaneous ambitions of the 
human heart. 


There is no use of disparaging the motive, or of trying to wink it om 
of sight as something to be ashamed of, or to shut it out of the breast as 


an unholy tiling. It has Heaven's own autograph upon it, and its uni- 
versality and intrinsic worthiness give it permission to be. It should 
be recognized for what it is, and taken up into the family of motives 
whose function it is to spur mankind to noble endeavors and holy liv- 
ing. It is not only right, but a duty, to try to be beautiful. 


How to be beautiful, that is the practical question. We begin with 
admiring beauty of form and feature, a particular cut, contour, and 
color of face and countenance; and these are admirable. But as we 
grow older we perceive that there is a higher order of beauty than this 
— a beauty of expression which enfolds the features in an atmosphere 
of indefinable fascination — a beauty of mind, of disposition, of soul, 
which makes us forget the absence of regular features and lovely tints 
where they are not, and overlook their presence where they are. Every- 
body has seen men and women of irregular features and ungraceful 
form who, notwithstanding their physical defects, were so irradiated 
and glorified by the outshining of noble thoughts and kind affections 
that they seemed supremely beautiful. 

A perfectly developed, symmetrical figure, a finety chiseled face, deli- 
cately tinted complexion, a clear eye, and an elegant mien are attrac- 
tive, if not commanding; but when contrasted with this higher quality 
and transfiguring spirit of beauty which irradiates the intelligent and 
kindly face, informing every feature, and glowing in look, act, and air. 
all merely physical prettiness and elegance seem petty, if not con- 

Not every one can have the symmetric form and the finely chiseled 
face ; but no one is so poor and so deformed but he can acquire a beauty 
as superior to these as the diamond to the gilt it is set in. This fact 
respecting personal beauty, a fact of the utmost importance, is so gen- 
erally overlooked that it can not be stated too often and urged too 
strongly upon public attention; and this fact goes far to determine the 
means by which that personal beauty which eveiy r one desires is to be 
attained. There are a great many things that contribute to personal 
beauty — a simple, various diet, pure air, proper exercise, regular habits, 
constant occupation, cleanliness, temperance in all things. Thuso 
things are of far more importance, as a means of increasing beauty of 
person, than people generally imagine. They add immensely more 
to personal good looks than the costliest clothing and the richest orna- 
ments. The glow of health on the cheek, the upright form, and elastic 
step and noble bearing which come from the constant practice of 
nature's physical commandments, do unspeakably more to beautify a 
person than any cosmetics art has contrived, or any decorations human 
ingenuity has invented, or any fashions that have been spun from the 
exhaustless cunning of the human imagination. But these are not tlit 
only means, indispensable as they are; they are merely the beginning. 
They furnish merely the materials out of which true beauty is built up 



Indeed, tl.ey give only the canvas and outline, which must be, com- 
pleted by the artistic and perfect blending of ethereal colors and a 
spiritual expression, to represent that higher order of beauty which re- 
alizes our ideal and wins the admiration of all cultured minds. It is 
strange that so nianj' people overlook a fact so important as this. A 
beautiful person is the natural form of a beautiful soul. The m_ud 
builds its own house. The soul takes precedence of the body, and 
hapes the body to its own likeness. 


A vacant mind takes all the meaning out of the fairest face. A sen- 
sual disposition deforms the handsomest features. A cold, selfish heart 
shrivels and distorts the best looks. A mean, groveling spirit takes all 
tlic dignity out of the figure and all the character out of the counte- 
nance. A cherished hatred transforms the most beautiful lineaments 
into an image of ugliness. It is as impossible to preserve good looks, 
with a brood of bad passions feeding on the blood, a set of low loves 
tramping through the heart, and a selfish, disdainful spirit enthroned in 
the will, as to preserve the beauty of an elegant mansion with a litter 
of swine in the basement, a tribe of gipsies in the parlor, and owls and 
vultures in the upper part. Badness and beauty will no more keep 
company a great while than poison will consort with health or an 
elegant carving survive the furnace fire. The experiment of putting 
them together has been tried for thousands of years, but with one un- 
varying result. Some people imagine that there can be no sufficient 
punishment for sensual indulgence and a sinful life without an ever- 
lasting prison-house of fire. But the laws of the spirit work in finei 
and surer ways than any that the old doctors dreamed of, making sin 
punish itself, transforming the guilty face, cutting and staining the 
features and countenance into shapes and hues of ugliness. 

Stand on one of the crow T ded streets and note the passers-by, and any 
one can see how a vacant mind has made a vacant eye, how a thought 
less, aimless mind has robbed the features of expression ; how vanit; 
has made everything about its victim petty; how frivolity has fadea 
the luster of the countenance; how baby thoughts have made baby 
faces ; how r pride has cut disdain into the features and made the face a 
chronic sneer ; how selfishness has shriveled, and wrinkled, and with- 
ered up the personality ; how hatred has deformed and demonized 
those who yielded to its power; how every bad passion has turned 
tell-tale and published its disgraceful stoiy in the lines of the face and 
the look of the eye; how the old man who has given himself up to 
every sort of wickedness is branded all over with deformity and repul- 
siveness — and he will get a new idea of what retribution is. This may 
not be all, but it is terrible — this transforming of a face our e full of 
hope and loveliness into deformity and repulsiveness, then the rose 
blushing on its stalk, now ashes and a brand. 



There is no scul( tor like the mind. ' The man who thinks, reads, 
studies, meditates, has intelligence cut in his features, stamped on his 
brow, and gleaming in his eye. There is nothing that so refines, pol- 
ishes, and ennobles face and mien as the constant presence of great 
thoughts. The man who lives in the region of ideas, moonbeams 
though they be, becomes idealized. There are no arts, no gymnastics, 
no cosmetics which can contribute a tithe so much to the dignity, the 
strength, the ennobling of a man's looks as a great purpose, a high de- 
termination, a noble principle, an unquenchable enthusiasm. But moi e 
powerful still than any of these, as a beautifier of the person, is the 
overmastering purpose and pervading disposition of kindness in the 
heart. Affection is the organizing force in the human constitution. 
Woman is fairer than man, because she has more affection than man. 
Loveliness is the outside of love. Kindness, sweetness, good-will, a 
prevailing desire and determination to make others happy, make the 
body a temple of the Holy Ghost. The soul that is full of pure and 
generous affections fashions the features into its own angelic likeness, 
as the rose by inherent impulse grows in grace and blossoms into love- 
liness which art can not equal. There is nothing on earth which so 
quickly awd so perfectly beautifies a face, transfigures a personality, re- 
fines, exalts, irradiates with heaven's own impress of loveliness as a 
pervading, prevailing kindness of heart. The angels are beautiful be 
cause they are good, and God is beauty because He is love. 


To be beautiful in person, then, we must not only conform to all the 
laws of physical health, and by gymnastic arts and artificial appliances 
develop the elements of our physical being in symmetry and complete- 
ness ; but we must also train the mind and develop the affections to the 
highest possible degree. To be beautiful, we must feed the spark of in- 
tellectual fire by reading and meditation, until it burns in steady flame, 
irradiating the face by its brilliancy, suffusing the countenance with 
light. To be beautiful, we must fill the brain with great thoughts and 
live in an atmosphere of ideas. To be beautiful, we must put a great, 
organizing, and ennobling purpose into the will, and concentrate our 
thought and affection upon it until enthusiasm wells up in the heart, 
and suffuses the countenance, and rebuilds the body on its own divine 
plan. To be beautiful, we must cherish every kind impulse and gener- 
ous disposition, making love the ruling affection of the heart and the 
ordering principle and inspiring motive of life. The more kindness, 
the more beauty; the more love, the more loveliness. And this is the 
beauty that lasts. Mere physical good looks fade with the years, bleach 
out with sickness, yield to the slow decay and wasting breath of mor- 
tality. But the beauty that has its seat and source in kind dispositions, 
and noble purposes, and great thoughts, outlasts youth and maturity, 
.ncreases with age, and, like the luscious peach, covered with the deli- 
cate plush of purple and gold which comes with autumn ripeness, is 
never so beautiful as when waiting to be plucked by the gatherer's hand. 




IRITIS gentleman has by nature a strong and vigorous constitution- 
and ability to endure hardship and labor, both physical and nien- 
" tal. The Motive temperament is indicated by a strong frame and 
ample muscular system, as well as by his marked features. He has a 
large brain and comparative fineness of texture, indicating a mental 
temperament, and now, at the advanced age of nearly eighty years, he 
exhibits briskness and elasticity, energy of mind and body, and a keen 
enjoyment of whatever is transpiring. He is not haughty, but self- 
reliant. He has large Benevolence, indicated by that highness of head 
in front, and also by those munificent generosities which he has organ- 
ized for the benefit of the poor. He has but little tendency to follow 
the customs and usages of others. His dress and manners are guided 
by his own sense of propriety, without much regard for the prevailing 
fashion. He is a good reader of man — understands character readily , 
knows how to select men for particular duties, and to govern them 
accord ingty. He is a critical and discriminating man; knows how to 
classify, organize, and administer affairs with wisdom and success. 

He has a good memory of facts and things ; has good mechanical 
talent ; readily appreciates improvements, and adapts them to use. H<_ 
; s frank, opendiearted, truthful, yet cautious and mindful of constjquen 
ces. He has more than common energy of character, earnestness 
courage, and promptness. 

330 OUR A N T N UAL. 

He is warmly social; interests himself in family and friends, and 
wins his way to the kindly and affectionate regard of old and young 
His head rises high from the eyes and ears, the top-head being amply 
developed, showing strong moral tendencies. He is upright, truthful, 
respectful, pei severing, kindly, sensible, practical, and energetic. 


This eminent philanthropist was born on the 12th of Februaly, 17 l Jl. 
His father was an officer in the Revolutionary army. Peter was ap 
prenticed to the trade of coach-making, and was successful as a work- 
man ; but when the war of 1812 broke out, and America was obliged to 
go to manufacturing woolen cloth, Mr. Cooper engaged in the manu- 
facture of machinery for that purpose; he has since been engaged in 
the manufacture of glue, also in the manufacture of iron and iron ware. 
The first locomotive in general use on this continent was built by Mr. 
Cooper, at Baltimore, after his own designs, and was used on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Mechanism or scientific improvement 
has always interested Mr. Cooper. He was warmly interested in the 
electric telegraph from its earliest inception, and invested liberally in 
aid of its establishment. He has made his name especially famous, 
however, through his many acts of chanty. The erection of the 
splendid building known as the Cooper Institute, located in the central 
part of New York, costing several millions, designed for the free edu- 
cation of the working classes, has been the crowning, as it will be the 
most noted and lasting labor of his life. This Institute furnishes 
opportunity for acquiring a scientific education, in connection with 
which there is a chemical laboratory and school of design, a large, free 
reading-room; there are classes in mathematics, natural philosophy, 
chemistry, architectural drawing, mechanical drawing, and vocal music, 
besides a school of design for women. The building is fireproof, and 
quite below the level of the street there is one of the largest and best 
lecture-rooms in the city ; above this, on the main floor, are elegant 
"stores, the rental of which is designed to maintain the working 
portion of the institution so that the benefit shall be self-sustaining 
and perpetual. Peter Cooper has a reputation for integrity, kindness, 
common-sense, and practical philanthropy which is eminent and envi- 
able. Many rich men hold on to their property during life, and leave 
it to be wrangled over by selfish and grasping heirs who not unfre- 
quently disgrace the deceased by proving him insane or imbecile, that 
they may break his will and divide the estate. Mr. Cooper has evinced 
not only a kindly spirit toward the poor and the public, but has shown 
solid wisdom in disposing of a considerable portion of his property 
during his lifetime, and the people duly appreciate his kindness and 
good sense, for when he enters the great auditorium of the Cooper Insti- 
tute, whether the meeting be convened for political, literary, scientific, oi 
musical purposes, his appearance is always a signal for an outburst of 
rapturous applause. Everybody in New York knows Peter Cooper 
and delights to honor, him. May he live a hundred years ! 




riVIIS celebrated American actress and authoress died in London 
on the 29th of July, 1870, aged about fifty years. She was bom 
in Bordeaux, France, about the year 1821, where her father, Sam- 
uel G. Ogden, a merchant of New York, was temporarily established 
in business. She was the tenth of a family of seventeen children, and 
her early childhood was passed in an elegant chateau, in the private 
'.heater attached to which she frequently participated in the juvenile 
theatrical performances with which her brothers and sisters were ac- 
customed to amuse themselves. When she was about six years old the. 
family returned to New York, arid Anna Cora, in the intervals of daily 
study, devoted much time to reading and private dramatic entertain- 
ments. Wnen about fifteen years of age she married Mr. James Mow- 
all, a lawyer of New York. During the first two years of her married 


life she devoted herself to study and the writing of poetry, when her 
health began to fail, and she made a visit to Europe of a year and a 
half, during which she wrote a play entitled " Gulzora, or the Persian 
Slave." Not long after her return financial embarrassments overtook 
her husband, and as a means of support she gave a series of dramatic 
readings ir. Boston, New York, and other cities. She contributed brill- 
iant articles to the magazines under the pseudonym of " Helen Berk- 
ley,' and also wrote a five-act comedy entitled " Fashion," produced at 
lie Park Theater, New York, in March, 1845, with success. In June of 
be same year she was tendered an engagement at this theater, and at 
once attained the most complete success, which was followed by profit- 
able engagements in the principal theaters in the United States, which 
placed her once more in a position of ease and comfort. In 1847 she 
made her debut in Europe, and soon attained the rank of a star, creat- 
ing everywhere most favorable impressions. While in London in 1851 
Mrs. Mowatt lost her husband, and in 1854 became the wife of Wm. F. 
Ritchie, of Virginia. Since her last marriage Mrs. Ritchie has written 
several works of merit ; and though she retired from the stage and 
from public life, she devoted herself to literature for years, and like 
most artists who re-marry and retire, she returned again, not so much 
from necessity as from choice, to the stage and to dramatic readings. 

To gain distinction under favorable circumstances and with the or 
dinar}' aids to success, evinces talent; to achieve distinction in a diffi- 
cult profession in spite of obstacles without assistance, bespeaks genius. 
The antecedents of our subject, her trials and triumphs, prove her to 
be endowed with the latter. 

The phrenology and temperament of Mrs. Ritchie were remarkable. 
In the portrait we see indications of great activity, enthusiasm, earn- 
estness of purpose, intensity of thought and feeling, heroic courage 
and restless industry. Her large social development won for her 
friends and led her to live and labor for those she loved. She was 
self-reliant, ambitious, hopeful, respectful, spiritual, and sympathetical. 
She had large Ideality, Comparison, and Human Nature, which gave 
her imagination, sense of the poetical; the power of criticism and 
ability to read mind and motives, and to act out character to the life. 
She had a practical intellect, an excellent memory, and great readiness 
and availability of talent; hence her brilliancy of mind as a writer, an 
actress, and in society. 



f J~VIE proper way to obtain a practical knowledge of men is to 
mingle with and study them. A preacher has great opportuni- 
ties for this. He need not fear to lower his dignitj or impair 
his influence by a free and easy intercourse with all classes. The peo- 
ple have acute perceptions, and will give him credit for all that is good 


in him ; and he lias no right to demand more. Indeed, if lie have not 
native goodness and intelligence enough to retain the confidence of his 
people in the closest social intercourse, the sooner he relinquishes his 
office the better for all concerned. It is no excuse to say that he can 
not spare time from his studies ; for no labor will more surely bring a 
return of added power and elocpience than the study of his flock around 
their own hearths. The best books are only transcripts of the human 
heart, and here he can study the original in all its freshness. 

But merety to mingle with the people will not fully cultivate this? 
critical knowledge of character, unless it is made a particular study. 
A good way of doing this is to write down our first thoughts and im- 
pressions of persons we come in contact with, and test our correctness 
by subsequent experience. We thus discover the source of our errors, 
and avoid them in future, and, at the same time, form a habit of obser- 
vation which, if continued for years, will increase the acuteness of oui 
perceptions until we are able to read men at the first glance. 

But most valuable of all means for attaining this power is a thorough, 
practical acquaintance with Phrenology. Much ridicule has been 
thrown on this science by traveling impostors, who have practiced 
character-reading, together with witchcraft and fortune-telling — just as 
astronomy and astrology were once joined. But such associations are 
not more necessary than that sometimes supposed to exist between 
geology and unbelief. Phrenology is a branch of the inductive sci- 
ences, established and tested b} r observation and experiment. Its two 
cardinal principles are: First, that the brain is the organ of mind ; 
second, that different mental functions are performed by different 
parts of the brain. The latter is no more unreasonable than to suppose 
that the different bodily actions, walking, lifting, eating, smelling, etc., 
are performed by different parts of the body. The first proposition is 
admitted by all ; and if the second is allowed to be reasonable, it then 
becomes easy to determine whether the correspondence of faculty and 
organ in any case is sufficiently proved. The poets Whittier and 
Bryant, Horace Greeley and the eminent educator Horace Mann, all 
professed to derive great advantage from the study. Henry Ward 
Beecher, who stands among the first of living orators, attributes all his 
power "in making sermons^" to the early and constant study of 
Phrenology. It is an instructive fact, that although the different or- 
gans were discovered singly and at long intervals, yet when the con- 
tributions of many laborers have been brought together, the result is a 
most beautiful and perfect mental philosophy — contrasting with the 
waning systems of metaphysics as the clear sunlight does with clouds 
and night. We give it as a deliberate opinion, that it is better for 
the preacher to remain ignorant of any one of the natural sciences or 
learned languages, than to neglect that study which unfolds the laws 
of mind and teaches us to understand our fellow-men.* 

* "Oratory, Sacred and Secular." 


ON the evening of the 8th of June, 1870, while entertaining a party 
of friends at his house near London, Charles Dickens, the eminent 
novelist, journalist, etc., suddenly expired from an attack of 
apoplexy. His death created a profound impression on hoth sides of 
the Atlantic. 

He had a large brain, chiefly developed in the front, side, and back 
head. The intellectual lobe, including both the perceptive and reflec- 
tive groups, was of large size. Language was very large ; Ideality, 
Sublimity, Imitation, Mirthfulness, Human Nature, Constructiveness, 
and Benevolence were well marked. His Veneration and Conscien- 
tiousness were moderate. Dickens lacked the spiritual, the devotional, 


the more exalted human characteristics, though he possessed boundless 
sympathy ; and he knew, like a dramatist, how to touch the affections 
and the sympathies of others. 

He was born at Portsmouth, February 7th, 1812; educated at Chat- 
ham and Roches '.er, and commenced the study of law in London. 
After two years' experience as an attorney's clerk, he left the law foi 
literature, taking first a reporter's position on a newspaper. 

From 1838 to 1842 he wrote "Oliver Twist," " Nicholas Nickleby," 
" Master Humphrey's Clock," " Old Curiosity Shop," and " Barnaby 
Radge," which served to assure his numerous readers that the} r had 
not mistaken the real genius of the author of Pickwick. The fertility 
of his imagination and the facility of his pen may be inferred from this 
immense amount of work in so short a time. In 1842 he visited the 
United States, and after his return in 1843 published " Martin Chuzzle- 
wit," as a sort of take-off of American men and manners. When our 
people complained of injustice, he said he had talked harder about the 
people of his own country and they had not complained. " Dom 
bey & Son," "David Copperfiekl," "Bleak House," "Little Dorritt," 
" Great Expectations," " Tale of Two Cities," and others of his works 
followed. In 1869 he made his second visit to America, and gave 
readings in the principal cities with decided success. 

He married Miss Hogarth, the daughter of a lawyer who had been 
an intimate friend of Sir Walter Scott and Jeffrey. The union did not 
prove a happy one, and after twenty years, during which several chil 
dren were born, an agreement to live apart was entered into between 
Mr. and Mrs. Dickens. The cause of their domestic unhappiness, as 
stated in the document of separation, was " uncongeniality of temper, 
implying no dishonor to either party." 

Mr. Dickens' life may be looked upon as an abstract of his numerous 
and remarkable works. His personality lives in them, and the chief 
feature of his character, charity, breathes through them. He was an 
earnest worker, yet he knew how to enjoy the comforts of life and 
society. One of his favorite recreations was the organizing of dramatic 
entertainments at home, to which he invited his literary friends and 

As a writer, he occupied a place by himself. He viewed life and 
character as no other man saw them, and at the same time he exhibited 
a masteiy in handling his subjects which won respect in the outset of 
his career. A writer of the people and from the people, his sprightly 
delineations of eccentric character made him as familiar to Americans 
00 to Englishmen, the good in his works winning our esteem and 
theirs. He had his faults; but we believe his literary labors sprang 
from a good motive and were pursued with a good aim. At any rate, 
they exist, and his record is in them. 

The obsequies of the great writer were performed on the 14th of 
June, and his remains were deposited in the Poet's Corner of West- 
minster Abbey. He left an estate estimated at half a million dollars. 




Every new generation of men ninst learn the multiplication-tablc- 
and other primary facts of education ; and though it is said that the 
sons of the educated are more easily instructed than those from igno- 
rant parents, still all have to he carried through the same process of 
training and education to hring them up to sound intelligence. For 
forty years past certain objections have been occasionally raised to 
Phrenology, and as often explained and settled ; but every new set of 
students meets the same old stumbling-blocks and raises the same stale 
objections. When Phrenology was introduced, the educational estab- 
lishments were presided over by eminent men who had received their 
culture before Phrenology w as introduced to the public, and, supposing 
they had learned all that was worth learning, looked upon the science as 
an intruder, and felt bound to elbow it off the track. To a great extent 
the same spirit still prevails in institutions of learning as the result of 
the leaven of skepticism from the old-school men, and not one in fifty 
of these opponents has ever carefully, patiently, and honestly read a 
hundred pages on the subject from the pen of one of its acknowledged 

Mr. James P. Beck, writing through the Missouri Republican of St 
Louis, gives an article entitled " Phrenology a Humbug." He says: 

" The first great objection to Phrenology is that at best it is mere guess- 
work. It begins by assuming that the mind is seated in the brain, a fact 
by no means certain or susceptible of demonstration. ' Understand with 
thy heart, and love thy God with all thy heart and soul,' saj r s the Bible. 
But independent of Holy Writ, fully as many arguments can be adduced 
for locating the mind in the heart as in the head. If it be true, as the 
Bible intimates, that the mind resides in the heart, it would seem that 
the breast is the proper place for the phrenologists to feel for it." 

We wonder who this James P. Beck is, to utter such a statement ! 
The subject of the brain being the organ of the mind we had supposed 
settled long since ; that at least this fact was accepted by all the anat- 
omists and physiologists. Gray, whose great work on Anatomy and 
Surgery is the standard in all our medical colleges, says (page 510) : 

" The average weight of the brain in the adult male is 49a oz., or a 
little more than 3 lbs. avoirdupois ; that of the female 44 oz. ; the 
average difference between the two being from 5 to 6 oz. Tiie pre- 
vailing weight of the brain in the male ranges between 46 oz. and 53 
o",. ; and in the female, between 41 oz. and 47 oz. In the male, the 
maximum weight out of 278 cases was 65 oz., and the minimum -weight 
34 oz. The maximum weight of the adult female brain, out of 191 
cases, was 56 oz., and the minimun weight 31 oz. It appears that the 
weight of the brain increases rapidly up to the seventh year, more 
slowly to the period between sixteen and twenty, and still more slowly 
(o that between thirty and forty, when it reaches its maximum. Be- 
yond this period, as age advances and the mental faculties decline, the 
brain diminishes slowly in weight, about an ounce for each subsequent 
decennial period. The size of the brain appears to bear a, general rela- 


Hon to the intellectual capacity of the individual. Cuvier's brain weighed 
rather more than 64 oz., that of the late Dr. Abercrombie 03 oz., and 
that of Dupuytren 62J oz. On the other hand, the brain of an idiot 
seldom weighs more than 23 oz." [Daniel Webster's brain was not 
surpassed in weight by any cases on record, except by the three above 
named, 62 oz., we believe, being the weight of his.] 

In ^peaking of the convolutions of the brain's surface, Gray says 
(page 51G) : 

"The number and extent of the convolutions, as well as their depth. 
appear to bear a close relation to the intellectual power of the individ- 
ual, as is shown in their increasing complexity of arrangement as 
we ascend from the lowest mammalia up to man. Thus they are 
absent in some of the lower orders of mammalia, and they increase 
in number and extent through the higher orders. In man they present 
the most complex arrangement. Again, in the child at birth, before 
the intellectual faculties are exercised, the convolutions have a very 
simple arrangement, presenting few undulations, and the sulci between 
them are less deep than in the adult. In old age, when the mental 
faculties hate diminished in activity, the convolutions become less prom- 
inently marked." 

From this it would seem evident that the brain was understood by 
the most learned of anatomists to be the organ of the mind. 
Carpenter, in his " Principles of Human Physiology," says (p. 530): 

"We shall now- proceed with our physiological inquiry into the 
functions of the cerebrum. The anatomical relations of the cerebrum 
to the other encephalic centers clearly demonstrate that it is not one 
of the essential or fundamental portions of the nervous system, but a 
superadded organ, receiving all its impulses to action from the parts 
below, and operating upon the body at large through them ; and its 
great bulk, joined to its position at the summit of the whole apparatus, 
clearly mark it out as the highest in its functional relations, and as 
ministering, so far as any material instrument may do, to the exercise 
of those psychical (mind or soul) powers which in man exhibit so remark 
able a predominance over the mere animal instincts. This conclusion is 
fully borne out when we extend our inquiries from human to compara- 
tive anatomy; for, with some apparent exceptions, which there would 
probably be no great difficulty in explaining if w r e were in possession 
of all the requisite data, there is a very close correspondence between 
the relative development of the cerebrum in the several tribes of ver- 
tebrata, and the degree of intelligence they respectively possess" 

Again (page 533) : " That a cerebrum which is greatly under the 
average size is incapable of performing its propter functions, and the pos- 
sessor of it must necessarily be more or less idiotic, there can be no 
reasonable doubt. On the other hand, that a large, well-developed 
cerebrum is found to exist in persons who have made themselves conspic- 
uous in the world, in virtue of their intellectual achievements, may be 
stated as a proposition of equal generality. On the other hand, those 
who have obtained most influence over the understandings of others 
have always been large-brained persons. It is very different, however, 
with those w T ho are actuated by what is ordinarily termed genius, and 
whose influence is rather upon the feelings and intuitions than upon 
the understandings of others. Such persons are often very deficient 
in the power of even comprehending the ordinal'}' affairs of life ; and 
still more commonly they show an extreme want of judgment in the 


management of them, being under the immediate influence of then 
passions and emotions. The life of a 'genius,' whether his bent be 
toward poetry, music, painting, or pursuits of a more material charac- 
ter, is seldom one which can be held up for imitation. In such persons, 
the general power of the mind being low, the cerebrum is not usually 
found of any great size." 

Thus the chief anatomists and physiologists of the world maintain 
that the brain is the organ of the mind, that the quality of the brain 
indicates the quality of the mind, and that the size of the brain, other 
things being equal, is a measure of mental power ; and this is the old 
doctrine of Phrenology from the beginning, — yet Mr. James P. Beck 
says the mind can not with any certainty be located in the head. We 
leave Mr. Beck on this point between Carpenter and Gray, as the 
upper and nether millstones to grind him to powder. 

Mr. Beck says, again : 

" If the mind be located in the brain, it is physically impossible to 
tell the shape of the brain from the outside skull, for the reason that 
the inner and outer plates of the skull are not parallel ; and if they 
were, the brain does not in many places touch the inner plate." 

We have seen a good many skulls opened, and never before heard 
or dreamed that the brain did not lie plump against the inner plate of 
the skull, separated only by the thin membrane which lines the skull. 
Mr. Beck can not be an anatomist, or he would have spared us that 
statement. There may be empty places in same heads, but it has 
never been our fortune to see them. We introduce an engraving, 
fig. 1, to show the lower half of a skull which has been sawed open 
and the top removed. It is true that the skull is made of two plates, 
the outer and the inner. Between these two there is a spongy honey 
comb structure, called diploe, filled with nutritious juices, small blood- 
vessels, and nerves. On the edge of the skull, laid bare by the saw, in 
rig. 1, a dotted line will be seen which represents this cellular struc- 
ture. The same is seen in the inside of all other bones of the body 
but there is a law which governs this structure as much as that of the 
two plates of the skull. The thickness of the skull, including both 
plates and the diploic structure, is generally about three-sixteenths of 
an inch, in a healthy skull of active temperament, and sometimes * 
little more ; and there is a general parallelism varying perhaps some 
times one-eighth of an inch. But Mr. Beck, like most other ill-in 
formed critics of Phrenology, seems to suppose that we judge of th*. 
size of organs by the little hills, or hollows, or bumps. He says, " It 
is a fact, for which we are not indebted to phrenologists, that the 
greatest minds have the smoothest pates." Not stopping to admire 
Mr. Beck's elegant name for the human head, we remark that we do 
not determine the size of an organ by the shape of the surface of the 
head, merely, at the location of each organ. It is not by the bumps, or 
hollows, or hills of the head alone that we determine wheHler organs 
are large or small. If so, a smooth, even head must be set down as 
having no organs al all. When all the organs are of equal size, the 



surface wiU be comparatively smooth, and the head well formed or 
beautiful. When one portion of a head is made up of large organs, 
it will sometimes stand an inch farther from the medulla oblongata or 

center of the brain than other por- 
tions, yet the head throughout that 
large region will be quite smooth. A 
man with a 23-inch head might have 
all his organs large, and there miprlit 
not be a bump on his head ; on the 
same principle that a wagon wheel 
may be large, having long spokes on 
every side, and yet have a perfectly 
smooth rim. A head of average size 
might be twenty-one inches, and b : 
shaped exactly like the large head, 
and all the organs be average in size, 
and the mental caliber be less strong 
accordingly; just as the forward 

wheel of a wagon being a third smaller 
Fig. 1.— Base of Skull, . ° . 

Showing the edge of the skull, its rela- tlian tlie llmd one > 1S > nevertheless, 
tive thickness— the dotted Hue showing just as round, and its surface just as 
the division hetween the two plates. smooth. 

If a line be drawn through the head from the opening of one ear 
to the opening of the other, it will pass through the capital of the 
spinal column at the base of the brain, which is called medulla oblon- 
gata. It lies just inside of the hole seen through the base of the 
skull, fig. 1. From that common center, in every direction, the brain 
radiates like the spokes of a wheel or the slats of a fan, and accord- 
ing to the length of these radii, or the distance from the common 
center of the brain to the surface where the organ is located, is the 
organ large or small. And 
though Ave have said this 
in unmistakable terms a 
hundred times in the Jour- 
nal, and five thousand 
times in our lectures, still 
learned dunces insist on 
battling Phrenology as if 
the last quarter of an inch 
of the surface of the head 
was the only indication we 
had of large or small or- 
gans. "We have taken the 
trouble, and been at some 
expense, to have engrav- 
ings prepared for the illns- 

Fig. 2. — Bio Thunder — Side; View. 

tration of this subject, which are here introduced. We have made 



top views, side views, and front views of two skulls (the originals 
being subject to the inspection of any person who will take the trouble 
to call at our office), and we think by the aid of these we can make this 
subject of radial development, or length of fiber from the center of the 
brain, plain to the mean- 
est capacity. Fig. 2 is a 
side view of the skull of 
Big Thunder, a noted 
Winnebago Indian chief, 
whose head is short but 
very broad. The Indian 
character is chiefly known 
for those qualities which 
come from the middle 
lobes of the brain, viz., 
the propensities, especial- 
ly Destructiveness, Com- 
bativeness, Cautiousness, 
and Secretiveness, but not FlG - 3.— African— Side View. 

for social or intellectual power. Compare the form of this head with 
fig. 3, the skull of an African, which is long and narrow, showing 
weakness in the organs of the side-head, by the large development of 
which the power of the Indian character is distinguished. The brain of 
the negro runs far back, showing great social power, but the head being 

narrow there is not great force. 

We introduce the same skulls in 
different aspects. Fig. 4 shows 
the top view of Big Thunder's 
head with its great width and ter- 
rible power; and on the surface 
will be seen the dotted outline of 
the African, fig. 3. See how much 
broader and shorter Big Thunder's 
skull ! and, according to Phrenol- 
ogy, how much more policy, and 
power, and force, and caution 
would be exhibited ! Now, the 
difference in the width cf these 
two skulls in the region of the 
ears is an inch and a quarter, and 
there is a difference of three 
quarters of an inch in the length 
of the two heads, yet the skulls 
themselves, which have been saw- 
ed open, are of about equal thickness. Who will say that there 
could be a difference of an inch and a quarter in the thickness of 
the two skulls if they now belonged to the living heads, instead 

Fig. 4.— Big Thunder— Top View, 
with Dotted Outline op African. 



Fig. 5. — African— Top View, 
with Dotted Outline of P.ig Thunder. 

of being opened to inspection by the saw? The thickness of skulls 
can not, by any possibility, account for the differences in the dimen- 
sions of heads ; and those of which 
we have here given the measure- 
ment do not indicate the broadest 
differences we can find either in 
our cabinet or in our daily pro- 
fessional practice. Contrast fig. 4 
with fig. 5, the same skulls, the 
African being shaded with the 
dotted outline of Big Thunder 
lying over it, and with these facts 
before the reader, he can not but 
see that a phrenologist must he 
dull indeed who would make a 
mistake on such heads; and lie 
who would say that the differences 
in heads could be made up by the 
differences in the thickness of 
skulls, either does not know, or 
intends to misstate, the facts. Fig. 
6 is a front view of the skull rep- 
resented by fig. 3. The side view, fig. 3, shows it to be long. Fig. G 
shows it to be narrow. Fig. 7 is a front view of Big Thunder, of which 
fig. 2 is the side view. How broad it is in the region of the ears! Mr. 
Carpenter, already quoted, speaks of men of sound understanding and 
men of genius, the one class being governed by their will and judg- 
ment, the other by their emotions. 
Phrenology explains this perfectly. We 
determine the size of the intellectual 
organs, as a class, by the length of the 
head forward of the ears as much as by 
the height and scjuareness of the fore- 
head. A person may have a large head, 
yet, a short forehead ; that is, the dis- 
tance from the opening of the ear to 
the center of the forehead may be short, 
but the back-head may be long and 
wide and require a large hat, Avhile the 
inlellect, the organs of which are located 
in the forehead, being small, is weak. 
Again, a person may have a small head 
and a strong intellect, but it will be found that the principal part of the 
brain is forward of the ears. The idea, therefore, entertained by un- 
informed objectors, that a person requiring a large hat should be intel- 
lectual in all cases, and one requiring an average or small hat must be 
necessarily weak in intellect, is a palpable fallacy. The average Indian 

Fig. 0. — Afp.ican— Fuont View. 



bram is about as large as that of the white man, but he is far his inte- 
rior in intellect. Those who are acquainted with Indian heads are 
aware that their middle lobes of the brain are immense, while the 
anterior or intellectual lobes are com- 
paratively deficient. But the Indian 
mind corresponds with the shape of 
his brain. His animal passions are 
excessively strong compared with his 
intellect. Pride, determination, cau- 
tion, slyness, ana cruelty are his lead- 
ing characteristics, and ihe organs of 
these propensities are located about the 
ears and crown of the head. Tne an- 
nexed figures representing a bottom 
view of two brains illustrate this point. 
Fig. 8 shows a Caucasian brain. The 
letters A A and B B show the anterior 
or intellectual brain; from B B to Fig. 7— Big Thunder— Front View. 
C C, the middle or animal lobes of the brain ; D I), the posterior oi 



n D 

Fig. 8.— Caucasian Brain— Bottom View. 

Eocial brain. The same letters also relate to fig. 9. It will be seen 
that in the Caucasian brain the three regions are nearly equal, while in 



the Indian there is a vast predominance in the size of the middle 
lobes. Fig. 1 shows where the three lobes of brain rested during lifr, 
and represents very fairly the Caucasian head, while fig. 4, a top view 
of the head of Big Thunder, shows a correspondence with the Indian 
brain, fig. 9. in broadness and shortness, and comparative smallness in 
front Can Mr. Beck see any difference between fig. 8 and fig. 9? 
If these were inclosed in the skull, would he have to hunt for hills 
and hollows to see any difference in those middle lobes ? Could he 
see no difference between the outlines of fig. 4 and fig. 5 ? Would a 
little deviation in the thickness of the skull or in the form of the 
surface of the skull throw him entirely off his balance? Did he never 
see hens' eggs that were short and broad, and others that were long 
and more oval? and did he suppose the difference in their form to be in 
the difference existing in the thickness of the shells ? This \s 
perfectly analogous. The shells of eggs differ in thickness. Some are 
so thin they scarcely are sufficient to maintain the fluid mass withii , 
while others are comparatively thick and firm. 

Fig. 9.— Indian Brain— Bottom View. 

But we can determine a thick and a thin skull during life. Let the 
hand Le laid firmly upon the top of the head, and ask a man to speak, 
or cough, or clear his throat, and there will be a sensible vibration. 
People with fine hair, thin skin, light limbs, and small, finely chiseled 
features will have a thin skull generally, and the vibration will be 
very great, while a person with a big fist, coarse hair, strong features. 



and stout shoulders -will have a thicker skull, and the vibration will be 

less. A man versed in physiology and anatomy can instantly see by 
temperament and the general make-up of a man about how thick his 
skull is, almost as easily as one can determine the thickness of egg 
shells by feeling the force required to break them 

Fig. 10 is copied from the cast of the head of Black Hawk. How 
broad that base ! how the head narrows as it rises ! He was well 
known as a cruel, ferocious warrior. He was a marked specimen ot 
predominant animal and selfish propensities. He delighted in all the 
savage cruelty of Indian warfare, and ^-~^ 

his untamed nature would not wince 
even in the presence of the great Gen- 
eral Jackson ; and though he was a cap- 
tive in the heart of the enemy's coun- 
try, be still stood erect and felt like a 
thunderbolt, strong and self-contained. 
Compare Black Hawk with fig. 11, 
Gosse. copied from a cast of the living 
head. He was noted for kindness, mo- 
ral sympathy, unselfishness, and ineffi- 
ciency. His head was narrow and *~^- - 
flattened at the sides. The head of Fig. 10.— Black Hatvk, from Cast. 
Gusse. though on the whole as large as that of Black Hawk, "would 
measure from side to side less than the inside of the skull of Black 
Hawk at the region of the middle lobes of the brain in the region above 
and about the ears; and will anybody tell us that that difference is 
made up by the thickness of the skull ? 
In toe light of these engravings and of this argument, the talk about 
bumps, and about the slight differences in the 
thickness of skulls, or in the thickness of dif- 
ferent parts of the same skull, must vanish into 
thin air, and ought to make their advocates 
ashamed of their folly or misrepresentation, or 
both. But we apprehend that they don't know 
any better. The frequent remarks which in- 
telligent people make in our office show that 
there is a wide-spread error abroad, to the 
effect that we determine the size of organs, 
not by the length of fiber from the center of 
the base of the brain, but by slight undulations 
of the surface. For they say, " You must have 
an exceedingly sensitive touch to notice the 
slight differences, between one organ and 
another;" whereas the length of fiber differs in different heads by » 
whole inch, and sometimes more. 

Mr. Beck, like others, must have his say at the frontal sinus or open- 
ing between the external and internal tables of the skull, which occurs 

Fig. 11. — Gosse, from Cast, 
Cnselfish and Inefficient. 




Fig. 12. — Frontal Sums. 
A. Childhood ; B. Manhood. 

above the root of the nose, in the region of Individuality, and some- 
times extends up to the margin of Locality and Eventuality. In Hg. 
12 we illustrate the subject of the frontal sinus or opening. A, shows 
a child twelve years of age, and the opening is represented entirely be- 
low the base of the brain, and 
up to that age it could offer there- 
fore no possible impediment to 
the correct examination of all 
the organs across the brow. 
When the voice changes and the 
person emerges from child life 
to adult life, the frontal sinus in- 
creases in size and extends up- 
ward. Sometimes it is very 
slight ; at other times the open- 
ing is greater. The celebrated 
Dr. Rush maintained that the 
frontal sinus constituted a kind 
of sounding-board for the voice ; 
that those in whom it was least 
had the most shrill voices, while 
those in whom it was the largest 
had the more grum voices. Before the voice changes from childish 
treble, the frontal sinus is known always to be small. "Woman has less 
of this sinus than man; and we believe those who have light, sharp, 
soprano, or tenor voices have less than those who sing a deep alto or 
a heavy bass. TVe believe, moreover, we can generally determine those 
who have a large and those who have a small frontal sinus by the ex- 
ternal appearance of the head, temperament, etc. 

In tig. 12 the sinus is seen to have risen from below the base of the 
brain to some extent upward. This frontal sinus affords sometimes an 
impediment to an accurate analysis of the organs located there, but not 
a serious obstacle, as we can generally estimate with considerable accu- 
racy the size of the opening. We have judged of many skulls relative 
to the size of the frontal sinus, and then sawed them open and com- 
pared our estimate with the facts. 

Mr. Beck closes with this stunning argument : " If Phrenology means 
anything, it destroj r s at one blow man's free agency, and establishes the 
grossest materialism in exchange for Christianity." He claims literally 
that from the heart proceedeth good and evil things, and not from the 
head. We should like to know how much more perfectly God made 
the heart than he made the brain, and if man's mental nature has the 
heart for an agent, how much more holy and perfect and immateric it 
is than if it were manifested through that other God-created organ — 
the brain. We do not see any materialism in the one view which docs 
not also belong to the other. If there were any difference, it would be 
in favor of the brain, since it is a far more delicate structure than the 


Heart. Certainly the heart is a very powerful muscle, while tie brain 
is a very delicate mass of most delicate nerve fibers, carefully protected, 
receiving ten limes more blood for its nourishment than any othei 
equal r, ortion of the system; and yet when this delicate brain is assert- 
ed to bi3 the instrument which the highest part of man's nature employs 
for its manifestation, it is gross materialism; but the soul may act 
through the heart, which is a mere muscle, and there is no materialism 
at all in it. Somehow the mind and the body have relation to each 
oilier. It is by means of the heart or the head most people firmly be- 
lieve. Without calling in question the biblical statement, we may 
simply say that the language respecting the heart is employed in har- 
mony with the public sentiment of the time. For we read in the Scrip- 
tures, also, that the bowels of compassion yearned, and that God tried 
Ihe reins of men ; but we suppose Mr. Beck would be ashamed to say 
that he felt sorry for poor persons in his bowels, that when he saw the 
affliction of some sorrow-stricken friend he had a sudden fit of colic. 
The Bible was not given as a scientific text-book. It was not made 
for the technical teaching of astronomy, or natural philosophy, or met- 
aphysics, scientifically considered. It employed the language and 
the metaphors adapted to the knowledge and opinions of men at the 
time; and the statement that the sun and moon stood still on a cer- 
tain occasion was no more intended to teach the real facts of astron- 
omy, than the expressions relative to the heart (inner life or disposition) 
being the fountain of wickedness were intended to teach mental science, 
or that the heart, and not the brain, was the seat of thought. Phrenol- 
ogy, we may say, lays the broadest and strongest foundation of any 
system of mental philosophy the world has seen in proof of the ex- 
istence of a God, moral responsibility, and immortality. There is no 
materialism in it that does not equally appertain to any other system 
of moral philosophy or religious teaching. But the term materialism 
is a club which bigotry and ignorance have always been inclined to 
wield against Phrenology. It is the mad-dog cry which men utter 
when they have no argument to use. Infidels and materialists have 
believed Phrenology, not because they were infidels, otherwise the 
multiplication-table might be condemned because some among its be- 
lievers did not accept the five points of Calvinism, or the thirty-nine 
articles of the Episcopal Church. 

The principles of Phrenology are true. Some men are not wibC 
enough in all cases to understand its application to all individuals ; even 
as there are few, if any, physicians wise enough to understand always 
perfectly every case of illness that may be brought to their attention. 
It is a great science to understand temperament. One can not always 
determine to the last degree of accuracy the thickness of the skull or 
scalp, or the state of health in which a subject may be, airl thus he 
may slightly overrate or underrate him. But Phrenology is the best 
philosophy of the mind the world has seen. It is the only practical 
science by which the minds of strangers can be read. One well versed 


in it will go into a dark room with twenty strangers, and be will give 
a better history of those men than most persons can do who have 
known them all their lives ; that is to say, a history of their real char- 
acters. Ten persons of widely varied attainment, talent, and dispo- 
sition may be put into a dark room, and if we can not so read the 
character of each that an honest, intelligent committee shall know and 
acknowledge whom we are examining in each case, we would be 
ashamed of ourselves. We will take the skulls of ten men whose char- 
acters daring life have been notorious for power in different directions, 
and we will write out their respective characters m such a manner a3 
not to make an essential mistake in the whole of them. Can Mr. Beck 
do the same by feeling of the breasts of men ? Can he tell about how 
much humanity, or courage, or deceit, or ambition, or affection, or 
intelligence, or ingenuity they have? 

We don't know who Mr. Beck is. Of course we have no personal 
feelings respecting him. As he has seen fit to attack Phrenology, and 
put his name to his article, Ave suppose he is willing to be criticised. 
We commend to alia careful study of Phrenology, not to see what 
flaws and defects it may have, but how much of truth; what aid it 
will give mothers and teachers in the training, guidance, and culture 
of the young; how much it may do for individuals in understanding 
themselves, that they may restrain their passions and build up their 
virtues, and guide and regulate their whole lives. Much yet remains 
to be learned of Phrenology, doubtless. The system is not yet complete, 
nor its expounders perfect in judgment and knowledge ; but if any 
man will spend one hour with us in the careful examination of our 
collection, and we can not convince Ixv authentic skulls and the casts ot 
historical heads that Phrenology is based on great fundamental truths, 
we will bury our skulls, break our casts, and seek another occupation. 

What it Costs. — There are 100,000 men in New York Avho receive 
wages for either manual or mental labor. If they take each one drink 
a day at ten cents each, the total expenditure is $10,000, and for cigars 
and tobacco, say ten cents each, $10,000, making $20,000 a day, $140,000 
a week, $.")f>0,000 a month, and $6,720,000 a year for drinking and 
smoking and chewing, and they neither give strength to the body, vigor 
to the nerves, nor health to the brain. — Evening Post. 

[Is that all? why not enumerate the diseases, pauperism, demoraliza- 
tion, and crime which also grow out of this drinking, smoking, and 
chewing? But what's the use? If one be so imbecile or idiotic that 
lie can not see that these things ruin thousands of human beings, 
what's the use of such exposures ? and even more sensible men, who 
see and deplore these facts, are such slaves to their appetites that they 
will not deny and free themselves. Oh, the weakness and folly of poor 
human beings ! Oh, the wickedness of self-indulgence and enervation ! 
Oh, the cowardice, and the apish imitation of perverted man! Why 
will he not reform? His tendency and his doom, proud and vain as 
lie is, seems to be down, down, down !] 



ALWAYS attend to checking yourself. If you feel like swearing at 
the baggage-master, check yourself. If you haven't a trunk full of 
clean clothes to check, you at least should be adequate to a check 

When you vacate your seat for a moment, leave a plug hat in the seat. 
"Some one will come along and sit down on it, thereby preventing your hut 
from being stolen. 

Passengers can not lay over for another train without making arrange- 
ments with the conductor. If a man has been on a "train" for a week or 
so, no conductor should allow him to lay over for another on any account. 

Ladies without escort in traveling should be very particular with whom 
they become acquainted. They needn't be so particular with those with 
whom they are unacquainted. 

Keep your head and arms inside the car windows, if you would keep your 
head and " carry arms." 

Never talk on politics; it encourages somebody to take a vote of the 

No gentleman will occupy more than one seat at a time unless lie be twins. 

Always show your ticket whenever the conductor asks for it. If you get 
out of humor about it, don't show it. 

Never smoke in a car where there are ladies. Get the conductor to turn 
the ladies out before lighting your cigars. 

Never use profane language in the car. Go out on the platform. Pro- 
fanity is never thrown away on a brakeman. 

If you can not sleep yourself, do not disturb the "sleepers." 

Look out for pickpockets. Pickpockets are never in the car, you know, 
as you have to look out for them. 

Provide yourself with sleeping berths before starting. No careful man 
will start out on a journey without a good supply of sleeping berths. [N. B. 
— Those put up in flat bottles are the best, as they are easily carried in the 

Always be at the railroad station in good time to take the train. Better 
be an hour too early than a minute too late, unless you are on your way to 
be hanged. — Fat Contributor's Saturday Night. 


It is not he with coffers filled Not he who, when his neighbor falls, 
With silver and with gild — Extends no friendly hands — 

Spurning the child whose limbs are chilled And when his suffering brother calls, 
With winter's piercing cold. At a proud distance stands. 

Not he who climbs the giddy height Not he who labors to destroy 
Where proud ambition reigns — His brother's worthy name — 

Who, as he urges on his flight, Whose hours base calumnies employ, 
The voice of grief disdains. His neighbors to defame. 

Not he whose cold and selfish breast These are not happy. They alone 
Ne'er felt for others' woe— Who live to bless mankind — 

Who never has the orphan blest, Who others' sorrows make their own, 
Nor wiped the tears that flow. True happiness will find. 


TI^IIE minds of many men are confused on this question. One rea- 
son for this is, the fact that they start out on wrong principles. 
They go on the suoposition that man is simply a developed ani 
rnal, whereas, in fact, he is a created human being. " In the image ol 
God created lie him." These secular philosophers, such as Owen, 
Darwin, Huxley, and others, fail to comprehend this grand fact; nor 
do they seem to understand where to draw the line between man and 
animals — between instinct and reason. Phrenology explains this whole 
matter. Man has a three-fold nature, and, for the sake of illustration, 
we may say the brain is like a three-story house. The lower story, in- 
cluding the cellar and kitchen, where the eatables and drinkables are 
supposed to be stored, answers to the animal propensities and the in- 
stincts. Here are located the organs of appetite, the sight, hearing, 
taste, smell, — indeed, all the senses, including the domestic affections, 
the procreative principle, common to reptile, animal, and man. 

The second story of this house, or brain, is occupied with a class of 
faculties not possessed by the animal, and here is where the line may 
be drawn between instinct and reason — man having both, while the 
animal has but one. Here in this second story is reason, causality, 
comparison, invention, with other powers not possessed by animals, 
but constituting necessary and ever-present powers of man. 

Now, let us move up one story higher. What do we find here? 
Furniture and appurtenances totally above the reach or comprehen- 
sion of any animal. AVe have Benevolence, which no animal ever pos- 
sessed ; we have Conscientiousness, a sense of justice on which integ- 
rity is based, never manifested by any animal ; we have the faculty of 
Hope, which gives man a sense of immortality ; we have faith, which 
gives him a spiritual sense o* a prophetic forecast of the higher life, of 
that which is beyond the reach even of reason ; we have Veneration, 
which gives devotion, and inclines man to acknowledge his obligation 
to obey the superior or creative Power, and render homage to his 
Maker, and be submissive to do his will. Man prays ! The lower ani- 
mals recognize no superior except after a trial of strength. These traits 
make man a different being from any of the animal kingdom — the 
crowning work of creation. 

And this is "man's place in nature." Between man and animal 
there is a marked separation, with no connecting links. Examine the 
heads, even the naked skulls of reptile, beast, bird, and man, and the 
whole thing is as simple as it is absolute. Then why pu7,zle over the 
question of man's ascent from plant to beast and from beast to human V 
Why not take these basic principles of Anatomy, Phrenology, anc 
Psychology, and settle the question on these principles? It will come 
to this at last. 

The three-fold nature of man we have often discussed, and now pro- 
pose to illustrate it, viz., the animal or instinctive, the intellectual 01 




Fig. 1. — Human Head. 

reasoning, and the n oral 01 spiritual natures. In fig. 1 these three 
ranges of powers are indicated. In region No. 1, below the first line, the 
organs in the base of the brain are shown. These are common to man 
and the lower animals. This region takes in the perceptive intellect, 

the passions, propensities, and 
such of the social organs as be- 
long to animal life. That region 
may be called the animal brain, 
located in the lower story of the 
head. Rising one step to region 
No. 2, we have the great reason- 
ing or intellectual field, which 
the animal does not share with 
man. In region No. 3 we have 
the moral and spiritual, which is 
entirely wanting in all the animal 
kingdom. These occupy nearly 
equal proportions in this well- 
balanced head. In fig. 3 we ex- 
hibit the skull of a human being, 
with the three regions indicated 
by dotted lines and marked by numbers. The moral and spiritual 
region is not quite so well developed in the skull, fig. 2, as in the head, 
fig. 1, but it answers all the purposes of illustration. 

Fig. 3 is the gorilla's skull. Its shaded outline shows the immense 
jaws and face, and the small bulb constituting the cranium. The 
brain is not larger than that of an infant a week old. We draw the 
same three lines, showing the regions as we show them in the human 
head. Region No. 1, it will be 
seen, takes in almost the entire 
brain, showing that :x yorilla 
has only the animal j ao«.i>u.s and 
instincts. We have dra*n:> i dot- 
ted outline of a human heud over 
the gorilla's, showing what the 
gorilla lacks in development up- 
ward. Although he is larger 
than man, bodily, he lias a small 
brain, and nearly all the brain he 
has is located in the animal or 
instinctive departments. Region 
No. 2 is practically wanting. Re- 
gion No. 3, as will be seen, is 
wholly wanting. If the head were developed according to the dotted 
outline, and the face were shortened off like that of a human being, 
and the prodigious jaws were more light and delicate, it would look 

Fig. 2.— Human Skull. 


liLe a human head, and with such a development would have the hu- 
man faculties to guide, regulate, and control his immense physica. 
forc(. But the 
gorilla is a beast, ,.-•'" """'---. n 

and only a beast, /' " 

with a beast's /- _\ 

brain and face; / 2 \ 

and though the 

outlino of the 

bodv has some Hw' , '/'''l^^^' 

' ma ' ogy to that BIl^Bs- 

f the human, the §/S \\' ' '* -"* ^ / 

mental qualities JHHfc "l '' - _'' 

which constitute 
human nature 

strictly speaking , ' W I 

are, in him, en- jfjf A ' 
tirely wanting. 

Those teeth are 
quite as savage 
and beastly as 

those of the bear, 

Fio. 3.— Gorilla. 
and the brain is 

shaped like that of a dog, with decidedly less of intelligence in the de- 
velopment of the brain, and far less of it in character. The advocates 
of the development theory make altogether too wide a leap from mon- 
key to man. They pass many animals in that leap which in point of 
intelligence are quite in advance of the whole ape tribe. 


, \KOM the earliest ages of which written history preserves a definite 
J i remembrance there have been men of deep, meditative disposi- 
tion who have made the study of human nature their chief intel- 
lectual occupation. The precepts of the ancient Chinese sage Confucius, 
and the hymns of the Hindoo Vasistha., which discover in many places 
a strong correspondence with certain parts of our Bible ; the brilliant of Plato, and the earnest previsions of Socrates with 
reference to the soul; the physiological insight of Aristotle, and the 
metaphysical teachings of the scores of others who might be named, 
show conclusively that the search after the truths of human nature 
has ever been going on ; that why w T e are, and how we are, so " fear- 
fully and wonderfully made" have been the questions most interesting 
to mankind. The former of these questions has been the one which has 
chiefly occupied the attention of the world. Our psychological nature, 
with its wealth of emotion, its doubts and fears, its yearnings and ex- 

352 OUR ANtf UAL. 

ai.ations, has found ready consideration with the reflective, while the 
less uncertain physical nature, with its complex arrangement of bones, 
muscles, arteries, veins, and nerves, has found only here and there a 
careful student. It was from such men as Aristotle, Fabricius, and 
Hippocrates, rather than from the ancient expounders of metaphysical 
theories, that the science of man received its early impulses. In these 
latter times there is no lack of men of brilliant endowment who give 
much attention to speculative inquiries with reference to the constitu- 
tion of mind and matter ; but it will be found on examination that the 
great majority of these link their speculations more or less closely to 
the deductions of physical science. The names of Bain, Spencer, Jack- 
son, Tyndall, Maud-esley, Darwin, Huxley, Emerson, Holmes, Porter, 
McCosh recur to us as distinguished illustrations of those power- 
ful minds that have lately given a new impetus to the study of man 
and his relations. Among these the reader will find some who have 
startled the civilized world by the boldness of their affirmations of the 
origin of the human race ; some who have spent years in searching for 
the essence of life ; and those who have published profound treatises 
on the properties of mind, and declared for it the possession of 
qualities divinely given and a destiny supremely exalted. 

It is, however, only within the past two centuries that a knowledge of 
the human organization has taken that positive form which merits the 
name of science. When Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood, 
a new era dawned in physiology and anatomy ; scientists felt that they 
had obtained at last a firmer footing, and that their future investiga- 
tions would not be altogether " in wandering mazes lost." Following 
closely in the wake of Harvey were many important discoveries, and 
the development of the human constitution has gone on with increasing 
rapidity. Many functions of the body which were formerly regarded 
inscrutable mysteries now rank among the elementary parts of tin 
physiological system. 

In keeping with the ad rancement of physiological inquiry has beer 
the improvement in method of surgical treatment. Many forms ol 
severe injury or of local disease which but half a century ago were 
deemed necessarily fatal, are now classed among those requiring but 
ordinary attention from the modern surgeon. Seemingly, there is no 
case so desperate that the surgeon will not grasp his instruments and 
make some effort to save life. There are schools and hospitals devoted 
to the treatment of particular parts of the body, as the eye, the ear, 
etc. ; and the most wonderful results are sometimes obtained by those 
who have devoted themselves to specialties in medical or surgical 
practice. The whole mechanical apparatus of the body has long been 
thoroughly investigated by anatomists, and the most elaborate charts 
or drawings made, exhibiting the different parts. In medicine the im- 
provement is scarcely less marked. Methods of treatment at once 
more simple, less painful or annoying to a patient, and more effective, 
have been discr vered; the use of the lancet and of violent drastic ai> 


plication 3 is now rarely resorted to. In fine, the functions of different 
organs are becoming well understood, and the hygienic and dietary 
laws more plainly defined. Now, health is best recovered and main- 
tained by prudent regimen, sufficient muscular exercise, and ample 
sleep, rather than by the swallowing of " tonics," pills, or powders. 

With a better understanding of the physical organization also has 
come the clearer perception of the nature and needs of the mental. 
Men have really begun to know themselves better than ever before. 
The lines of demarkation between the different races of men, the causes 
pre-cxistent or existing for the varieties of organization around us, and 
the different characters and habitudes of people, are now discerned 
with comparative certainty. There are numerous incorporated socie- 
ties whose very permanency depends upon carefully collated statistics 
of mortality or accident; witness the many insurance companies which 
flourish in every enterprising town. The duration of life in the case 
of civilized man has been so thoroughly investigated that an able lift 
insurance officer will confidently predict the probable extension of 
one's life. The knowledge of human nature to which we have attained 
is wonderfully shown in the methods applied in the treatment of in- 
sanity and idiocy. The majority of the insane are restored to reason, 
to friends, home, and usefulness ; whereas, not many years ago, when 
a person had lost his reason, and it was found necessary to confine him 
within the walls of an asylum, he went to a place where the cruelty 
of ignorant keepers and the prevailing gloom made it worse than a 
living tomb. 

Even idiots have become subjects of training. Within a few years, 
experiments made in Massachusetts, under the direction of such earnest 
and indefatigable philanthropists as Drs. Howe and Wilbur, have 
demonstrated beyond cavil the susceptibility of these unfortunates to 
mental elevation. The happy results developed in the cases of children 
previously regarded as hopeless imbeciles have awakened a profound 
interest throughout the country. Probably no triumph in intellectual 
science can be named which promises more beneficently for the future 
than this triumph of modern enlightenment over dwarfed, warped, be- 
nighted organization. 

The part performed by phrenologists in developing and disseminating 
general scientific knowledge can not be determined ; but that it is by 
no means insignificant is apparent. Before Dr. Gall appeared, a barriei 
of exclusiveness shut off the masses from participating with the learned 
lew in the results of scientific research. But the method he adopted, 
and which has ever been followed by phrenologists, of lecturing to 
public audiences, contributed to break through that barrier. Phrenology 
has demonstrated the right of all to knowledge of every kind, to the 
best privileges of education, so that now efforts are being made, 
especially in England and America, to popularize science in general. 
Lectures are delivered here and there on all branches ; booKs are mul- 
tiplying, and magazines, m which the facts and phases of nature are 


discussed in plain language ; while the children in many schools are 
taught the elementary principles of physical science. 

It is in the field of mind that Phrenology has performed her most 
conspicuous part, and in that field she has done a vastly important 
work. Whatever skeptics and sneerers may allege, it is Phrenology 
which has introduced a positive element into the consideration of mind, 
and demonstrated the functions of the brain and nervous system. 
What Harvey proved to the investigation of the bodily organization, 
Dr. Gall proved to the investigation of the nature and properties of 
mind ; while the teachings and writings of such eminent medicists as 
Spurzheim, Vimont, Cloquet, Broussais, and Andral of Paris, of 
Uccelli of Florence, of Otto of Copenhagen, of Berzelius of Stockholm, 
of Macintosh, Andrew Combe, and Lawrence of Scotland, of Elliotson 
and Barlow of England, of Blumenbach of Germany, of Caldwell of 
Kentucky, and of the celebrated George Combe of Edinburgh, have 
shed a blaze of light upon the relations subsisting between man and 
brain and upon the definite analysis of mental processes. The funda- 
mental principles of Phrenology have been appreciated and applied in 
the different departments of science and philosophy by hundreds of 
the learned who do not acknowledge themselves the followers of Dr. 
Gall, — like those we have just named, — and hence there has been a 
widespread diffusion of information directly or indirectly relating to 
Phrenology among the masses. To be sure, there are many things in 
the constitution of mind yet unexplained, and, indeed, its sphere seems 
to widen with each new revelation; but the " many things in heaven 
and earth " which were mysteries a hundred years ago have become, 
through our improved and clarified modes of intellection, greatly re- 
duced in number. 

The better men ccme to know themselves, the better they are able to 
unravel the complex tissues of the world without. There is a harmony 
between physical nature and revelation, and the more comprehensive 
our knowledge — science — the clearer that harmony is exhibited. 


"OW is it that we sometimes find bad men with good or well 
formed heads, and good men with bad or ill-formed heads ? " 
We are told in Holy Writ something about " fallen angels," by 
which we learn that oue may have been good enough to be an angel, 
but bad enough to fall. Our way of accounting for this is very simple. 
It matters not how good a musical instrument may be ; a bad hand 
may easily spoil it so that perfect music may not be obtained therefrom ; 
while a less perfect instrument, played on by an ordinarily skillful hand, 
may discourse harmonious sounds. So a good head may be so perverted 
by improper ass< ciations, wrong living, by dissipation, gormandizing, 
or drinking, as to utterly ruin tne man. Thus a good head badly used 


results in a bad character, while a head or brain less fortunate ly formed, 
being used to the best advantage, develops a goodly — yta, even a 
godly — character. We find nothing in the science of Phrenology opposed 
to the fact that the best men may fall from grace ; nor is there anything 
which teaches that the most unfortunately organized human beings 
above imbecility may not attain to excellence of character, and to 
acceptance with their Maker. 


PHRENOLOGY means the philosophy of the mind. It is distin- 
guished from all other systems of mental philosophy, — 
First — by recognizing the brain as the seat of thought — the 
organ of mental action ; in a sense as absolute as that the eye is the 
organ of seeing, and the lungs the organ of breathing. 

Second. It is maintained that the brain is the seat of thought no 
only, but that different parts of the brain are allotted to different facul- 
ties, as one set of nerves are devoted to tasting, another to feeling, an- 
other to hearing. 

Third. The strength of the several faculties is determined by the size 
of the different organs, the quality or temperament always being con- 

Fourth. Exercise strengthens and increases the size of the organs of 
the brain, on the same principle as exercise increases the size and 
strength of the muscles. 

Fifth. Health and temperament modify the action of the brain. 
Some who have a good temperament and a strong and healthy consti- 
tution will evince more mental power with a brain of average size than 
some who are endowed with a larger brain, if the health be poor and 
the temperament low and coarse. There is as much difference between 
men in regard to quality and temperament as there is between the 
different qualities of wood. A soft, spongy, and tender piece of willow 
wood compared with a piece of hickory of equal size will show a won- 
derful difference. It is the office of the student of human nature to 
ascertain whether the quality of the organization of a given person 
resembles willow or hickory wood, and to judge of the vigor and clear- 
ness of mind according to the quality and size of organs combined. 

SixtJi The brain is divided into hemispheres, or halves. If a line be 
drawn from the root of the nose over the top of the head to the back 
of the neck, it will describe the division between the right and left 
hemispheres of the brain. Indeed, there are practically two brains, 
just as we have two eyes ; but these two hemispheres are united by a 
ligament about as large as three fingers of a man, and thus bring the 
two parts into connection and co-operation. All the phrenological or- 
gans are doulle, being possessed by each half of the brain. Hence we 
bpeak of the orgaus of Causality, Cautiousness, or Combativem-ha- 


they are located in corresponding parts of each side of the head. The 
organs located directly on each side of the middle line we speak of aa 
Individuality, Comparison, Benevolence, Firmness, and Self-Esteem, 
and though the two organs lie pretty closely together, they are just aa 
separate as though they were situated down by the opening of the ears, 
— as far apart as possible. 

Seventh. We do not judge of the size of organs by little hills or nol- 
lows on the surface of the head, but by the length of the development 
from what is called the medulla oblongata, which lies at the top of the 
spinal cord, where it unites with the brain. The brain is developed 
by fibrous extensions from that common center toward the surface in 
every direction. The length of these fibers from the center to the cir- 
cumference indicates the size of the several organs. If the head rise 
from the opening of the ear very high, directly above that opening, it 
indicates large Firmness. If the line from the opening of the ear to 
the root of the nose be long, it indicates large Individuality as well 
as other organs in that region. Two foreheads may be shaped exactly 
alike ; but if one, from the opening of the ear, be an inch or hall' an 
inch shorter than the other, the organs of one would all be smaller 
than the other. Width of head just above the opening of the ears 
indicates large Destructiveness. Length of head from the opening of 
the ear backward indicates, in general, large social organs. 

Eighth. That the mind has many special powers or faculties is proved 
by the fact that some organs will be very strong, while others will be 
weak in the same person. A man may have strong reasoning power, 
but poor memory ; good ability to buy and sell, trade and make money, 
but poor talent for manufacturing, and the reverse. One man is good 
in mathematics, but poor in music ; another is excellent in music, but 
deficient in mathematical talent. One can talk freely, and know but 
little. Another is full of knowledge, but his language is deficient. 

l'hrenology is an interesting subject of study. Every person can be- 
come practically familiar with it, — certainly with its leading doctrines. 
It is valuable as an aid to self-culture ; in the selection of pursuits ; in 
the proper training and education of children, and in the selection of 
congenial companions for life. The names, numbers, and definitions 
of all the faculties, sentiments, and propensities will be found in an- 
other part of this work. 


THAT one mind operates on another is self-evident. A clergyman 
leads his flock ; as he thinks and teaches, so they think and 
believe. The school-teacher calls out and feeds the minds of his 
pupils. Each child is en rapport with the spirit of the teacher, or should 
be. A general imparts his spirit to his men, and if he has their coufi- 


dence, they will follow his lead, even to the death. The strong always 
lead the weak, through influence. One bad man perverts many. One 
slanderer may set a whole i immunity at war among themselves. One 
coward may create a panic, just as a wolf frightens a flock. One drop 
of ink will color a bucket of pure water. This, also, is influence. 
Throughout the world we find an intimate correlation between created 
things, a state in correspondence with the s}mipathetic relations exist- 
ing between man and man. And this important law of nature works 
for good in man, in everything ; tends to the development of man's 
better nature, and therefore to draw him upward. Those influences 
which we esteem in our hearts, whether they proceed from nature or 
from our fellow-men, are elevating and refining. The beauties of the 
world without, in earth or in air, inspire us with noble emotions ; the 
performance of some generous act by a friend warms us into a higher 
range of thought and feeling. 

The nature and tendency of influences depend more upon the mental 
Btate of a recipient than we generally suppose. If a person be not in 
the proper mental condition, the best influences will be lost upon him. 
To secure this condition of mental receptivity is a part of our educa- 
tion ; and the more highly trained or the more susceptible it becomes, 
the greater becomes our capacity for improvement and for happiness. 



IT is found that certain states of the body called temperament indi- 
cate certain physical and mental conditions. We judge of these 
by various indications, among others by the complexion. One ia 
light, or blonde; another is dark, or brunette; and there are various 
shades of difference ever recurring. These temperaments indicate tae 
degrees of activity or inertness ; great vitality, or a lack of it ; great 
motive power — a love for bodily action — or a passive disposition. One 
is lively, another is constitutionally lazy. One becomes muscuiai , 
another develops the nervous system in a prominent degree. One class 
of men or animals takes on fat more readily than another class. 

The thing for the delineator of character to understand is what 
temperamental condition predominates or has the ascendency over 
other states or conditions — whether the Vital, the Motive, or the 
Mental temperament predominates. One runs to nerve ; another lives 
in the ba^e of the brain ; another, higher up ; while others, still higher, 
dwelling, as it were, in the spiritual part of their natures. The practi- 
cal phrenologist must study these temperaments carefully. He must 
also know each one's present state of health. One may have a head 
of the finest proportions, with a " used-up" body, and hence be a mere 
cipher, amounting to nothing. There is no steam in the boile:', iij 


power in the engine ; his heart may beat, and the blood may circulate, 
but so fee >ly as to be without force or power. A watch with a weak 
or broken mainspring doesn't " tick." There are not a few good-look- 
ing men — men with good heads, but weak or broken mainsprings — 
who are as worthless as a worn-out timepiece. They don't tick. 

The phrenologist must know all this, and describe accordingly. 
Then, nice distinctions are made between all the various tendencies 
growing out of certain combinations of the faculties. Are Benevolence, 
Conscientiousness, Veneration, Hope, and Spirituality predominant'' 
An; the animal propensities, Appetite, Destructiveness. and CombatiTe- 
ncss subordinate? This indicates — nay, assures — a certain kind of 
disposition and character. Are Acquisitiveness, Secret iveness, and 
Cautiousness predominant '? and are the moral organs subordinate to 
these ? A veiy different phase of character may be manifested. Are 
Self-Esteem, Firmness, Combativeness, and Destructiveness large? 
One would be likely to " get out the way " when he saw that person 
coming. Arc these particular organs weak or small ? He who is thus 
constituted will be all the time getting out of the way of others. Are 
the intellectual faculties well developed ? perceptives and rcflectives 
large? or is the person simply a good observer and poor thinker? 01 
nee versa? The shape of the head and the bodily conditions will 
answer correctly. But must one necessarily act in accordance with 
phrenological developments? May he not cultivate those that are de- 
ficient and restrain those that are over-large ? Certainly he may ; and 
this is the encouraging feature connected with a knowledge of this 
subject. When one realizes that his Self-Esteem is so small that he 
greatly underrates himself, he should set about its cultivation. So of 
all the faculties. When one finds that he is excessively developed in 
Appetite, in Acquisitiveness, in Destructiveness, or even in Benevo- 
lence, it is his duty to " put on the brakes," and to try, so far as possible, 
to develop a symmetrical character. He must have a model before 
him ; let that model be his Saviour, and let him aim to be as perfect. 
It will not do for one to excuse himself for wrong-doing on the score 
of a strong proclivity or temptation. It is his duty to discover the 
weak points, and to fortify them and to restrain excesses. 

The office of a practical phrenologist is to put persons in right rela- 
tions to themselves and to the world ; to point out one's peculiarities, 
his capabilities, his deficiencies, his aptitude for this or for that 
particular pursuit, whether in a profession, in au art, in mechanism, in 
trade, in commerce, or in agriculture. For what is one by nature best 
adapted to excel in ? In what calling or pursuit can one rise highest 
end shine brightest? Where can he do the most good? grow in grace, 
and glorify his Maker ? 

To become a successful practical phrenologist one need not have 
studied all the dead languages. He may even dispense with a knowl- 
edge of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. If he understand good English, 
and has some knowledge of anatomy, physiology, physiognomy, eta. 


he will be in the line of investigation, and may qualify himself to teach 
the elementary principles of character-reading, as well as apply these 
principles to the scientific delineation of character. 

Children. — One of the greatest utilities of Phrenology is its applica- 
tion to the government and training of children. When it is considered 
that there are no two alike, it will be seen how necessary it is that each 
child shall be governed according to its peculiarities. One is extremely 
sensitive, another indifferent to blame or praise ; one is precocious, and 
all alive to surrounding circumstances ; another is dull, heavy, slow 7 , 
and inattentive. To develop body and mind symmetrically, to call out 
all the hidden or latent powers, one must understand the physiology 
and psychology of each child or pupil. Then, one may proceed under- 
staudingly, and make the most of the material he has to mold. So 
also in the treatment of criminals. One is made, much worse by 
harshness or severity ; he needs a word of encouragement, and he will 
exert himself to the utmost to please his employer or keeper. Another 
will submit only to power or force, and must beViurbed. A knowledge 
of each one's peculiar organization will enable the keeper, manager, 01 
superintendent to adjust his treatment to each peculiar case. 

The Insane. — The same is true of the insane. One must understand 
the causes of a person's insanity ; what faculties are warped ; whether 
the malady arises from bodily disease, or from some nervous shock. 
An intimate acquaintance with physiology and Phrenology would en- 
able the physician to mentally dissect his patient ; to discover exactly 
the state of the case, and how to treat the infirmity. 

Imbeciles. — So, too, in the case of an imbecile ; the first conditions 
to be determined are the quality of the organization, quantity of brain. 
and how one part is related to another ; whether there be harmony, or 
how to attain it. Until this be determined all efforts will be com- 
paratively futile. But when the exact conditions are understood, the 
capacity measured, one may proceed undcrstandingly, and develop 
whatever talent or capacity there is to be called out. 

Idiotcy. — The same is true of idiots. Bring them together in an 
asylum; classify them according to what there is of them, and then fit 
the teaching to the capacity of the subjects to be taught. If there be 
Imitation, develop it, and through this reach other faculties, such as 
Constructiveness, Numbers, Color, Form, etc. In short, after having 
discovered what there is to be educated, the teacher may go to work on 
his material and make the most of it. Thus may Phrenology be 
applied practically both to the delineation and development of char- 

The hundredth asteroid was discovered by Mr. Watson, of Detroit, 
Mich.; the 101st, and the last, by Dr. Peters, of Hamilton College Ob- 
servatory, N. Y. Twenty-seven of these bodies have been diacovered 
during the last twenty years. 



SCIENCE is exact, as illustrated in mathematics. Theology is in- 
exact. Spiritual subjects can only be discerned by spiritual vis- 
ion, and therefore can not be reduced to scientific formulas. The 
investigation of science engages especially the intellectual faculties, 
while religious worship engages the spiritual sentiments. Many lead- 
ing secularists, such as Franklin, Humboldt, Mill, ignore the claims of 
those who put mere belief above established fact. Whereas one's be- 
lief may be true, or may be false, — and there are supposed to be many 
false beliefs, — one philosophical fact will stand the test of time. There 
are more than a thousand religions or modes of worship among men, 
and nearly three hundred different creeds among Christians ; while 
there is but one law of gravity, one school in mathematics, and one 
system of optics. So far as understood, anatomy, chemistry, astronomy, 
botany, etc., are regarded as fixed the world over. In theology there 
a.e many schools, and of Scriptural commentators large numbers, no 
two of whom are found in anything like exact agreement. The mate- 
rial facts of science and philosophy are the same always and every- 
where, and there can be no theological platform broad enough to in- 
clude the race, until the race bases its religion on philosophical and 
scientific principles. "When this shall be done, we may hope to obtain 
a perfect system, in which one truth will be in keeping with every 
other truth ; when there shall be a oneness in all things ; as Pope has it — 

"All are but parts of one stupendous whole. 
Whose body Nature is, and God the soul." 

To the investigation of science and theology one must bring a sens- 
ible, honest, and candid mind. He must put away all prejudice, all 
superstition and bigotry, and with a meek, humble, and childlike spirit, 
with only the love of truth for his object, pursue his investigations. 
His starting-point must be a knowledge of himself; his faculties and 
their functions ; his relation to men and his Maker ; then with the tel- 
escope and microscope, with crucible and drill, with line and plummet, 
he can peer into the heavens above, and into the remotest objects be- 
low into the bowels of the earth and the bottom of the sea. He may 
lean, all that the faculties can comprehend, and by superhuman agen- 
cies take a prophetic view of the great Beyond. 

Yea, verily, science and religion may, nay, must, be harmonized. Men 
may come together in agreement, and all be led through Divine light 
imparted by the Holy Ghost. 

A. near-sighted eye is not a strong one, and does not become bcttei 
wit! advancing age. Myopia — short-sightedness — is a source of danger 
■nd frequently causes total blindness. 


ALL sentient beings are influenced by impressions through the 
senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell, or touch. All human 
beings have impressions as to the character or disposition of 
others. Every man you meet confesses to a belief in Physiognomy- - 
that he can infer what is the character of another by his looks, and 
thus it is practically conceded that the outward expression of one's 
features and actions indicates the internal or real character. The 
modern physiognomist has classified the various features, and reduced 
the hitherto vague intuitions or impressions to method ; these being 
systematized, the matter is reduced to science. As generally understood, 
Physioguomy relates to the features, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, etc., and 
that by their appearance certain states or conditions of the mind are in- 
dicated. The mind's expressions are never twice alike, are never fixed, 
save in death. Change is constantly occurring. Every thought, every 
emotion or impulse which passes through one's mind alters or changes 
the expression. A sense of fear gives it one expression ; a sense of anger 
another; so of joy, hope, and love. One also changes with time. 
Every day produces its effect ; and though it may not always be per 
ceptible, even to the person himself, ye\ time, with its invisible chisel, 
is shaping the features. To-day, a great grief comes over the person ; 
the death of a loved one brings sorrow and sadness; or disappointment 
brings despondency and hopelessness. Or, on the other hand, unex- 
pected successes or good fortune produce gladness, joyousness, and 
hopefulness. The impressions made by such occurrences are on us, 
even in our dreams. Watch a sleeping infant ; notice the changes 
which come over its countenance. Now it frowns, and seems to 
fear; now it smiles, and is radiant. Why? Are the spirits whisper- 
ing to it ? We will not undertake to answer this question, but sim- 
ply state that such r/npressions produce expressions, and they reveal 
the character. Would one acquire a comely look ? He must obtain a 
comely character. Would he be eccentric, odd, and singular? lie 
may do so by playing the clown. Can one act the part of an Iago 
without in some measure taking on the spirit of that bad character? 
One may invite the kind of spirit he would entertain, and thus shape 
his features. A thief looks like a thief. A violent, bloodthirsty 
villain looks the character he is. A senseless imbecile or idiot shows 
it in his face. And this is Physiognomy. The reader may not have 
studied anatomy, physiology, and Phrenology, on which moderu 
Physiognomy is based, and may not, therefore, be able to delineate the 
character of any satisfactorily to himself, but these principles are 
based in science, are susceptible of close classification and simple 
reading. When one knows how, he may draw lightning from the 
clouds, or ase electricitj^ to communicate with the ends of the earth. 
So when me understands astronomy, lie may read the stars. The 
canopy of heaven tt him is an open book, with large print, while to 



the fool or the ignoramus it is one vast mystery. All things are 
miracles to a fool. There have been endless theories and speculations 
in regard to this subject, aud ponderous volumes have been written. 
Until recently, however, it was without a scientific basis. In the 
language of Ecclesiasticus, "A man may be known by his look, and 
one that hath understanding by his countenance." 


PHYSIOLOGY, in its relation to the laws of life, is the science of 
the functions of the entire natural man. Our bodies are made 
up from what we eat and drink, the same as the tree or piaut is 
made up from the soil on which it feeds. If the soil in which the tree 
grows be rich, or well supplied with all the ingredients necessaiy, a 
strong, hardy product may be expected. On the other hand, if tlie soil 
be thin or sterile, the tree or plant will be stunted, or otherwise injuri- 
ously affected. So in regard to the food on which we subsist. Poor 
food will make poor blood, and poor blood will make poor tissue, bone, 
muscle, and nerve. Good coal will make good gas ; poor coal, poor 
gas, and furnish a poor light. Only that which can be readily assimi- 
lated and converted into healthful blood has any business in tho 
human stomach. Very much that is eaten, and very much that we 
drink, can not be thus assimilated or appropriated, and is only ai? 
enenay to the body. Instead of favoring growth, many substances in 
which we indulge are actually poisonous. Many drink alcoholic 
liquors, which are neither food nor drink. Many chew, snuff, or smoke 
tobacco, and impregnate their whole systems with vile elements which 
poison the blood, interfere with healthy growth, blunt the moral sensi- 
bilities, and stupefy, exhaust, and wear out the nervous system prema- 

If one would acquaint himself with the laws of life and health, and 
live in accordance with hygienic principles, he may escape most of the 
diseases and infirmities with which the race is afflicted. Even epi- 
demics, such as cholera, yellow fever, and small-pox, often do not touch 
a perfectly healthy organization ; only those already predisposed tc 
disease become easy subjects. Foolish and ambitious parents push and 
crowd the minds of their fragile children, that they may become 
" smart," and show off to advantage. Under such treatment immature 
brains become abnormally large, the young minds unhealthfullv active, 
and a touch of brain fever cuts off the young lives like buds before 
they blossom. Precocious children may be everywhere seen in our 
cities. The artificial mode of life pursued by many parents tends to 
augment this growing evil. A better knowledge of physiology would 
correct all this, and enable parents to generate healthy offspring, with- 
out exhaustion to themselves, and to bring up into full manhood a race 
higher and better than has yet existed. 


THA T man is immortal, all who are not idiotic fully believe. In- 
deed, no sensible man can conceive sucli a thing as the total an- 
nihilation of any created thing. That vital spark called life, 
which animates our bodies and gives us life and sense, can not die; 
man's very organization is an evidence of his immortality. He is 
adapted to, or complementary to, a Creator, a God, having facul- 
ties which recognize a Supreme Being. Were there no light, no 
eyes would be necessary ; were there no sound, no hearing would be 
necessary. There is light, and we have eyes ; there is sound, and we 
have ears. There is a God, and we have organs or faculties recognizing 
Him. Man was made to be prophetic, to come into rapport with the 
Divine nature and will. He is so constituted that when fully developed 
he may know and do the will of God. Then he will be forewarned 
and forearmed against evil ; he will even see that which is above and 
beyond the reach of reason or of sense. The vail which separates us 
from the ethereal world is lifted to the seer and the prophet ; and why 
not to all men? Simply because they are yet undeveloped, are on a 
lower plane, living in the propensities, passions, and senses. They 
have not yet obtained that perfect look-out, that psychological condi- 
tion, which would enable one to see with the mind. Hence, they are 
in the dark; "having eyes, they see not, and ears, they hear not." 
Such grovel on the earth ; they live from hand to mouth, and only in 
the present. 

Believing in the grand principle of mental progression, especially 
under methods of training, we have no doubt of their ultimate im- 
provement and development. One man has a three-story brain for 
his dwelling; another, a two-story; still another, only a miserable 
basement or hut — a hole iu the wall. The three-story house, with a 
magnificent dome, enables its possessor to peer into the heavens, to 
obtain light and inspiration that the undeveloped know r A of. 


VT'O one man, and no set of men, owns this great subject. When the 
\ commission was given by the great Founder of Christianity, " Go 
ye into all the world and preach # the gospel to every creature," it 
was not confined merely to the Apostles who heard it. But the design 
was that many should go to and fro, and that knowledge should be 
increased, until all the world should hear the glad tidings. When GalJ 
and Spurzheim opened the great subject of Phrenology to the world, 
they sought in it no prescriptive right. Combe gave it his best thought 
and the richest portion of his life. Those who are now aiding to sustain 
the cause have no patent, no ownership, no exclusive control of the 



subject They can not properly say in respect to it — " my science." It 
is everybody's science, — it belongs to everybody who can appreciate it 
or disseminate it. There is, therefore, no more monopoly in Phrenology 
thai: in preaching, teaching, practicing law or medicine. We have no 
special claim upon Phrenology in any sense involving a controlling 
influence over its destiny or the action of its honest advocates. We 
have, to be sure, given it our best years, our most earnest service, and 
we are anxious to communicate what we know of the subject, that it 
may be widespread, — that hundreds and even thousands may leam to 
propagate it until every hamlet fti the land shall be benefited and 
blessed by a knowledge and application of its principles. We deprecate 
the dishonest quacks — old or young — who have sometimes used Phre 
nology as a means for gratifying their own selfish ends. We have 
sometimes spoken of them very sharply. We believe that those who 
;.rofess to teach Phrenology should be honest, temperate, respectable, 
clean, chaste, and not greedy or grasping for money. Whoever, with 
such qualifications, and an earnest purpose to spread the science and 
benefit the world, shall engage in this great field of labor, we will 
welcome him as a brother, and gladly facilitate his success in every 
proper manner. Those who engage in it with a fair education and 
good common sense, can learn and practice Phrenology with profit to 
themselves and great usefulness to others. 

There is no monopoly in Phrenology; no sacred "mantle" of the 
fathers of which any man has possession, or a right to boast. The 
commission of a phrenologist is ability to do his subject justice. He 
needs no other. 


WHO believes in it? We answer: All believe in it who have 
made a careful and candid investigation of its claims. It. 
fact, many more people believe in it than are willing to avow 
it. New subjects are apt to be unpopular with people who follow sub- 
serviently in the path of precedents. 

Phrenology on its first introduction was by many regarded with 
alarm, and opposed for the same reason that astronomy and geology 
have been opposed. As those two sciences have outridden the storm, 
geology is permitted to rank among the orthodox sciences, and astron- 
omy has no longer to do battle with savans and hierarchs. But Phre- 
nology has not yet reached the promised land, where rulers, and bishops, 
and the learned world generally, accept it as established ; but it has its 
advocates, its believers, its lovers among preachers, teachers, judges, 
statesmen, and others, whose opinions are entitled to respect. Arch- 
bishop Whately, that great and good man, was for many years a warm 
friend and beiie\er in Phrenology. 

It is interesting to notice how Phrenology has been interwoven with 


literature; how men describe character in courts of justice, in halls ot 
legislation, and everywhere, on phrenological principles. Nothing is 
more common than to hear a crowd of intelligent men commenting 
upon different persons as having " a small head," "a large head," or 
" a bullet head," or " a lofty head," or as having much or little back- 
head, or as having most of the brain in the base, indicating that they 
judge a man to be intelligent by the size and shape of his forehead ; to 
be moral, by the height and breadth of the top-head; to be social, ac- 
cording to the development of the back-head ; and animal and selfish, 
in proportion as the base of the brain is broad and thick. Sermons, too. 
are spiced with Phrenology, not often, perhaps, with phrenological 
terms, though this is not rare ; but the method of describing mind, and 
pointing out its various faculties, of speaking of the moral sentiments, 
the social affections, and of the theoretical or practical intellect, all 
this shows that the minister has read Phrenology, or that he has read 
so much of it in literature, and conversed with people who have read 
much on Phrenolog3 r , that he has impressed the principles of the 
science into his method of treating mind and character. Not a few 
lawyers are hard students of the subject, and there is scarcely a pris- 
oner of any note confined in our jails, awaiting trial, whom we do not 
have the opportunity of examining, by invitation of the counsel in- 
terested. They come to us sometimes, like Nicodemus by night, in 
whispers; but it shows that they think there is truth in Phrenology. 
The minister's sermons show that he believes in it, perhaps more than 
he is aware. The editor, the novel writer, the magazine writer, in- 
corporate phrenological ideas, and are indebted to the science mostly 
for what they know of mind, or at least for their ability to describe it 
intelligibly ; and we may therefore say that many of the clergy believe 
it, many judges, lawyers, and physicians practically accept it. In this 
city, children who are unnatural in their mental manifestations, who 
seem to have trouble with the head, or any lack of talent, or any 
warped condition of the propensities, are brought to us, and when we 
ask the parents why they came to us, they say, " Dr. So-and-So said 
you could tell what was the matter." 

Finally, we may say that the great mass of the people believe in 
Phrenology. Many accept it intuitively ; they read character on phre- 
nological principles, without knowing the name or location of a single 
organ. A forehead " villainously low" excites suspicion; a broad head 
makes one afraid ; a high, narrow head gives a man the confidence of a 

TnE Spectroscope supports Mr. De La Rue in his theory that the 
gun's spots are caused by a down rush of cooler and, therefore, less bril- 
liant vapor. The surface of the sun is constantly agitated with terrific 
floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous rage. The same instrument has 
proven the red protuberances to be flames of heated hydrogen, some- 
Sines 7,000 miles high. 



IN this age of telegraphs, palace cars, and perfected machinery for 
nearly every kind of work the public taste is becoming instructed 
in respect to the gratification of its various wants. Ministers bave 
to be educated, talented, and decorous. The grade of instruction in 
medical colleges is being raised, and on the whole the public seems de- 
termined to bave the best of everything. When civilization takes one 
step upward it tends to lift everything in the same direction, except that 
which is too weak or wicked to be improved, and then, by contrast, at 
least, it seems more odious. The public requirement relative to 
phrenologists is every year being elevated. Formerly, if a man adver- 
tised a course of lectures on Phrenology, and knew a little more than 
tbe public did on the subject, he was listened to with comparatively 
little criticism. Now, it is demanded of him that he know something 
of the subject considerably above the common level of the public infor- 
mation. Consequently, every year increases the necessity for the better 
culture of those who propose to enter the phrenological field. 

To meet this public requirement we offer to students a course of 
instruction every year, and open to them our large collection of busts, 
skulls, and portraits, which for nearly forty years has been accumu- 
lating, together with such explanations of Phrenology, theoretical and 
practical, in detail, as more than a third of a century of daily practical 
experience may have qualified us to give. 

In these instructions we begin at the basis, the physiology — the 
temperament, health, balance of organization, brain, and nervoua 
system. We show the relation of brain to body, and body to brain, in 
their inter-action and reaction. We show how to locate the organs, 
and to estimate their real and relative size. We take into account 
their combinations and the modifications which temperament produces 
in the shading and molding of character. These instructions will 
impart to the student during the course of lessons, minute and needed 
information which he might be fifteen years in acquiring, groping his 
way, meditating, and dreaming and studying by himself. Some of our 
students in a single course of lectures have cleared the entire expense 
of their tuition and other expenses incident to their course of instruc- 
tion, carrying with them, thenceforth, without tax or abatement, the 
power to conduct business successfully the remainder of their lives. 
Every year is broadening the public need for phrenological lectures 
and examinations. W3 are written to every month, from different 
parts of the country, asking for courses of lectures, and begging that 
we will send a competent phrenologist to meet the wants of the public. 

Many persons affect unbelief in the truth of Phrenology, as they say, 
in detaii, though they accept what they are pleased to call the general 
principles, viz., that the whole brain is the seat of mind, that the fore- 
head has to do with intellect, the base of brain with propensity, and 



the buck-head with the social feelings. Their intuitive sense shows 
them that a contracted forehead accompanies weakness of the mind, 
that a broad head belongs to force and passion, and that a full back- 
iiead goes with sociality. If they were possessed of knowledge rela- 
tive to the details, they would recognize as much truth in regard to the 
location and function of organs in the particular parts of the forehead 
as they now do in reference to the whole forehead as being the seat of 
intellect. In other pages of this work the topics embodied in our An 
nual Class for instruction in Practical Phrenology are explained in do 
tail, to which the reader is referred. 

If there were to-day two thousand clear-headed, well-instructed 
phrenologists in this country, they would find the practice of the 
science a pleasant and profitable occupation ; each aiding to create a 
public sentiment in its favor and making a demand for its practical 
application. Our daily experience shows us that Phrenology is taking 
a deep root in the minds of the people. They bring their sons and 
daughters to us, anxiously inquiring what pursuit or course of educa- 
tion is best adapted to them. One mother said to us, " I have placed 
my three older sons in business according to your suggestions, and they 
are all prospering ; now" I bring the fourth son for advice as to what he 
shall do for a livelihood; and when the youngest is old enough, he 
Bhall come also." 

The phrenologist, therefore, should be truthful, just, manly, intelli- 
gent, sincere, highly moral, and possess as much knowledge of practi- 
cal life as may he. The field is broad, the harvest is ripe, and the 
laborers few; while other professions are more or less crowded, and the 
more desirable occupations have a jostling throng seeking for the 
prosperity and honor belonging to their successful prosecution, Phre- 
nologjr, as a profession, is relatively unoccupied. There should be 
twenty in it where there is now one. " Come over and help us." 

The Nose. — The nose acts like a custom- 
house officer to the system. It is highly sen- 
sitive to the odor of the most poisonous sub- 
stances. It readily detects hemlock, henbane, 
monk's-hood, and plants containing prussic 
acid ; it recognizes the fetid smells of drains, 
and warns us not to smell the polluted air. 
The nose is so sensitive that it distinguishes 
air containing the 200,000 part of a grain of 
the otto of rose, or the lfi,000,000th part of a 
grain of musk. It tells us in the morning 
that our bedrooms aie impure, and catches 
the fragrance of the morning air, and con- 
veys to us the invitation of the flowers to go 
forth into the fields and inhale their sweet breath To be led by the 


nose has hitLert' been used as a phrase of reproach ; but to have a 
good nose, and to follow its guidance, is one of the safest and shortest 
ways to the enjoyment of health. 


fr^HE portrait of Dr. Milman indicates a man of decided power. Id 
[| the temperament is seen endurance and momentum rather than 
velocity, — a patient steadiness of effort, rather than brilliancy- 
The features are strong, showing power and health of constitution, 
earnestness, directness, sincerity, and force of character. The fore- 
head denotes practical judgment, attention to details and particulars, 
memory of facts and historic events, power of criticism, knowledge 
of character, method, and power of language. But accuracy rather 
than copiousness would be his mode of indicating his use of speech. 

The width of the head shows courage, energjr, and prudence. The 
height of the head indicates reverence and kindness. He is not over- 
stocked with the organs which give Agreeableness and power of con- 
formity ; hence his manners were unique, and not always the most mel- 
low and fascinating. There is indicated in the whole organization ex- 
ecutiveness, integrity, judgment, memory, and sincerity. 

The death of this accomplished scholar, clergyman, historian, critic, 
and poet was lately announced. Henry Hart Milman was born in 
1791. He was the youngest son of Sir Francis Minium Bart, M.D. 
physician to King George III., who conferred upon the fa uer in 1800 a 
baronetcy which is now held by the present Sir William Milman, of 
Devonshire, first cousin of the late Dean. The mother <n denry Hart 
Milman was a daughter of William Hart, Esq., of Stapieton, near Bris- 
tol. His education was commenced at the well-known school of Dr. 
Burney, at Greenwich, whence he was removed to Eton, where lie soon 
became distinguished for his skill in the composition >f Latin verse. 
From Eton he went to Oxford, where he entered Brazenose College, 
and in 1812 he won the Newdegate prize for an English poem on the 
Apollo Belvidere, taking also, in 1813, the Chancellor's prize for a 
Latin poem on Alexander's visit to the tomb of Achilles. He >btained 
his B.A. degree in the same year, taking a first class in classics. While 
pursuing the University course so successfully, he found time also to 
devote himself to poetry, and wrote the tragedy of " Fazio," which he 
published soon after he had obtained his degree of B.A. It was taken 
possession of by the manager of the Surrey Theater, where it was per- 
formed as " The Italian Wife," without asking permission of the au- 
thor. It was afterward acted at Covent Garden, where Miss O'lSTeill 
played the part of Bianca, the heroine ; and it has continued to be a 
stock piece. In 1816 he was ordained, and the year afterward was ap- 
pointed Vicar of St. Mary's, Reading, a preferment which he held for 
eighteen vears. In 181S " Samoi." an heroic poem in twelve books, 



which he had commenced while at Eton, and had finished at Oxford, 
was published. In 1820 he published the " Fall of Jerusalem," a dra- 
matic poem founded upon the History of Josephus ; and in 1821 " The 

Martyr of Antioch," " P;elshazzar," and " Anne Boleyn," also dramatic 
poems. In 182G appeared a collected edition of his poems, including 
these and other pieces; and a second edition was published in 1840. 
In 1827 he was Bampton Lecturer, and, as customary, his lectures were 

370 OUR ANNE A/L. 

published. He became Professor of Poetry fit Oxford in 1821, and du- 
ring his ten years' term of professorship he was n >t idle in the study of 
his subject, for he passed from his own language to the Greek, and lec- 
tured on the Greek poets, contributing also a series of papers on the 
same subject to the Quarterly Bewew. Not content with this, he pushed 
on with Sanscrit, and gave to the world a metrical version, in English, 
of a Sanscri poem, one of the episodes of the " Mahabharata " entitled 
"Naba euc Darnayanta." This is to be found in the 1840 edition of 
ais poems. " His Histoiy of the Jews " appeared anonymously as a 
portion of Murray's " Family Library " before 1829 ; but it was not 
long before its authorship became known. A work upon which his 
fame might rest appeared in 1840, the " History of Christianity from 
the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Em 
pire." This is a work of. great merit and displays the result of much 
labor and research; but the one by which he will piobably be most 
enduringly remembered, and the most laborious of his many undertak- 
ings, has been the " History of Latin Christianity to the Pontificate ol 
Nicholas V.," published in the year 1854. In the year 1835 he was ap- 
pointed Rector of Sc. Margaret's and Canon of Westminster, which 
appointment he held till, on the death of Dr. Coplestone in 1849, he 
was promoted to the Deanery of St. Paul's. He wrote the "Life of 
Keats," and a " Life of Horace," which is prefixed to the illustrated 
edition of that ancient poet and satirist published in 1849. He also 
prepared an edition, with copious notes, of Gibbon's "Decline and Fall 
>f the Roman Empire." . 


THIS Jistinguished senator has been brought into especial notice 
lately on account of his bold denunciation of the movement for 
the annexation of San Domingo, and his removal from the chair- 
manship of the Committee on Foreign Relations, a position which he 
had occupied with eminent ability for upward of ten years. 

As an earnest and conscientious champion ot the equal rights of man 
Charles Sumner has had our respect and admiration. Many of the most 
important measures which have been put in operation by the genend 
Government during the past fifteen or more years, have owed their suc- 
cessful introduction wholly or in great part to the efforts of Sumner." 
He has been for years the recognized mouthpiece, on the floor ot tnc 
Semite, of American sentiment with reference to our rights aud privi- 
leges as a nation at home and abroad. Perhaps he has at times exhib- 
ited more of the ultraism of the theorist than of the conservatism of 
the practical thinker; but his spirit has contributed in no small degree 
to advance and ennoble the character of our civilization. 

The qualities of the man are indicated by those of his ancestry, some 



account of whom we compile from various sources. The giau.dfatb.ei 
of Senator Sumner, Major Job Sumner, was a native of Milton, Massa- 
chusetts. He entered Harvard College in 1774, but when, after the 

Hon. Charles Sumner. 

battle of Lexington, the students were dispersed and the college edifice 
was converted into barracks, he joined the Continental army, in which 
be continued until peace was declared. He was second in command 
of the American troops who took possession of New York on its evac- 
uation by the British, November 25, 1783, and was also second in com- 
mand of the battalion of light infantry which rendered to General 
Washington the last respects of the Revolutionary army, when, on the 
4t2i of December, 1783, at Francis's Tavern, New York city, he tool* 
leave of his brother-officers and comrades in arms. 

Major Sumner died on the 16th of September, 1789, and wa* buried, 
with military honors, in St. Paul's churchyard, New York city. Alex- 
ander Hamilton was one of the pall-bearers at his funeral. 

Charles Piuckney Sumner wis the only son of the foregoing, and the 
father of the present Senator Tom Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard Cc liege with distinguished honor in 1796, and studied law 


under (he guidance of the Hod. Josiah Qaincy ; and tin ugh he never 
rose to extensive practice, he acquired a reputation for the accuracy 
and extent of his legal lore. He early attached himself to the Demo- 
cratic party, and was, throughout, a firm and consistent advocate of its 

Through life he was characterized by the ripeness of hi; scholaiship, 
his integrity, and the ease and grace of his deportment. He was ofleD 
styled the "' best-mannered man in Boston." 

Charles Sumner received his early education at the Boston Lai in 
School, was graduated with brilliant reputation at Harvard Universily 
in the year 1830, and soon after commenced his professional studies at 
the Law School in Cambridge. He was a favorite pupil of the late 
Tnstice Story, and at his instance was- appointed editor of the American 
Jurist. Admitted to the Bostou bar in 1834, he was at once recognized 
as a young man of rare legal erudition, of singular devotion to study, 
and of elegant classical attainments. During the absence of Professors 
Greeiileaf and Story he lectured, at the request of the Faculty, for three 
successive winters, to the classes in the Cambridge Law School. He 
won golden opinions from the students who enjoyed his instructions, 
and enlarged the basis of his professional reputation. 

Deciding to devote some years to the study of European institutions, 
he sailed for England in 1837. He was speedily introduced to the best 
circles of society, was received with marked distinction by the members 
of the bar and the bench, and was admitted to a degree of familiar in- 
tercourse with the highest intellectual classes, at that time rarely enjoy- 
ed by private gentlemen from this country. He remained abroad for 
three years, and upon his return again occupied the chair at the Cam- 
bridge Law School, and after the death of Justice Story, iu 1845, wa» 
unanimously pointed out by public opinion as his successor. He was 
disinclined, however, to the office, and accordingly the appointment was 
not made. 

Though decided in his political opinions, Mr. Sumner abstained from 
all active participation in the politics of the clay, until the movement 
for the annexation of Texas. Although his tastes and habits were 
averse to public office, he consented to become a candidate for the Uni- 
ted States Senate as successor to Daniel Webster, and was elected to 
that post by the Massachusetts Legislature In 1851. 

Hia first important speech was upon the Fugitive Slave Act, and in 
it he argued that Congress had no power to legislate for the rendition 
ot fugitive slaves. 

In the debate on the repeal of the Missouri Compiomise, and ran the 
Kansas outrages, which took place at the session of 1856, Mr. Sunuiei 
was one of the most prominent speakers. Some passages of an elabo- 
rate speech which he pronounced on the situation of affairs in Kansas so 
irritated the members of Congress from South Carolina, that one of 
them, Preston S. Brooks, assaulted Mr. Sumner AviMi a cane, while lie 
was writing at his desk, anil continued to strike him on the heiid until 


he Massachusetts Senator fell insensible to tlie floor. This brutal and 
unparalleled outrage, not only against common decency, but upon the 
order a.rti dignity of a national assembly, created an immense excite- 
ment throughout the whole country, and had a most powerful effect 
upon the action of Congress with reference to those measures affecting 
the interests jf slavery. 

For over three years following it he was almost disabled from attend- 
ing to matters of public business. Two years were spent in Europe 
under medical treatment. When be appeared on the floor of the Sen- 
ate in 18G0, he resumed with oven more ardor than before his hostility 
to slavery. He took an active part in the Presidential contest of that 
year, advocating the cause of Lincoln and Hamlin. 

During the late war he was generally found in the front rank of those 
who urged extreme measures in the conduct of military operations. 

As a member of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, from 
which it was thought expedient to remove him, he has usually shown 
an ultra spirit in urging the claims of the United States against Greal 
Britain. With reference to the " Alabama Claims," his stand has been 
particularly conspicuous for its severity. As an orator, he has been 
pronounced as one of the most brilliant of the day, and as an exponent 
of American ideas his career has been as honorable as it is conspicuous. 

In person, he is of commanding presence, with a tall figure and dig- 
nified bearing, which would awaken attention and command respect in 
any assembly. 

His brain, as a whole, including the intellectual lobe, is decidedly 
large — exceeding twenty-three inches in circumference — and the organs 
of Firmness, Self-Estecm, Approbativness, aud Combativeness are con- 
spicuous. He is a natural critic, proud-spirited, self-relying, tenacious, 
persevering, and plucky 


THIS gentleman had an ample development of the Vital and Motive 
temperaments, which gave strength, constitutional vigor, endu- 
rance, anil power. His mind was clear, sharp, and broad, quick 
to gather facts, apt in his inferences, and broad in bis generalizations 
His moral sentiments, together with Firmness and Self-Esteem, were 
strongly marked, hence he had dignity, integrity, determination, and 
with his large Veneration a feeling that the highest truths ami the 
widest cycles of duty will ultimately win success, because truth and 
justice form a part of the conditions of all true success. His Language. 
was well developed, and his Memory excellent. The back-head indi- 
cated strong social feeling, but he was more known for his intellectual 
power and strength of character than for those social amenities which 
in some men enable them *.o win their way to popularity aud position, 
especially in political life. 



"We condense the following sketch from the Detroit (Mich.) Tribune.. 
Hon. Jacob M. Howard, who retired from the U. S. Senate as one of 
the Senators from Michigan, died at his residence in Detroit on Sunday 

Jacob M. Howard. 

morning, April 2d. We present a brief sketch of the most nohibh 
events in his life. 

Mr. Howard was born in Shaftsbury, Vermont, July 10, 1805. His 
father was a farmer of Bennington County, and the sixth in descent 
from William Howard, who settled in Braintree, Mass., in 1635. Mr. 
Howard was a natural student, and pursued his preparatory studies in 
the academies of Bennington and Brattleboro, and entered Williams 
College in 1820. It was with difficulty that he obtained a liberal 
education at all, by reason of his limited means, but his unconquerable 
resolution overcame all hindrances, and he graduated in 1830. In tbc 
same year he commenced the study of the law at Ware, and in 1832 
removed to Detroit, then the capital of the Territory of Michigan, 
where he was admitted to the bar in 1833. In 1835 he married Miss 
Catherine A. Shaw, a young lady whose acquaintance he had formed 
at Ware, and who died some five years since. 

Mr. Howard rapidly gained reputation as a lawyer, and had he 
pursued his profession to the exclusion of everything else, he would 
nndoubtedly have ranked among the most eminent lawyers in the 


country, and must have commanded a great and lucrative practice. 
He was, however, deeply interested in politics from youth, when he 
joined the Whig party. 

In 1838 Mr. Howard was a member of the State Legislature, and 
took an important part in the legislation of that session, embracing 
the revision of the laws, the railroad legislation, and the inquiry into 
the matter of wildcat banking, which crushed the system out eventually. 

In 1840 he was elected to Congress by 1,500 majority, the whole State 
then being comprised in one District, and though he spoke rarely, lie 
exerted no little influence. In 1844, '48, and '52 Mr. Howard was a 
stanch adherent of the same Whig organization, and labored zealously 
on behalf of Mr. Clay, Gen. Taylor, and Gen. Scott in the campaigns 
of those years. 

On the defeat of the latter, he retired temporarily from politics, but 
in 1854, upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise act, he again took 
the field in opposition to the designs of the Democrats, and was one of 
the men who organized tbe Republican party at Jackson, Michigan— 
where that great party was born. Mr. Howard drafted the series of 
resolutions that were adopted as its platform, and he was at least one 
of the suggesters of the name which the new party should bear, and 
which has since become so deservedly famous. He was also a member 
of the Committee on the Address of the first National Republican 
Convention, held at Pittsburg, Feb. 22, 1856. 

Gov. Bingham was elected to the United States Senate at the close 
o/his second term in January, 1859, and died in October, 1801. In the 
January following, Mr. Howard was chosen to fill the vacancy. Taking 
his seat in the Senate, he became a member of the Judiciary Committee, 
and also of that of Military Affairs, and was one of the most powerful 
supporters of the war measures which passed Congress during I he 
veoellion. He was also one of the first to favor an amendment to (he 
Onited States Constitution abolishing slavery, and himself in the Judi- 
ciary Committee reported the famous amendment, which freed the 
colored people. He drafted the first and principal clause in the exact 
vvords in which it now appears in that instrument. 

In January, 18(55, he was re-elected to the Senate and served his fill" 
„erm, ending March 4. He took a very prominent part in the work of 
Reconstruction, being a member of the Committee on that subject. 

In all this great work of War, Reconstruction, and spanning the 
continent with railroads, Mr. Howard has left the indelible impress 
of his vigorous mind upon the legislation and history of his country. 
He was the peer of the ablest members of the Senate, and his habitfc 
of patient investigation and thorough mastery of his subject, his strong 
mental grasp, and his powerful advocacy of whatever cause he espoused 
gave him a foremost position in a Senate which contained such men as 
Sumner, Trumbull, Fessenden, and others equally eminent, and of 
national and even world-wide ^ame. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Howard was thoroughly acquainted with the vmni 


principles which underlie that science, and was a man of exceeding power 
before a jury. There his manner, combining unusual vigor and great 
candor, seldom failed to produce a deep impression, and he gained 
many a verdict which never could have been secured by ordinary 
membe-rs of the bar. The same traits were characteristic of his efforts 
in debate, some cf which were among the most powerful heard in 
modern times upon the floors of Congress. His ability to group ami 
mass facts and to use them to the best effect, was little less tliaa 

In manner, Mr. Howard was not so successful. He was devoted to 
his investigations, and except among a few intimate friends — where lie 
was most affectionate and confiding — he maintained a reserve that 
greatly diminished his personal popularity. For the details of political 
life, the place-hunting for others, and the scramble for office, he had no 
taste, but, on the contrary, an ill-concealed disgust. In the contests 
where great principles were at stake, and mighty interests struggling 
for mastery, he loved to be found, and there his talents and his virtues 
conspicuously shone. 

Mr. Howard leaves five children: Mrs. Dr. Hildreth, whose husband 
died in July last, at Chicago ; Miss Jennie Howard, a young lady ; 
three sons, Jacob M. Howard, Jr., Hamilton G. Howard, and Charles 
LI. Howard. He leaves a small property, perhaps $40,000 all told. 

At the bar meeting in Detroit, Attorney-General May used the fol- 
lowing words : 

The name of Jacob M. Howard is a household word in Michigan. 
There is no man within its borders so poor or so ignorant who is not 
familiar with that name. During all its years of existence he has been 
one of its strong pillars of support, and has left the impression of his 
great mind upon its wonderful growth and prosperity. He grew up 
into a perfect manhood within its borders, and has been closety identi- 
fied with every interest tending toward its development. No wonder, 
then, that he loved his adopted State with a tenderness of affection 
never excelled and seldom imitated. 

He was a man of mark. The stranger stopped and looked at him, 
and instinctively received the impression that he was in the presence 
of a man of great physical and mental power. He was a true man, 
true to his clients, true to his convictions, true to all the great and 
varied interest :immitted to his care by an intelligent and confiding 
constituency. He was true to his country when armed treason sought 
its life; and he loved his countiy and its institutions with a zeal that 
amounled to a passion. 

He united the simplicity of the child with the strength of the lion, 
l'he constitution of his mind was such that he loved truth, right, and 
justice for their own sakes, and loathed and spurned deception and 
fraud with a strength rarely equaled. 

Amid all the rancor and hate engendered by partisan strife during 
the past few years, no man could honestly charge Mr. Howard with 



trickery or dishonesty. However much his great powers may have 
enriched others, he died poor. With advantages for gair possessed 
by few — commencing the practice of law neany forty years ago, and 
acknowledged by common consent by the bar to be a leader in the 
profession, yet he died poor. Actively engaged in the Congress of the 
nation at a time when, it is said, and sometimes believed, that others 
grew rich, still he died poor. Proud words these to adorn the monu- 
ment of the dead statesman. No man could desire a more fitting 
epitaph. They speak volumes for his honesty, and indicate that who- 
ever else inay have worshiped mammon and enriched themselves at 
the expense of the Government, Jacob M. Howard always kept within 
the golden rule. 

With a strong mind in a sound body, early trained to severe disci- 
pline, and enriched by ancient and modern literature, united witli a 
fine presence and a wonderful command of pure English, few men 
were his equals at the bar, in the forum, or on the hustings. His 
death is a great public loss, and will be mouned by thousands through- 
out the length and breadth of this continent, and by none more 
sincerely than by a recently enfranchised race, whose earnest and 
eloquent friend he lived and died. 


\ HI. of Prussia, 
now Emperor ot 
Germany, is so well 
known to the world, es- 
pecially since the great 
war in Europe has 
brought, him so promi- 
nently into public no- 
tice, that very little need 
be said of him. 

He succeeded bis 
brother, Frederick Will- 
iam II., in the occupancy 
of the throne in 1858. 
His reign ha.^lieen char- 
acterized by a mild, 
straightforward policy, 
in the main, and lias 
been acceptable to his 
subjects, I hough many 
claim that his views of 
freedom as 

William III. op Pkossia. 

government are not so favorable to progreis and intelle< 



they should be. He wan 
doubtless aware that wax 
was likely to break out be- 
tween Prussia and France, 
and has for years been 
preparing for such an emer- 
gency, should it unfortu- 
nately arise. 

His head, being very 
high from the opening of 
the ear, shows immense 
Firmness and strong Con- 
scientiousness. Forward of 
this, in the middle of the 
top-head, Veneration seems 
amply developed. It will 
be remembered by all read- 
/ ers of the newspapers that 
"%?/ (: ms dispatches relative to 
battles, and of the whole 
Phince Bismahk. conduct of the war, were 

marked by a profound religions reverence, every victory being attrib- 
uted to " the merciful favor of Almighty God." If all kings and gov- 
ernors were as much im- 
bued with a sense of the 
presence and overruling 
power of the Creator, it 
would be better for gov- 
ernments and for the 

lie is a man standing 
over six feet high, is very 
large, his shoulders being 
nearly a yard wide, and 
it is said of hitn that his 
presence is really very 
awe-inspiring for its state- ^ 
liness and strength. 1 

The victories of Ger- 
many, however, are not 
due mainly to its ruler. 


with his solid and sub- 
stantial character, his 
stern and steadfast pur- Gen. Von Moltke. 

poses, his clear and far-seeing intellect, his comprehensive ability, in 
taking into account all the facts and principles involved in complex 



diplomacy and political economy, has been the ruling spirit in this 
next to the greatest war of the world, and without doubt the most 
brilliant succession of victories over the armies of a great nation the 
world has ever seen. 
The taking cf two hun- 
dred thousan 1 prisoners 
at one dash, with all 
their si ores and officers, 
is not to be considered 
second to anything the 
world has known. 


since the war raised to a 
dukedom, is regarded 
as one of the greatest 
captains 01 hit &.ge. He 
has a calm, clear, pen- 
etrating mind. The 
broad top-head indicates 
breadth and comprehen- 
siveness of plan. He is 
supposed to be one of 
the greatest strategists 
in the world, and though 
an old man of seventy, 
does not hesitate to adopt 
new methods of warfare. 


He studied the late American war in all its 

phases very carefully, and adopted many of the suggestions which it 

General Moltke has a strong face. His intellect shows comprehen- 
sive grasp and keen insight. He is appreciative of theories; can enter 
into the philosophy of a subject, and discuss it in the light of its logical 
bearings. He is the man to plan and prepare measures, for his scien- 
tific judgment, careful reflection, and prudent foresight cover the whole 
range of operation and provide against contingencies. He, though a 
soldier, is the opposite of a precipitate man, but is cool, steady, wary, 
and steadfast, yet progressive. 

He was born in Mecklenburg-Schwerm, October 26, 1800. His firs? 
military services were performed in the army of Denmark. Afterward 
he offered his sword to Prussia, and was accepted, in 1822, as second 
lieutenant. His superior abilities soon won advancement, for it was 
not long before he was taken on the general staff of the Prussian 
army, where he found the proper field for his capabilities. 

In 1835 he went to Constantinople, for the instruction and organiza- 
.ion of the Turkish army, and distinguished himself in the campaign 
of the Sultar. against the Viceroy of Egypt, and returned to Prussia 



rich in honors and experience. In September, 1858, lit! was appointed 
chief-of-staff. In tae war with Austria, in 18G6, he displayed most con- 
spicuously his ability and energy, in every maneuver obtaining the 
advantage of his enemy, and a few battles decided the contest, which, 
ic the beginning, promised to be protracted and desolating. 


Frederick William, who is the only son of William III. and heii ' re 

su'mptive nf the tluoiie, 
was born in 1831, com- 
pleted his education in 
the University of 13c nn, 
and was introduced to 
military science as a pri- 
vate in the Royal Guards. 
In 1856 he married the 
eldest daughter of Queen 

The Crown Prince lias 
a fmejy-organized brain 
and face. His head is 
well developed in the re- 
gion of Firmness, Self- 
Esteem, and Conscien- 
tiousness, but is not very 
j broad from side to side, 
showing a lack of fierce- 
ness or cruelty. He has 
a kind and sympathetic 
character, with many of 
the elements of the scho- 
lar and thinker. He ap- 
pears to be better adapted to plan than to execute where force and 
severity are required. 


the nephew of William, has a military record which gives him a 
high position among the generals of his country. He was born on the 
20th of March,. 1828, and entered the army at an early age. He is 
naturally tenacious, and strongly sympathizes with military life, and 
has made rapid advancement in the acquisition of soldierly science. 
In I he SchlesWig-Holstein war both he and his cousin, the Crown 
Prince, distinguished themselves. In the campaign of 18GG he v as 
called to the First Division of the Prussian army, and at once inarched 
to the frontier and commenced operations. As if in imitation of Hie 
famous saying of Cromwell, he addressed his men on the eve of battle 
with the brief exhortation, " May your hearts beat toward God, and 
your fists upon the enemy." 

Prince Frederick Charles. 


His successive victories over the Austrians gave him a high reputa- 
tion, and in the opening of the late war he was assigned to one of 
the most important commands — -that of the Army of the Rhine. 

The whole contour and expression of Prince Frederick Charles' face 
indicate earnestness, spirit, and emphasis. He has a talent tor facts, 
draws inferences from statements and appearances quickly and sharply. 
He is appreciative of the details which enter into any plan or arrange- 
ment to which ht has given attention. His broad head indicates force, 
and the ability to batter his way against the strongest opposition, ant? 
win success where most men would fail. 

Such is the material which has humbled the great military nation cl 
the world — France; winning victories which have astonished the 
world not less than the French people themselves, Germany has not 
made mistakes in the selection of her leaders, and those leaders have 
been true as steel, harmoniously working for the same great end. 

The personal government of Napoleon had paralyzed the power of 
thfi nation, had eaten out the valor and consistency and much of the 
patriotism of the country. Its leading generals were jealous of each 
other, and there were few points of union between Napoleon, his army, 
and the people. Though the men fought desperately, and the officers 
in most cases sought to do their duty, there was a lack of harmony, 
plan, and action ; and defeat and disaster, repeated continuously to the 
end, has led to a reorganization of national power in Europe. 


THIS gentleman has a world-wide reputation as the gorilla hunter. 
Few readers of the newspapers have failed to notice, within the 
last fifteen years, articles on the gorilla, and the wonderful jour- 
ueyings and exploits of the subject of this sketch in Equatorial 
Africa. He says : " I left America for the west coast of Africa in the 
month of October, 1855. My purpose was to spend some years in the 
exploration of a region of territory ly'.ng between hit. 2° north and 2° 
south. This unexplored region was the home of that remarkable ape, 
the fierce, untamed gorilla, which approaches nearest hi physical 
conformation and in certain habits to man, and whose unconquerable 
ferocity has made it the terror of the bravest native hunters, — an ani- 
mal, too, of which, hitherto, the nacuralists and the civilized world 
knew so little that the name even was not found m most natural 

His father resided several years on the African coast. This cave him 
a knowledge of the languages, habits and peculiarities of the Coast 
natives, which he hoped to find serviceable in his interior explorations. 

We had the pleasure of seeing his ,arge collection of gorilla skins, 
and of examining the skulls and skeletons of that wonderful animal, 
tnore powerful than tiny four men. <jue, which Mr. Du Chaillu him 



self shct whose skeleton and skin he brought with him, stood nearly 
six feet high and measured fifty-une inches under the arms. The 

chimpanzee, however, 
has a face and cranium 
as well as skeleton which 
more resembles man, 
except in size, than the 
gorilla. The gorilla has 
a mouth like a tiger, with 
long canine teeth. 

This enterprising ti av - 
eler spent five or six 
years among the various 
native tribes of Africa, 
and his thrilling narra- 
tives of his journeyings, 
of the habits and cus- 
toms of the people, of 
the gorilla and other Af- 
rican animals, are in- 
teresting in the extreme. 
Mr. Du Chaillu is a man of medium height; is light, thin, wiry, and 
active. His Firmness and Self-Esteem give him independence, persist- 
ency, and self-reliance; and his ambition, elasticity, and enterprise, 
rather than brawny strength and physical power, have served in 
securing the success which he has achieved. 

Paul B. Du Chaellu. 


fT^HE human mind, with its "harp of a thousand strings," mani- 
festing itself through organization, and this organization depend- 
ent for its healthy development and training upon a thousand 
conditions, peculiarity of parentage being an important one, discloses 
in the course of time a great variety of nature and manifest ition. 
Hence, we have all extremes of disposition and character. One person 
manifests one phase of human feeling and opinion ; another, being 
differently organized, manifests another and diametrically opposite 
phase of mind and character. Like the piano-forte, which has a wide 
range from the highest to the lowest notes, some persons seem to be all 
high notes, and some all low notes. 

If we look at the doctrines of sociology, we find marked diversities, 
and these diversities have a basis in the nature and peculiarities of the 
leaders of the different sects and parties. 

Taking mankind at large, the marriage of one man with one woman 
Eeems to be the law and rule. The variations from this explain some 



of the eccentricities of human nature on this subject. There is one 
class, teaching and fostering polygamy, on the one hand, as one ex- 
treme; and we have 
Shakerism, denying 
marriage in toto to its 
members, and residing 
together with a com- 
munity of properly and 
household, as the other 
extreme. As a kind 
of mixture, or interme- 
diate condition, be- 
tween advocates of po- 
lygamy and Shaker 
celibacy, we have Com- 
munism, as illustrated 
at Oneida, N. Y., in 
which there is com- 
munity of interest, 
property, household, 
and social relations, 
the lat;er regulated by 
free choice and affinity, 
and not subject to the 
restraints as to person, 
as involved in the laws of marriage. The Shaker, ignoring social com- 
merce, has an unquestionable right to follow his course, and no com- 
plaint can justly be made against him. 

Doctrines so diverse as these must originate in the mental peculiari- 
ties of the originators. Ann Lee is the mother of Shakerism in 
America. It is said of her by her biographer that she was strongly 
impressed from an early age with the sinfulness of sexual commerce, 
and though she married, and became the mother of four children, who 
died in infancy, she married reluctantly, yielding to the solicitations of 
her friends. 

We have presented to us a portrait purporting to be that of MM her 
Ann Lee, as she is reverently and affectionately called. It is what is 
called a psychometric portrait, and the manner of its procurement will 
be found in a note at the close of this article. We have caused an en- 
graving to be made of the picture, and if it really were a true likeness 
at her, we might readily understand that she could conscientiously 
:irul very naturally adopt the sentiment or doctrine of celibacy, ami 
release herself from the marriage relation, thenceforth living in the 
Shaker community according to the doctrines of the society. Her 
husband, however, after the separation, married again. 

Thitt portrait jhows a large amount of reflective and speculative in- 
tellect, and an excessive development of the organs of Benevolence, 

Mother Ann Lee. 


Veneration, and Spirituality. It also evinces very large Ideality and 
Sublimity, with large Cautiousness. Such a head, if Ann Lee resem- 
bled it, could hardly do otherwise than be lifted up into the realm ol 
sympathy, spirituality, and imagination far above the affairs of eommoi 
life. But it is an abnormal head. If all men could be organized lik« 
that, the human race would incline to "sit and sing itself away to 
everlasting bliss ; " to become enwrapt in dreams, imagination, an<„ 
Bpiritua," ecstasy, and forget the body and the duties and affairs o! 
(•Very-day life. If she had so small a base of brain, and such aL 
immense top-head, it is no wonder her children died, and that she 
Inclined tc devote herself to a life of spirituality. How little animal 
vitality is evinced in that small, delicate face ! She was apparently all 
brain ; and nothing but the life and health of her children to divert 
her from it could have spared her from a career of fanaticism in some 
direction ; and perhaps if they had lived, even that fact would hardly 
have anchored her to life as mankind generally live it. ^oe.) not he.' 
early constitutional aversion to the commerce of the sexes explain why 
she regarded this commerce as the original sin, and the source of all 
other sin ? Does it not explain why she dissolved her marriage ties, 
and established celibacy as a religious tenet '? If all men were organ- 
ized harmoniously, they might be infallible expounders of truth re- 
specting social life, and the doctrines of celibacy, polygamy, and free 
love would no longer be subjects of dispute. 

She was born in Manchester, England, February 29, 1736, and died 
in Watervliet, New York, September 8th, 1784, at the age of forty- 
eight — a long life for so delicate an organization. She w r as the daugh- 
ter of a blacksmith who was too poor to afford his children even the 
rudiments of an education. During her youth and childhood she wan 
employed in a cotton factory, and afterward as a cutter of hatters' fur. 
In 1758, with several members of her family, she united herself to a 
society of Shakers, then recently formed in Manchester. For nine 
years she was deeply exercised in mind, at times the subject of so much 
inward suffering [from an over-excited brain and nervous system] that 
she became emaciated and helpless as an infant ; while at other times 
her spiritual joy was unbounded. She communicated to the society 
of which she was a member the divine manifestations which she 
claimed to have received, and gradually came to be. regarded as an 
inspired teacher. In 1770 she began to deliver her " testimony against 
all lustful gratification as the source of all human corruption and misery." 
For the teaching of this doctrine she was confined for several w r oeka 
in Hie Manchester jail. During this imprisonment she stated that 
Christ revealed to her in a vision the most astonishing views and 
manifestations of truth ; and after her release she was regarded by her 
sect as a i; mother in spiritual things," and was always called " Mother 

In 1774, Ann Lee, with others of her sect, including her husband 
brother, and niece, emigrated to New York for the purpose of estab- 


lishing there the " Church of Christ's Second Appearing." In 1776 they 
settled in the town of Watervliet, near Albany, where Ann Lee 
became their recognized head. A flourishing society of Shakers 
remain at this place where the sect in this country was established, and 
the society at New Lebanon is an offshoot of that at Watervliet. The 
adherents to the sect are, as a class, not a coarse, animal, passional 
people, but are constitutionally better adapted to their mode of life 
than the average of mankind. They do not believe it necessary or 
desirable that all should adopt their views and practices — nor do they 
think it wrong for the people of the world to many, — celibacy they 
hold to be a higher state of life — a kind of sanctification of the body 
and mind to a pure and holy life. 

In reference to the portrait, we have received the following explana- 
tion from Geo. A. Lomas, editor of The Shaker, a monthly journal 
piblished in the interest of the Shakers near Albany. 

Office of The Shaker, Shakers, Albany Co., N. Y., ) 

May 9th, 1871. f 

Mr Deau Wells — The picture is a copy from a crayon purported to be psycho- 
metrically drawn by one Milleson, of New York. The picture, while in the hands of 
the artist, was not recognized by him nor by any of his friends, but they supposed 
the same to be the likeness of some of the nobility of England. An individual 
named Trow, also of New York city, took the picture to a test medium or psycho- 
logical expert, and before presenting the picture, the medium began moving round 
the room after the marching manner of the Shakers, singing a genuine Shaker song 
fit the same time; at the conclusion of the exercise the medium asserted that the 
likeness of Ann Lee, mother of the Shakers' 1 faith, was in the possession of the 
Inquirer I There are several descriptions of Ann Lee in our Society differing some- 
what ; and one of these descriptions agrees very uniformly with the portrait, and 
believed U\ be g enuine by many of our people . I think the head of the picture 
represents a most extraordinary personage. History, to-day, gives Ann Lee an 
important niche in the temple of fame for exaggerated spirituality .and beauty of 
disposition; and these you find very palpably displayed in the picture; the features 
of the lower face I do not admire, the mouth looking as if capable of scolding — the 
chin too pointed; the nose begins to add beauty to the form, and the brain-house 
is surpassing beautiful. I expressed to you my doubts of its genuineness solely on 
the ground of its extreme mentality ; for Ann Lee was an ignorant woman, so far as 
letters were concerned, though speaking above sixty languages while under spirit 
control. I am, very truly, G. A. Lomas. 

Cultivate the physical exclusively, and you have an athlete or a 
savage; the moral only, and you have an enthusiast or a maniac; the 
intellectual only, and you have a diseased oddity — it maybe a monster. 
It is only by training all together — physical, intellectual, social, and 
spiritual — that the complete man can be formed. — Amer. Phren. Jour. 

We can not stretch out an arm or a foot, or walk, or run, or leap, 
without fre aliening the life-currents of the system ; sending new flashes 
of electric warmth along the nerves and muscles; tiud scattering a 
cloud of those blue and black devils that buzz around l »e ears of poor 
widentary pupils, stayers at home, and women imprisoned in narserieft 
and amid their household cares. 




WE here present the portraits of twelve representative men if the 
religious community known as " Disciples," or " Christians." 
Alexander Camphell during his life was a great man among 
them as an educator and defender of their faith ; and the name Camp- 
bellite has by other denominations been applied to this people. The 
religious movement of which these are living representatives, had its 
origin very early in the present century, in the United States, in a very 
prevalent desire among the various Protestant sects to find a basis on 
which a reunion could be formed. It was believed by many, that hu- 
man written creeds and formulas of faith, as bonds of union, were a 
virtual repudiation of the right of private judgment ; and, per conse- 
quence, there were many small societies in various parts of this coun- 
try and Great Britain which had broken loose from the various creed- 
bound parties, and were endeavoring to worship according to the prim- 
itive model, with no creed but the Bible. 


Though in the full strength of his mental and physical powers, he is 
advanced in life, having been born near the beginning of the present 
century in Utica, N. Y. His early life was spent on a farm, but his in- 
tense natural desire for mental improvement has enabled him to sur- 
mount numerous obstacles, and carried him with honor through a 
course of classical, medical, and theological studies. He commenced 
preaching when he was but nineteen years of age, and has been known 
and recognized 
as an able minis- 
ter of the Gospel 
ever since. 

As an adjunct 
means of sup- 
port, he became 
a highly success- 
ful physician. 

Doctor Shep- 
ard was pastor 
of the congrega- 
tion of Disciples 
in the city of 
New York from 

1850 to 1856, during which time the church, which had been in com- 
parative obscur ty, was brought into public notice. He has frequently 
been urged to .ccept responsible positions over institutions of learning, 
but has declined all but the presidency of Hiram College, Ohio, of which 
he was the first president. At the close of the first year he resigned his 
ruwition, and is at present engaged as pastor of a church in Cleveland. 

Silas Eaton Siiepabd. 

Chakles Louis Loos. 




Charles Louis Loos was born il. France, December 22, 1823. H js J'a- 
ther, who was an enthusiastic republican, left France for America in 
1832, to find a home. "While he was in France, Charles had been edu- 
cated in both the French and German languages, and his knowledge 
of these enabled 
him soon to be- 
come acquainted 
with the Eng- 
lish. In the fall 
of 1837 he be- 
came acquainted 
with the Disci- 
ples, with whom 
he united in 
1838. He taught, 
school at sixteen 
years of age, and 
at seventeen be- 
gan to preach in 
William T. Moore. the vicinity of Lewis L. Pinkekton. 

his home, and gave great promise of future usefulness. In September, 
1842, he entered Bethany College, where he graduated in 1846. In 
1849 he was ordained to the work of the ministry, and removed to 
Wellsburg, Va., and preached for the church at that place one year. 
Having been 
elected Presi- 
dent of Eureka 
he moved there 
in January, 
1857, and re- 
mained until 
Sept., 18 5 8, 
when he re- 
turned to Beth- \ 
any College, 
having been 
duly elected to 
the Chair of 
Ancient Lan- 

Wm. K. Pendleton. 

Henbt T. Andkkson. 

guagcs and Literature in that institution. He still occupies that position. 


William Thomas Moore was born in Henry County, Ky , August 27 
1832. When nine years of age his father died, leaving a widow and 
6ix children, and for a number of years William was the chief depend- 



ence of the bereaved family. Thus early were the boy's energy of 
body and mind called to grapple with toil and care. At eighteen he 
entered an academy at Newcastle, Ky. ; and having passed through 
a preparatory course, he entered Bethany College, Va., in 1855. Iu 
1858 he was graduated. Tn the same year he was chosen pastor of 

the church in 

Frankfort, Ky. 

Having been 

elected to a 

in Kentucky 

University, he 

in February, 

1866, entered at 

once on the 

labors appoint- 
ed to him. In 

(he mean time 

lie had receiv- 
ed a call from 

a congregation 
Robert Mili.iuax. in Cincinnati ; James S. Lamar. 

and having ascertained that for the present the duties of his University 
chair could be met by a brief course of lectures in each session, he 
accepted the call of the church, and has to the present time very suc- 
scssfully performed the labors of its pastorate. 


Dr. Pinkerton was born in Baltimore County, Maryland, January 28, 

1812. In 1835 he 

attended a cturse 

of lectures in the 

Medical College of 

Ohio, at Cincinnati. 

In 1836 he remov- 
ed to Carthage, 

Ohio, where he 
" continued to study 

and practice med- 
icine till May, 1838, 

when he gave up 

the profession, in 

which he had been 
Charles C. Foote quite successful, Isaac Eiikitt. 

and began to preach the Gospel. In 1862 Dr. Pinkerton entered the 
army of the United States, as Surgeon of the Eleventh Regiment Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. From the beginning of the great struggle for the pres. 


ervation of the national existence to the present day he lias been an 
earnest and unflinching loyalist. Besides being a successful preacher 
and teacher, the Doctor is one of the most accomplished writers in tin. 
ranks of the Disciples. 


President Pendleton was born in Virginia, Sept. 8, 1817. He is of En- 
glish descent, and his ancestors, both paternal and maternal, have from 
the earliest history 
of this country occu- 
pied distinguished 
positions in the state 
and the church. 
From boyhood his 
education was care- 
fully provided for. 
After attending for 
several years the 
: best schools in the' 
State, he entered the 
University of Vir- 
o. A. Buiwaiss. ginia, where, besides Kobkbt Gaaiiam. 

the academical course, he studied law two years, and was licensed to 
practice. He was appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy in Beth- 
any College in May, 1841 (the year the college was founded), and has 
been connected with it ever since as Professor, and much of the time 
as Vice-President, and now as President. In 1814 he was united to tho 
editorial corps of the Millennial Harbinger, and has continued in that 
relation ever since, being at this time its proprietor and senior editor. 
On the death of Mr. Campbell, Professor Pendleton was unanimously 
elected President of Bethany College. 


Henry T. Anderson was born in Caroline County, Va., on the 27th 
of January, 1812. He enjoyed the advantage of a good classical edu- 
cation, and began to preach in 1838. From 1853 to 18G1 he was en- 
gaged at various points in Kentucky, preaching the Gospel and teach- 
ing classical schools. In 18G1 he began to translate the New Testa- 
ment, which was published in 1864, and is very popular among the 
Disciples, and has had an extensive sale. His preaching partakes 
largey of Scripture exposition. For many years he has ranked as a 
thorough student, and as an able thinker and highly instructive speaker. 
He has not been so much a proselyter of the masses, as an efficient in- 
structor of the studious and thoughtful. His has been the work of 
laying deep the foundation on which others have reared the structure. 


Robert Milligan was born in the County of Tyrone, Ireland, on the 
25th of July, 1814, and came to America in 1818. He graduated in 


Washington College, at Washington, Pa., in 1840. In the same >ear he 
was elected to the Chair of English Literature in his Alma Mater, in 
which department he taught for nine years. In 1844 he was ordained 
to the work of the Christian ministry. His name, however, is better 
known in connection with educational institutions and periodical liter- 
ature than in the ministry of the Word. Teaching has been trie great 
h isincss of his life, and he has taught nearly every branch in the col- 
It ge curriculum. He is, nevertheless, an earnest, instructive, and elh- 
<:i ft preacher. 


was bora in Geoigia, May 18, 1829. In 1850 he was admitted to the 
bar Being introduced about that time to a knowledge of the primi- 
tive Gospel, he was earnestly desirous of devoting his life to the min- 
istry. He was not willing to assume the responsibilit}' of preaching 
without a finished education, and he entered Bethany College, where 
he was graduated in 1854, and ordained in the Bethany church. Soon 
afterward he was called to the church in Augusta, where, with one 
brief intermission, he has been ever since, until he was appointed, in 
1871, Corresponding Secretary of the Georgia State Missionary Society. 


This eloquent minister of the Gospel was born in Massillon, 0., 
March 19, 1831. His fatuer was a native of Connecticut, and a de- 
scendant of the Puritans. His mother being left a widow soon after 
his birth, it fell to his lot to be at the expense of educating himself. 
This was accomplished at various district schools and seminaries in 
Ohio. From his sixteenth year he supported himself by clerking in a 
drygootls store, surveying, and preaching and teaching, as circum- 
stances seemed to suggest. He delivered his first regular sermon in 
Garrettsville, 0., September, 1852, since which time the Gospel ministry 
has been the main business of his life, in which he has been eminently 
successful. In 1870 he commenced his present labors with the con- 
gregation of Disciples in Twenty-eighth Street, New York. 


has a commanding personal appearance ; he stands six feet one inch 
high, with a well-developed muscular organization sustaining a large, 
active, and powerful brain, which is well developed in the frontal and 
coronal regions. He was born in the city of New York, January 2 
1820, and was trained from infancy in the principles he nov. cherishes. 
From the tenth year of his age he has been dependent on h;s own ex- 
ertions for supprl. Hence the ordinary advantages of high school and 
college training have been denied him. Yet, while laboring as farmer, 
miller, lumberman, bookseller, printer, editor, and school-teacher, he 
has by persevering industry so far overcome these disadvantages, that 
he occupies a position equal, if not in many respects superior, to many 
more highly favored than he. Mr. Erritt commenced preachirg in 


Pittsburg, Pa., in 1840, and at once displayed superior ability. In 
1868 lie was elected President of Alliance College, Alliance, O. At the 
end of a year he was, without his knowledge, elected President of the 
College of Agriculture and Mechanics, of Kentucky University at Lex- 
ington, and also to the Chair of Biblical Literature iii Bethany Col- 
lege, W. Va. Haviug determined to devote his main labors to tho 
Christian Standard, these positions were declined, as well as new in- 
ducements held out by Alliance College. 


was born August 26, 1829, in Thompson, Conn. In the fall of 1851 he 
mtered Bethany College, then presided over by Alexander Campbell, 
Willi a view to the "ministry of the Word." He graduated in 1854, 
making his way by his own labors. His entire stock in money on the 
day he entered college was " four dollars and fifty cents." After grad- 
uating he went to Illinois, where he was pastor of churches in 
Metamora and Washington. For one year he was acting President of 
Eureka College. Shortly after this he became pastor of the First Chris- 
tian Church at Indianapolis, Ind. Over this church he presided for six 
years. His indomitable energy gave to it an impetus which no circum- 
stances since then have been able to control. Two years he occupied 
the chair of President of the Northwestern Christian Univer